Managing Teaching and Learning
Unit 2: Planning and Implement a Curriculum
Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD)
6 June 2009
2. Concept of Curriculum
3. Impact of organisational structure on
4. Overview of the NCS
5. Curriculum data collection and
6. Learning and teaching support
• Nationally set curriculum
WHAT IS THE NCS?
– Internationally benchmarked
- Nationally–set curriculum
Modern: 21st Century skills
Internationally benchmarked Africa
– Focus on Africa and South
Modern: 21st CenturyLearning Areas
• Grades R-9: 8 skills
Focus on Africa and South Africa
– Grounding for Grades 10-12
- Grades R-9: 8 Learning Areas
• Grades 10-12: 29 Subjects
Grounding for Grades 10-12
- Grades• 10-12: 29 Subjects Grades 10-12: 2006–2008
Introduction of NCS
- Introductionof the 29 Grades 10-12: 2006–2008 in 2008
• 28 of NCS subjects nationally examined
- 28 of the 29 subjects nationally examined in 2008
• Exit with a National Senior Certificate
- Exit with a National Senior Certificate
(Grades R – 9)
• Natural Science
• Social Science
• Arts and Culture
• Economic and Management Sciences
• Life Skills
29 APPROVED SUBJECTS
• SCIENCES: IT / CAT / Mathematics / Mathematical Literacy / Life
Sciences / Physical Sciences
• BCM: Accounting / Business Studies / Economics
• HSS: Geography / History / Religion Studies / Life Orientation
• AGRICULTURE: Agric Sciences / Agric Management Practices /
• ARTS: Dramatic Arts / Visual Arts / Music / Dance Studies /
• TECHNOLOGY: Engineering Graphics and Design / Electrical
Tech / Civil Tech / Mechanical Tech
• SERVICES: Consumer Studies / Tourism / Hospitality Studies
• LANGUAGES (11 official and 15 non-official)
Teaching and Assessment in the
• 29 Subject Statements - sets out content (KSV)
• Learning Programme Guidelines – plans for teaching
• Policy on the National Senior Certificate –
requirements for promotion and certification (policy
• National Protocol on Assessment – policy on
reporting and recording assessment published in 2006
• Subject Assessment Guidelines – guidelines on
subject specific requirements for assessment (remain
guidelines –updated in January 2008)
Policy on National Senior Certificate –
Promotion and Certification in Grades 10 -12
• Meet internal and external assessment
requirements as follows:
• Obtain 40% in three subjects, one of which is a
language at home language level
• Obtain 30% in three subjects
• Additional requirements for entry into Higher
Approach to Assessment
Drive quality learning through assessment
Two different but related activities
Informal daily assessment
Formal Programme of Assessment
Two types of assessment
Daily Assessment tasks
• Integral part of the teaching and learning process
• Need not be formally recorded or reported
• Not taken into account for promotion or certification
• Formal Programme of Assessment
• Formally recorded – global mark per task
• Used for promotion and certification
Weighting of assessment
• Gr.10 and 11
– Internal assessment = 100%
• Tasks during school year = 25%
• End-of-year assessment = 75%
– All internally set, marked and moderated
– Internal assessment = 25%
– External assessment = 75%
– All externally moderated
Scale of achievement for recording and reporting
CODE RATING MARKS (%)
7 Outstanding 80-100
6 Meritorious 70-79
5 Substantial 60-69
4 Adequate 50-59
3 Moderate 40-49
2 Elementary 30-39
1 Not achieved 0-29
Origin of the New
Curriculum in South
Here are some special terms used with OBE that are
• Alignment - The process that educators use to get all parts of the teaching and learning
process to DIRECTLY MATCH each other. This is an important part of OBE and improves
the focus, consistency and effectiveness of instruction.
• Assessment - The process that educators use to gather information about learner learning
and performance. It may involve familiar methods like paper/pencil testing, or include other
kinds of ‘alternative’ approaches that more directly tap particular kinds of learning. For
example, driving a care safely or operating a computer efficiently and accurately. Having
learners carry out actions that demonstrate what they can do with information is becoming
widely used as a better indicator of performance ability and competence than paper/pencil
• Clarity of focus - This is one of the key principles that define and guide Outcome-Based
models. It requires teachers to clearly define what they want successful learning results look
like and to focus and organise everything they and the learners do on that desired result.
• Context - The actual physical setting, situation, circumstances, or conditions in which
learning and its successful demonstration are to take place.
• Criterion - An essential part or condition that must be present in a successful demonstration
of learner learning. If that essential component is missing or inadequate, the demonstration
is judged to be incomplete. For example, if correct spelling is a criterion for publishing an
article, the article cannot be published if it has any misspelled words.
Critical Outcomes - Usually a set of learning demonstrations expected of all students in
an OBE model. These outcomes establish the focus and priorities for all of the curriculum,
instruction and assessments.
Designing Back - This is another of the four key principles that define and guide OBE
implementation. It is the process of designing and organising curriculum and instruction
back from the intended outcome, or learning result. The phrase commonly used is:
“Design down from where you want the learners to successfully end up.”
Expanded Opportunity - This is another of the four key principles that define and guide
OBE implementation. It means giving learners more than one routine, uniform chance and
way to learn something well, recognising that complex abilities require years of practice to
High Expectations - This is another of the four key principles that define and guide OBE
implementation. It means that staff will consistently: 1) insist on quality work from
learners before accepting it as completed, and 2) assure that all learners are continuously
given high-quality learning experiences that really challenge them.
Outcome - A learning result that is clearly demonstrated by a learner. Outcomes can take
many form, ranging from the demonstration of very particular skills and pieces of
information to complex performance abilities needed in career and life success.
Success for All - The philosophy and commitment of OBE staff to create the conditions
and support in their schools that enable virtually all of their learners to experience genuine
success in what they learn.
Examples of OBE -Models
•Apprenticeship Training in Skilled Trades
•Personnel Training in Business
•Military Training Programme
•Scouting Merit Badges
OBE - 2 Purposes
•Ensuring that all learners are equipped
with the knowledge, competence and
qualities needed to be successful after
they leave school
•Structuring and operating schools so
that those outcomes can be achieved
and maximised for all learners
OBE - 3 Assumptions
•All learners can learn and succeed, but
not on the same day and in the same
•Successful learning promotes even
more successful learning
•Schools control the conditions that
directly affect successful school learning
OBE - 4 Principles
•Clarity of Focus
(Clear picture; Clear intent; Top priority; Perfect match;
Performance demonstration; Bottom line; Model it; Starting point;
Day one; No surprises)
(Time - teaching, learning and eligibility; Methods of instruction;
Operational principles, Performance standards; Curriculum
access and structuring; “Pencil” grades)
(Raising standards of acceptable performance; Eliminating
success quotas; Increasing access to high-level curriculum)
(Start with the Outcomes and not with the learning activities)
What is an Outcome?
⇒High Quality Clear, Observable
⇒shows Significant Learning
•potential energy into real energy
⇒Context or Performance Setting
•transport (pilot, …)
Role Performance Outcomes Framework
•Outcomes are about learners learning and the four categories
(Content learning, Competence learning, Moral learning,
•Outcomes are learning results
(happen at or after the end of prolonged instructional experiences)
•Outcomes are clear demonstrations
(its about “doing” verbs and not about “know” and “understand”)
•Outcomes are substance, not scores
(they are your nouns and verbs; and not scores and grades)
Outcomes are the dog; curriculum is the tail
(work from the outcomes to the supportive curriculum)
•Outcomes should be significant and have consequences far
beyond the classroom
(focus on performance abilities in the family, civic, career roles and
not on classroom instruction)
⇒WHEN and HOW learners learn
⇒more important than
⇒WHAT and WHETHER they learn well
⇒WHAT and WHETHER learners learn well
⇒more important than
⇒WHEN and HOW they learn it
•Purpose, Value, Vision-Driven (focus on fundamental
purposes for existing, core values, visions of the ideal
instead of hierarchical control, on past practices,
precedents, formal policies and procedures)
•Leaders as Visionaries (creating a picture of the ideal,
identify processes and strategies to translate picture in
•Future Forecasting as a Core Competency (continually
engaging in competent and insightful trend tracking,
aligning organisation with results of those analyses)
•Lifelong Learning (knowledge and technologies doubling
every two years, strategies for decision-making based on
new learning and developments)
The Big Swing in Leadership Pendulum
•Being decisive & Building consensus
•Embracing core values & Being tolerant
•Exercising productive power &
•Evaluating & Developing
•Being strong and firm & Caring about
•Being committed to the bottom line &
•Honest communication - that keeps all organisational members
informed, focused and motivated
(Being honest without being brutal.)
•Win-win relationships - that foster the dignity and contribution
of each individual
(Success is not a “zero-sum” game.)
•Acknowledged power - that results in empowered and committed
(You don’t control the personal power they already have.)
•Shared rewards - that match group and organisational
(The boss doesn’t get 10 times more pay than the line employees.)
Leaders to establish and sustain Five
Bases of Change
1. Purpose (reason to change)
It has meaning for me!
2. Vision (clear road map)
It’s clear and exciting!
3. Ownership (commitment)
I want to be part of it!
4. Capacity (ability)
I can do it!
5. Support (opportunity)
The principal is really helping us do it!
How to spot Outcomes-Based
A logger sells a truckload of timber for R100. His cost of production is 4/5 the price.
What is his profit?
A logger sells a truckload of timber for R100. His cost of production is 4/5 the price,
in other words, R80.
What is his profit?
A logger exchanges set X of timber for set Y of money. The cardinality of set Y is 100
and each element is worth R1. Make 100 dots representing the elements of set Y. The
set C of costs contains 20 fewer points than set Y. Represent set C as a sub set of Y,
and answer the following question:
What is the cardinality of the disjoint subset P of profits?
By cutting down beautiful forest trees, a logger makes R20. What do you think of this
way of making a living?
Topic for Class Discussion: How do the forest birds and squirrels feel?
Vision of an OBE School
Teachers, in partnership with parents and learners, are responsible for
establishing the conditions that ensure the acquisition of necessary
knowledge, skills and attitudes.
All educational decisions will be governed by a commitment to help learners
To realise this Vision, substantial changes must be made. Some of those
changes will be guided by policy, others will occur as staff members use
outcomes to guide their decisions. As experience with OBE increases,
teachers will regularly evaluate decisions and redefine educational processes.
Because changes will occur in many areas, everyone’s thinking must remain
Design a system which will focus on
OBE Systems Design
A. Curriculum Design
Review current curriculum, develop learning programmes and
learning activities which align with Critical Outcomes
B. Teaching Practices
1. In OBE, time is no longer the principal factor which controls access
to learning. At every level, staff members will develop ways to
reallocate the time available to expand opportunities for learning.
2. Teachers will make decisions which will help learners accomplish
COs. Clarify learning activities, using appropriate assessments,
preparing activities which focus on Outcomes, and providing expanded
opportunities for success.
3. Several initiatives could supply a basis for supporting improved
teaching practice. They include Classroom Facilitation, Inclusive
Education Strategies, Cooperative Group Strategies, etc.
1. Assessment will be used to validate accomplishment of Outcomes.
This process will eventually replace grades, which are designed to
compare and rank learners. While some outcomes may be assessed
through testing, others will be assessed by observing learners perform
tasks which are evaluated according to pre-set criteria.
2. Use of criterion-referenced reports will become increasingly useful
in planning teaching and reporting to learners and parents.
D. Placement of Learners
Learners progress through an OBE system by accomplishing Critical
Outcomes according to identified standards. Learners should have
more opportunities to select learning fields for which they are prepared
to learn, regardless of their age. Techniques for placing learners in
individual learning plans must be used and must be expanded.
E. Organisation of the School
Traditional organisation of the school day, the allocation of staff, the
use of technology, and the length of the school year are issues which
need to be re-examined.
Classroom Application of OBE
•Both teachers and learners take responsibility for successful learning.
•Outcomes are clearly defined.
•Learners have choices and options, thus they usually perform at
higher levels of competency
•Teaching levels are determined after complete assessment of learner
•Learners are given the opportunity to gain from others and to build a
hierarchy of learning skills.
•Assessment by both peers and teachers is ongoing.
•Time is varied for learning according to the needs of each learner and
the complexity of the task.
•Learners are given the opportunity to work with core and elective
•All learners are ensured the opportunity for personal success.
OBE - from Theory to Practice
•Create a community of readers and writers
•Ongoing assessment by learners and teachers
•The world is a textbook
•Have the total staff in concert as well as the
systems which support implementation
•Success is contagious
•Focus on the growth and progress of learners
•Build Mutual trust
•Every class has a personality of its own, and
the unique chemistry of learners and teachers
teaching and learning is a form of achievement
that cannot easily be measured
Questions and Concerns about
• What is “Outcome-Based Education”?
– “Education” that is “Based” on the “Outcomes”
– All learners must be able to demonstrate success
– But not all on the same day, and in the same way
– Start with a clear picture of the learning and
performance results to be achieved (no secrets!)
– Now plan and build the learning experiences and
teaching strategies to get learners to success
Does “Education” depend on
– Yes! They provide the direction and substance
for everything else in a school’s programmes.
– what needs to be taught, sound ways of
teaching it, what gets tested and reported.
What are “Outcomes”?
– Outcomes are “results of learning” that learners can
clearly demonstrate after a learning process
– Demonstrate is about “doing” things - carrying out
purposeful actions using the knowledge and
understanding they have developed
– These actions are often called skills, competences
– Performances occur in specific situations and
settings that influence how easy or difficult it may
be to carry out the skill successfully
Are there good examples of
Outcomes-Based models around
– Yes, In a number of schools in USA, Canada,
– As well as flight, ski, medical, karate schools
– The best example at home is PARENTING
Is there just one kind of OBE
– No! There are three kinds of OBE
– .Traditional OBE - subject teaching
– .Transitional OBE - learning area
– .Transformational OBE - learning
programme or life performance activities
Does OBE requires schools to use
particular reading programmes, group
practices, or curriculum content?
– No. Not even things like cooperative learning,
multi-age classrooms, alternative assessment,
– Only the four key elements must be
implemented consistently, systematically,
creatively and simultaneously.
– It neither requires nor prohibits specific
techniques, curriculum content in context, etc.
What parents should expect to see in
– High level of parental involvement in learning programmes and learning
– Enthusiasm about learning on the part of staff and learners, with active
learning going on.
– Critical Outcomes displayed all over the learning environment, and the
displaying of particular outcomes learners are currently pursuing.
– Evidence of successful learner accomplishments.
– High visible “learning support clusters” where teachers, parents,
volunteers, and other learners all assist those needing extra learning help.
– Intensive support programmes for learners.
– Learners who can clearly describe the outcomes they are pursuing, what
they must demonstrate to achieve them, and where they stand in
– Few learner motivation or discipline problems.
Do OBE models raise or lower
– They raise them, despite the so-called
“Success for All” philosophy
– Critics say that OBE penalises faster
learners in order to help slower ones succeed
– Success is defined in terms of high quality
performance, not the length of the course,
how fast the learner learned it, how others
in the course did, or how may are eligible to
Do OBE schools give grades and report
– Yes, but they focus on the substance of learner learning and the
standard of performance that each learner is able to demonstrate
– Rather than on the numbers and labels that accompany so much
conventional testing and grading
– OBE schools do not give learners low marks
– They regard work that is ‘not good enough’ as ‘not yet done’
– Their standard for ‘passing’ is much higher
– Learners get poor work back, and are expected and required to make it
– They rely on more realistic assessment of learners’ performance on
complex projects and task
– Rather than only relying on paper-pencil results
– Learners’ best work is captured in a ‘performance portfolio’
What can parent do to support the
success of children who is in an OBE
– Never lower the expectations you have for your child’s learning and the
school’s approach to it
– Keep focused on the ultimate results that are important for you child
– Insist that your child’s school clearly report the criteria and substance of
the learning taking place
– Insist on greater flexibility of time, pacing and methods of instruction
– Consistently reinforce what you child can do successfully, and provide
intensive help for what he or she can’t do successfully yet.
– Work with your child to make the connection between the long-term
result you both want and the shorter-term building process needed for
– Make the connection between school learning under OBE and successful
Nine Major areas of
misunderstanding and disagreement
– .OBE as New Age Ideology - humanist
– .OBE as Psychological Manipulation - “correctness” of beliefs, “mind
– .OBE as the Abandonment of Academics - absence of specific or
familiar mathematics, science and history content
– .OBE as Further Government Control - public vs government schools
– .OBE as an Unproven Social Experiment - scientific evidence that it
– .OBE as the Exploitation of Labour - life performance wheel
– .“Success for All learners” as dumbing down - some are smart and some
– .“Success for All learners” as Socialism - embracing of an egalitarian,
• Record the ‘curriculum choices’ at
• Indicate why these curriculum
choices were made to be part of your
• If your had YOUR OWN CHOICE,
would it be different. If yes, indicate
your choice, and why.
• Collect a set of all the national curriculum
statements that are applicable to your
• By working with your Maths HoD and
teachers at your school, compare our Maths
NCS with that of the Illinois Maths
assessment framework. Write an A4 report
Quote of the Day!
Even if you are
on the right track,
you’ll get run over
if you just sit there!