UP ACE MTL Unit 2 Session 5


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UP ACE MTL Unit 2 Session 5

  1. 1. Module 2: Managing Teaching and Learning Unit 2: Planning and Implement a Curriculum Session 5 Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) 6 June 2009 1
  2. 2. Content 1. Introduction; 2. Concept of Curriculum 3. Impact of organisational structure on curriculum delivery 4. Overview of the NCS 5. Curriculum data collection and management 6. Learning and teaching support materials (LTMS); 7. Conclusion 2 2
  3. 3. • Nationally set curriculum WHAT IS THE NCS? – Internationally benchmarked - Nationally–set curriculum Modern: 21st Century skills Internationally benchmarked Africa – Focus on Africa and South Modern: 21st CenturyLearning Areas • Grades R-9: 8 skills Focus on Africa and South Africa – Grounding for Grades 10-12 - Grades R-9: 8 Learning Areas • Grades 10-12: 29 Subjects Grounding for Grades 10-12 - Grades• 10-12: 29 Subjects Grades 10-12: 2006–2008 Introduction of NCS - Introductionof the 29 Grades 10-12: 2006–2008 in 2008 • 28 of NCS subjects nationally examined - 28 of the 29 subjects nationally examined in 2008 • Exit with a National Senior Certificate - Exit with a National Senior Certificate 3
  4. 4. Learning Areas (Grades R – 9) • Languages • Mathematics • Natural Science • Social Science • Arts and Culture • Technology • Economic and Management Sciences • Life Skills 4
  5. 5. 29 APPROVED SUBJECTS • SCIENCES: IT / CAT / Mathematics / Mathematical Literacy / Life Sciences / Physical Sciences • BCM: Accounting / Business Studies / Economics • HSS: Geography / History / Religion Studies / Life Orientation • AGRICULTURE: Agric Sciences / Agric Management Practices / Agric Technology • ARTS: Dramatic Arts / Visual Arts / Music / Dance Studies / Design • TECHNOLOGY: Engineering Graphics and Design / Electrical Tech / Civil Tech / Mechanical Tech • SERVICES: Consumer Studies / Tourism / Hospitality Studies • LANGUAGES (11 official and 15 non-official) 5
  6. 6. Teaching and Assessment in the NCS • 29 Subject Statements - sets out content (KSV) • Learning Programme Guidelines – plans for teaching • Policy on the National Senior Certificate – requirements for promotion and certification (policy 2005) • National Protocol on Assessment – policy on reporting and recording assessment published in 2006 • Subject Assessment Guidelines – guidelines on subject specific requirements for assessment (remain guidelines –updated in January 2008) 6
  7. 7. Policy on National Senior Certificate – Promotion and Certification in Grades 10 -12 • Meet internal and external assessment requirements as follows: • Obtain 40% in three subjects, one of which is a language at home language level • Obtain 30% in three subjects • Additional requirements for entry into Higher Education 7
  8. 8. Approach to Assessment Drive quality learning through assessment Two different but related activities Informal daily assessment Formal Programme of Assessment 8
  9. 9. Two types of assessment Daily Assessment tasks • Integral part of the teaching and learning process • Need not be formally recorded or reported • Not taken into account for promotion or certification Formal Assessment • Formal Programme of Assessment • Formally recorded – global mark per task • Used for promotion and certification 9
  10. 10. Weighting of assessment • Gr.10 and 11 – Internal assessment = 100% • Tasks during school year = 25% • End-of-year assessment = 75% – All internally set, marked and moderated • Gr.12 – Internal assessment = 25% – External assessment = 75% – All externally moderated 10
  11. 11. Scale of achievement for recording and reporting CODE RATING MARKS (%) 7 Outstanding 80-100 6 Meritorious 70-79 5 Substantial 60-69 4 Adequate 50-59 3 Moderate 40-49 2 Elementary 30-39 1 Not achieved 0-29 11
  12. 12. Origin of the New Curriculum in South Africa 12
  13. 13. Here are some special terms used with OBE that are • Alignment - The process that educators use to get all parts of the teaching and learning process to DIRECTLY MATCH each other. This is an important part of OBE and improves the focus, consistency and effectiveness of instruction. • Assessment - The process that educators use to gather information about learner learning and performance. It may involve familiar methods like paper/pencil testing, or include other kinds of ‘alternative’ approaches that more directly tap particular kinds of learning. For example, driving a care safely or operating a computer efficiently and accurately. Having learners carry out actions that demonstrate what they can do with information is becoming widely used as a better indicator of performance ability and competence than paper/pencil testing alone. • Clarity of focus - This is one of the key principles that define and guide Outcome-Based models. It requires teachers to clearly define what they want successful learning results look like and to focus and organise everything they and the learners do on that desired result. • Context - The actual physical setting, situation, circumstances, or conditions in which learning and its successful demonstration are to take place. • Criterion - An essential part or condition that must be present in a successful demonstration of learner learning. If that essential component is missing or inadequate, the demonstration is judged to be incomplete. For example, if correct spelling is a criterion for publishing an article, the article cannot be published if it has any misspelled words. 13
  14. 14. Critical Outcomes - Usually a set of learning demonstrations expected of all students in an OBE model. These outcomes establish the focus and priorities for all of the curriculum, instruction and assessments. Designing Back - This is another of the four key principles that define and guide OBE implementation. It is the process of designing and organising curriculum and instruction back from the intended outcome, or learning result. The phrase commonly used is: “Design down from where you want the learners to successfully end up.” Expanded Opportunity - This is another of the four key principles that define and guide OBE implementation. It means giving learners more than one routine, uniform chance and way to learn something well, recognising that complex abilities require years of practice to master. High Expectations - This is another of the four key principles that define and guide OBE implementation. It means that staff will consistently: 1) insist on quality work from learners before accepting it as completed, and 2) assure that all learners are continuously given high-quality learning experiences that really challenge them. Outcome - A learning result that is clearly demonstrated by a learner. Outcomes can take many form, ranging from the demonstration of very particular skills and pieces of information to complex performance abilities needed in career and life success. Success for All - The philosophy and commitment of OBE staff to create the conditions and support in their schools that enable virtually all of their learners to experience genuine success in what they learn. 14
  15. 15. Examples of OBE -Models •Apprenticeship Training in Skilled Trades •Personnel Training in Business •Professional Licensure •Military Training Programme •Scouting Merit Badges •Karate Instruction •Scuba Instruction •Flight Schools •Ski Schools •Parenting 15
  16. 16. OBE - 2 Purposes •Ensuring that all learners are equipped with the knowledge, competence and qualities needed to be successful after they leave school •Structuring and operating schools so that those outcomes can be achieved and maximised for all learners 16
  17. 17. OBE - 3 Assumptions •All learners can learn and succeed, but not on the same day and in the same way •Successful learning promotes even more successful learning •Schools control the conditions that directly affect successful school learning 17
  18. 18. OBE - 4 Principles •Clarity of Focus (Clear picture; Clear intent; Top priority; Perfect match; Performance demonstration; Bottom line; Model it; Starting point; Day one; No surprises) •Expanded Opportunity (Time - teaching, learning and eligibility; Methods of instruction; Operational principles, Performance standards; Curriculum access and structuring; “Pencil” grades) •High Expectations (Raising standards of acceptable performance; Eliminating success quotas; Increasing access to high-level curriculum) •Design Down (Start with the Outcomes and not with the learning activities) 18
  19. 19. Demonstrations / Results of Change Paradigm ⇒ Perspectives, Beliefs Understanding ⇒ Knowledge, Meaning Roles ⇒ Responsibilities, Relationships Processes ⇒ Technologies, Techniques Outcomes ⇒ Results, Productivity Structures ⇒ Opportunity, Decision-making Expectations ⇒ Accountability, Standards Statuses ⇒ Influence, Advantages Breakthrough Learning Systems - 1997 19
  20. 20. What is an Outcome? ⇒High Quality Clear, Observable Demonstration ⇒Culminating Performance •Exit Outcome ⇒shows Significant Learning •potential energy into real energy ⇒Context or Performance Setting •transport (pilot, …) 20
  21. 21. Role Performance Outcomes Framework •Outcomes are about learners learning and the four categories (Content learning, Competence learning, Moral learning, Psychological learning) •Outcomes are learning results (happen at or after the end of prolonged instructional experiences) •Outcomes are clear demonstrations (its about “doing” verbs and not about “know” and “understand”) •Outcomes are substance, not scores (they are your nouns and verbs; and not scores and grades) Outcomes are the dog; curriculum is the tail (work from the outcomes to the supportive curriculum) •Outcomes should be significant and have consequences far beyond the classroom (focus on performance abilities in the family, civic, career roles and not on classroom instruction) 21
  22. 22. Role Performance Components •Self-Directed Learners •Collaborative Workers •Complex Thinkers •Community Contributors •Quality Producers 22
  23. 23. Old Paradigm: ⇒WHEN and HOW learners learn ⇒more important than ⇒WHAT and WHETHER they learn well OBE Paradigm: ⇒WHAT and WHETHER learners learn well ⇒more important than ⇒WHEN and HOW they learn it 23
  24. 24. Transformational Leadership •Purpose, Value, Vision-Driven (focus on fundamental purposes for existing, core values, visions of the ideal instead of hierarchical control, on past practices, precedents, formal policies and procedures) •Leaders as Visionaries (creating a picture of the ideal, identify processes and strategies to translate picture in action) •Future Forecasting as a Core Competency (continually engaging in competent and insightful trend tracking, aligning organisation with results of those analyses) •Lifelong Learning (knowledge and technologies doubling every two years, strategies for decision-making based on new learning and developments) 24
  25. 25. The Big Swing in Leadership Pendulum •Being decisive & Building consensus •Embracing core values & Being tolerant •Exercising productive power & Empowering others •Evaluating & Developing •Being strong and firm & Caring about others •Being committed to the bottom line & Supporting creativity 25
  26. 26. Leadership Principles •Honest communication - that keeps all organisational members informed, focused and motivated (Being honest without being brutal.) •Win-win relationships - that foster the dignity and contribution of each individual (Success is not a “zero-sum” game.) •Acknowledged power - that results in empowered and committed personnel (You don’t control the personal power they already have.) •Shared rewards - that match group and organisational accomplishments (The boss doesn’t get 10 times more pay than the line employees.) 26
  27. 27. Leaders to establish and sustain Five Bases of Change 1. Purpose (reason to change) It has meaning for me! 2. Vision (clear road map) It’s clear and exciting! 3. Ownership (commitment) I want to be part of it! 4. Capacity (ability) I can do it! 5. Support (opportunity) The principal is really helping us do it! 27
  28. 28. How to spot Outcomes-Based Education 1960 A logger sells a truckload of timber for R100. His cost of production is 4/5 the price. What is his profit? 1970 (Traditional) A logger sells a truckload of timber for R100. His cost of production is 4/5 the price, in other words, R80. What is his profit? 1980 (New) A logger exchanges set X of timber for set Y of money. The cardinality of set Y is 100 and each element is worth R1. Make 100 dots representing the elements of set Y. The set C of costs contains 20 fewer points than set Y. Represent set C as a sub set of Y, and answer the following question: What is the cardinality of the disjoint subset P of profits? 1990 (OBE) By cutting down beautiful forest trees, a logger makes R20. What do you think of this way of making a living? Topic for Class Discussion: How do the forest birds and squirrels feel? 28
  29. 29. Vision of an OBE School Teachers, in partnership with parents and learners, are responsible for establishing the conditions that ensure the acquisition of necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes. All educational decisions will be governed by a commitment to help learners accomplish Outcomes. To realise this Vision, substantial changes must be made. Some of those changes will be guided by policy, others will occur as staff members use outcomes to guide their decisions. As experience with OBE increases, teachers will regularly evaluate decisions and redefine educational processes. Because changes will occur in many areas, everyone’s thinking must remain flexible. Design a system which will focus on Outcomes. 29
  30. 30. OBE Systems Design A. Curriculum Design Review current curriculum, develop learning programmes and learning activities which align with Critical Outcomes B. Teaching Practices 1. In OBE, time is no longer the principal factor which controls access to learning. At every level, staff members will develop ways to reallocate the time available to expand opportunities for learning. 2. Teachers will make decisions which will help learners accomplish COs. Clarify learning activities, using appropriate assessments, preparing activities which focus on Outcomes, and providing expanded opportunities for success. 3. Several initiatives could supply a basis for supporting improved teaching practice. They include Classroom Facilitation, Inclusive Education Strategies, Cooperative Group Strategies, etc. 30
  31. 31. C. Assessment 1. Assessment will be used to validate accomplishment of Outcomes. This process will eventually replace grades, which are designed to compare and rank learners. While some outcomes may be assessed through testing, others will be assessed by observing learners perform tasks which are evaluated according to pre-set criteria. 2. Use of criterion-referenced reports will become increasingly useful in planning teaching and reporting to learners and parents. D. Placement of Learners Learners progress through an OBE system by accomplishing Critical Outcomes according to identified standards. Learners should have more opportunities to select learning fields for which they are prepared to learn, regardless of their age. Techniques for placing learners in individual learning plans must be used and must be expanded. E. Organisation of the School Traditional organisation of the school day, the allocation of staff, the use of technology, and the length of the school year are issues which need to be re-examined. 31
  32. 32. Classroom Application of OBE •Both teachers and learners take responsibility for successful learning. •Outcomes are clearly defined. •Learners have choices and options, thus they usually perform at higher levels of competency •Teaching levels are determined after complete assessment of learner mastery. •Learners are given the opportunity to gain from others and to build a hierarchy of learning skills. •Assessment by both peers and teachers is ongoing. •Time is varied for learning according to the needs of each learner and the complexity of the task. •Learners are given the opportunity to work with core and elective curriculum (FET). •All learners are ensured the opportunity for personal success. 32
  33. 33. OBE - from Theory to Practice •Create a community of readers and writers •Ongoing assessment by learners and teachers •The world is a textbook •Have the total staff in concert as well as the systems which support implementation •Success is contagious •Focus on the growth and progress of learners •Build Mutual trust •Every class has a personality of its own, and the unique chemistry of learners and teachers teaching and learning is a form of achievement that cannot easily be measured 33
  34. 34. Questions and Concerns about OBE • What is “Outcome-Based Education”? – “Education” that is “Based” on the “Outcomes” – All learners must be able to demonstrate success – But not all on the same day, and in the same way – Start with a clear picture of the learning and performance results to be achieved (no secrets!) – Now plan and build the learning experiences and teaching strategies to get learners to success 34
  35. 35. Does “Education” depend on “Outcomes”? – Yes! They provide the direction and substance for everything else in a school’s programmes. – what needs to be taught, sound ways of teaching it, what gets tested and reported. 35
  36. 36. What are “Outcomes”? – Outcomes are “results of learning” that learners can clearly demonstrate after a learning process – Demonstrate is about “doing” things - carrying out purposeful actions using the knowledge and understanding they have developed – These actions are often called skills, competences and/or performances – Performances occur in specific situations and settings that influence how easy or difficult it may be to carry out the skill successfully 36
  37. 37. Are there good examples of Outcomes-Based models around to study? – Yes, In a number of schools in USA, Canada, etc. – As well as flight, ski, medical, karate schools – The best example at home is PARENTING 37
  38. 38. Is there just one kind of OBE model? – No! There are three kinds of OBE – .Traditional OBE - subject teaching – .Transitional OBE - learning area – .Transformational OBE - learning programme or life performance activities 38
  39. 39. Does OBE requires schools to use particular reading programmes, group practices, or curriculum content? – No. Not even things like cooperative learning, multi-age classrooms, alternative assessment, etc. – Only the four key elements must be implemented consistently, systematically, creatively and simultaneously. – It neither requires nor prohibits specific techniques, curriculum content in context, etc. 39
  40. 40. What parents should expect to see in – High level of parental involvement in learning programmes and learning support. – Enthusiasm about learning on the part of staff and learners, with active learning going on. – Critical Outcomes displayed all over the learning environment, and the displaying of particular outcomes learners are currently pursuing. – Evidence of successful learner accomplishments. – High visible “learning support clusters” where teachers, parents, volunteers, and other learners all assist those needing extra learning help. – Intensive support programmes for learners. – Learners who can clearly describe the outcomes they are pursuing, what they must demonstrate to achieve them, and where they stand in accomplishing them. – Few learner motivation or discipline problems. 40
  41. 41. Do OBE models raise or lower educational standards? – They raise them, despite the so-called “Success for All” philosophy – Critics say that OBE penalises faster learners in order to help slower ones succeed – Success is defined in terms of high quality performance, not the length of the course, how fast the learner learned it, how others in the course did, or how may are eligible to succeed. 41
  42. 42. Do OBE schools give grades and report – Yes, but they focus on the substance of learner learning and the standard of performance that each learner is able to demonstrate – Rather than on the numbers and labels that accompany so much conventional testing and grading – OBE schools do not give learners low marks – They regard work that is ‘not good enough’ as ‘not yet done’ – Their standard for ‘passing’ is much higher – Learners get poor work back, and are expected and required to make it better (acceptable) – They rely on more realistic assessment of learners’ performance on complex projects and task – Rather than only relying on paper-pencil results – Learners’ best work is captured in a ‘performance portfolio’ 42
  43. 43. What can parent do to support the success of children who is in an OBE – Never lower the expectations you have for your child’s learning and the school’s approach to it – Keep focused on the ultimate results that are important for you child – Insist that your child’s school clearly report the criteria and substance of the learning taking place – Insist on greater flexibility of time, pacing and methods of instruction – Consistently reinforce what you child can do successfully, and provide intensive help for what he or she can’t do successfully yet. – Work with your child to make the connection between the long-term result you both want and the shorter-term building process needed for getting there. – Make the connection between school learning under OBE and successful living inseparable. 43
  44. 44. Nine Major areas of misunderstanding and disagreement – .OBE as New Age Ideology - humanist – .OBE as Psychological Manipulation - “correctness” of beliefs, “mind control” – .OBE as the Abandonment of Academics - absence of specific or familiar mathematics, science and history content – .OBE as Further Government Control - public vs government schools – .OBE as an Unproven Social Experiment - scientific evidence that it worked – .OBE as the Exploitation of Labour - life performance wheel – .“Success for All learners” as dumbing down - some are smart and some are dumb – .“Success for All learners” as Socialism - embracing of an egalitarian, socialistic philosophy 44
  45. 45. Homework 5.1 • Record the ‘curriculum choices’ at your school; • Indicate why these curriculum choices were made to be part of your school; • If your had YOUR OWN CHOICE, would it be different. If yes, indicate your choice, and why. 45
  46. 46. Homework 5.2 • Collect a set of all the national curriculum statements that are applicable to your school. • By working with your Maths HoD and teachers at your school, compare our Maths NCS with that of the Illinois Maths assessment framework. Write an A4 report on it. 46
  47. 47. Quote of the Day! Even if you are on the right track, you’ll get run over if you just sit there! 47