UP ACE MTL Unit 1 Session 3

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UP ACE MTL Unit 1 Session 3

  1. 1. Module 2: Managing Teaching and Learning Unit 1: Leading and Managing a School as a Learning Organisation Session 3 Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) 18 April 2009 1
  2. 2. Content of the Unit 1. Introduction; 2. Preparing yourself as a curriculum leader; 3. The context for school leadership; 4. Distributed leadership for effective teaching and learning; 5. Establishing a learning culture; 6. Developing plans to manage and lead; 7. Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Recap Session 2 3
  4. 4. Cone of Learning 4
  5. 5. Teacher Absenteeism Figure 4: Proportion of schools reporting a teacher absenteeism problem, by school SES 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 School SES quintile Source: SACMEQII, 2000 5
  6. 6. Time in Class Teachers work an average 41 hours (out of 43)/week • 41% of this on teaching: 3.4h/day • 14% devoted to planning and preparation • 14% on assessment, evaluation, reports and record-keeping Chisholm et al, 2005 6
  7. 7. 8 School Readiness Components Indicators of LFS SRC 1. Low student performance 2. Learner information 2. High rate of student absenteeism 1. Learner attendance 3. High dropout rates of students 2. Learner information 4. High level of disruption and violence 4. Annual planning 5. Unclear academic standards 5. Implementable and flexible timetabling 6. Quarterly teaching schedule 7. Organogram 8. Learner support material 6. High rate of staff turnover 3. Educator information 7. High rate of staff absenteeism 1. Teacher attendance 8. A negative school atmosphere 3. Educator information 7
  8. 8. The Numbers Game Scenarios A B C Constant Variable Knowledge 33.3% 25% 10% Skills 33.3% 25% 10% Disposition 33.4% 50% 80% Total 100% 100% 100% 8
  9. 9. Teacher Professional Path 1. First five to eight years (as teachers); 2. Second phase [nine to twelve years] as teacher; 3. First five to eight years (as senior teachers/mentor); 4. Second phase [nine to twelve years] as mentor; 5. First three to five years (as Head of Department); 6. First three to five years (as Deputy Principal); 7. First three to five years (as Principal); 8. Second phase [six to ten years] as Principal; 9. Third phase [eleven to twenty years +] as Principal; 10. Etc. BT1-4 T5-8 T9-12 HoD1-4 HoD5-8 HoD9-12 Pr1-4 Pr5-8 Pr9-12 Pr13 ST1-4 ST5-8 ST9-12 DP1-4 DP5-8 DP5-8 22-26 27-30 31-34 35-38 39-42 43-46 47-50 51-54 55-58 59-62 9 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs
  10. 10. Human Resources Management Total cost of education in your school? Different Resource contributions 100% 90% 30% 30% 80% 25% 20% 70% 15% 60% 10% 50% 5% 40% 0% 70% 70% 65% 30% 60% 55% 50% 45% 20% 40% 10% 0% Best 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 Human Cost Other resources
  11. 11. Why?, What?, How? Purpose and Function of Assessment Purpose Attainment Diagnostic/Prescriptive Why? 1. To establish present levels of functioning. 1. To determine ability/disability. 2. To evaluate present knowledge of a subject. 2. To determine potential. 3. To assess progress (relative to peers or self). 3. To indicate teaching programme. 4. To build a profile of the whole person. 4. To assess personality traits (aptitudes and 5. To indicate future placement in class or employment. attitudes). 6. To award qualification from a recognised body. What? Assessment Methods Formal Informal How? 1. Continuous Assessment. 1. Checklists. 2. Examinations. 2. Objective Tests. 3. Standardised Tests. 3. Observations. 4. Self-Assessment. Profiles 11
  12. 12. The content of subsequent slides (16 - 59), excluding the Homework, was taken from Kyriacou C. (2001), Effective teaching in schools. Nelson Thornes. 12
  13. 13. A. Framework for Thinking about Effective Teaching • Input or Context variables • Process variables • Product or Outcome variables 13
  14. 14. Input or Context variables • Teacher characteristics - gender, age, experience, social class, training, personality, etc.; • Learner characteristics - age, ability, values, personality, social class, etc.; • Class characteristics - size, range of ability, social class mix, etc.; • Subject characteristics - subject matter, level of difficulty, general interest, etc; • School characteristics - size, building, departments, ethos, policies, intakes, etc.; • Community characteristics - affluence, population, density, geographical location, etc.; • Characteristics of the Occasion - time of day, preceding lesson, weather, period of academic year, etc. 14
  15. 15. Process variables • Teachers perceptions, strategies and behaviour; • Learner perceptions, strategies and behaviour; • Characteristics of the learning task and activities 15
  16. 16. Product or Outcome variables • Short and/or Long-term outcomes; • Cognitive and/or Affective educational outcomes; - e.g. change in attitudes of learners towards school or subjects, - gains on tests and examination scores, - increased level of self-concept, - success in national examinations, - greater learner autonomy, etc. 16
  17. 17. The Effective Teaching Framework Input or Context Process variables variables Teacher Learner perceptions, perceptions, • Teacher strategies and strategies and characteristics behaviour behaviour • Learner Characteristics of characteristics the learning task • Class and activities characteristics • Subject characteristics Outcome or Product variables • School •Short and/or Long-term; characteristics •Knowledge, skills and behaviour educational • Community outcomes e.g. change in attitudes of learners characteristics towards school or subject; gains on attainment tests; • Occasion increased level of self-concept; success in national 17 characteristics examinations; greater learner autonomy; etc.
  18. 18. B. Models for Thinking about Effective Teaching 1. A surface level of analysis; 2. A psychological level of analysis; 3. A pedagogical level of analysis 18
  19. 19. 1. Surface level of analysis Maximising Active Learning Learner Teaching Time (ALT) Learning and the Quality of Instruction (QI) 19
  20. 20. 2. Psychological level of analysis Psychological concepts, principles and processes - Learner Teaching e.g. attention, Learning memory, transfer, reinforcement, expectations, motivation, information processing, etc. 20
  21. 21. 3. Pedagogical level of analysis Learner Teacher General perceptions, perceptions, Teaching strategies teaching skills strategies and and (e.g. being behaviour behaviour audible, Characteristics of managing the learning task learners and and activities activities) -------------- Presentation, content, Content Learner structure, specific monitoring, Learning teaching skills evaluation of (appropriately lesson and sound content activities and structure) 21
  22. 22. C. Nature of Learner Learning Four major questions: 1. What mental processes are involved when a learner is engaged in learning? 2. What changes occur in the learners’ cognitive structure which themselves constitute learner learning? 3. Which psychological factors (concepts, principles and processes) facilitate learner learning? 4. What are the main types of learner learning? 22
  23. 23. Gagne - Five main types of learner learning 1. Verbal information e.g. facts, names, principles and generalisations; 2. Intellectual skills - ‘knowing how’ rather than ‘knowing that’ e.g. concepts, rules, application; 3. Cognitive strategies - ability to control and manage mental processes e.g. thinking and memorising, problem solving, etc.; 4. Attitudes - feelings, emotions and behaviour; 5. Motor skills e.g. playing a musical instrument, typing, playing sports, etc. 23
  24. 24. Exposition of Education Outcomes - Bloom’s Taxonomy Spiritual Fulfilment Learning Domain 24
  25. 25. Types of Learning - Ausubel Discovery Learning 2.1 3 - content has to be discovered by learner through some learning activity Reception Learning 1 2.2 - entire content is presented to learner in its final form Rote Learning Meaningful Learning - what is learned is - essential characteristic of the characterised by arbitrary learning is that it can be related in a associations with the learner’s meaningful, non-arbitrary way to previous knowledge what the learner already knows 25
  26. 26. Information Processing during Learning Short-term Memory Reception of Long-term • ‘Working’ Sensory Memory memory Information • Cognitive • Cognitive • Attention structure processing • Selective • Storage • Conscious perception • Retrieval thinking 26
  27. 27. Effective Teaching gets these Aspects of Learning Activities right! 1. Attentiveness - learner must be attending to the learning experience; 2. Receptiveness - learner must be receptive to the learning experience, being motivated, willingness to learn and respond to the experience; 3. Appropriateness - learning experience must be appropriate for desired learning to take place, take account of learner’s initial knowledge and understanding. 27
  28. 28. D. Setting up the learning experience Learners’ learning is school can be fostered in two main ways: 1. Teacher exposition: listening to teacher exposition, which may include asking or being asked questions, watching a demonstration, and genuine teacher-learner discussion. 2. Academic work: being instructed to undertake or engage in academic tasks and activities, either on one’s own or together with other learners. 28
  29. 29. 1. Teacher Exposition • Making clear the structure and purpose of the learning experience - emphasise the essential elements of the learning; • Informing, describing and explaining - role of teacher in direct instruction, or as complementary to academic tasks and activities being undertaken; • Using questions and discussion to facilitate and explore learner learning - simple and quick check or developing a dialogue and genuine discussions (encourage thought; checking understanding; gaining attention; review/revision; settling down; draw shyer learners; probe knowledge; allow expression of feelings/views). 29
  30. 30. 2. Academic work • Structured reading and writing tasks - still the main form of ‘outcome production’; • Investigational work - where learners are given a degree of initiative, autonomy and responsibility towards planning and conducting their own learning; • Individualised programmes of work - work extending over days where learner undertakes it on individual basis; • Small group work - activities undertaken by a group of learner, which involves some degree of discussion, reflection and collaboration; • Experiential learning - use of activities such as role-playing, spending some time working at a local business, in order to enable learners to better understand and appreciate, both intellectually and emotionally, an issue being explored. 30
  31. 31. E. Taking account of learner differences • Ability (intelligence; gifted; learning difficulties); • Motivation (upbringing; previous success and failure; relationship between home and school; aspiration of parents); • Social class (professional; intermediate; skilled; semi- skilled; unskilled occupations); • Gender (perceptions in society; biological differences; stereotypes); • Race/Culture (‘apparent lower average educational attainment of groups’; use as power/status); • Special Educational Needs (physical, psychological and emotional). 31
  32. 32. F. Key Classroom Teaching Qualities and Tasks • Ten characteristics having a strong association with success; • Six qualities of high ‘performance’ teachers; • Five qualities of classroom teaching; • Teaching Assessment Rating Scales. 32
  33. 33. Ten characteristics having a strong association with success 1. Explains points clearly and at learners’ level; 2. Conveys an enthusiasm for the subject of learners; 3. Has a genuine interest in the subject; 4. Pays attention to assessment techniques; 5. Tries to make lessons interesting wherever possible; 6. Conveys high expectations for work learners produce; 7. Teaches for understanding rather than reproduction of learned material; 8. Is confident and at ease with teaching; 9. Stimulates learners to think for themselves; 10. Is constructive and helpful in criticism of learners. 33
  34. 34. Six qualities of high ‘performance’ teachers • Beginning the lesson - learners come quickly to attention; • Clarity of presentation - content is understandable to learners; • Pacing of the lesson - movement from one part of lesson to next - ‘teacher stays with class’; • Learner participation and attention - class is attentive; • Ending the lesson - lesson is ended when learners have achieved the aims of instruction; • Teacher-learner rapport - personal relationship between learners and teacher are harmonious. 34
  35. 35. Five qualities of classroom teaching 1. Quality of teacher-learner relationships and class management; 2. Quality of planning and preparation of work; 3. Quality of teaching process and match of work to learners; 4. Quality of language used in the classroom; 5. Quality of questioning techniques. 35
  36. 36. Teaching Assessment Rating Scales (Kyriacou and McKelvey 1985) 1. Preparedness; 2. Pace and Flow; 3. Transition; 4. Cognitive Matching; 5. Clarity; 6. Business-like; 7. Withitness; 8. Encouragingness. (see additional page) 36
  37. 37. Teaching Assessment Rating Scales While the eight qualities overlap in some respects, they appear to represent the main key classroom teaching qualities that warrant particular attention in the consideration of effective teaching. TARS The basic theme of each of these 8 dimensions: 1 1. P r e p a redness The notion of preparedness was intended to be seen from the viewpoint of the learners in the class in terms of the appearance that the lesson gave of being well-organised, having a coherent structure, and creating the impression of purposefulness from the teacher. Attached to this notion was also the idea that the unexpected could be catered for in the lesson without disrupting its structure or intent. 2. P a c e and Flow This dimension dealt with two complementary notions. Pace concerned the idea of keeping up the rate of events within the lesson so that all learners are kept involved and attentive; the idea of flow was seen to have more to do with maintaining the lesson as a single unity. The key concept here is Kounin’s notion of overlapping: the teacher being able to deal with more than one thing at a time so that the thread of the lesson was not lost while an individual learner’s problem concerning work or discipline was dealt with. 37
  38. 38. 3. Transitions Transitions focuses on two key ele ments in t he lesson. First, the TARS establishment of attention at t he start a nd maintaining attention when moving between activities. Second, the teacher’s sensitivity in deciding 2 when to move from one activity to the next. 4. Cognitive matching This dimension contains three key elements: whether the lesson is suited to learners’ abilities and interests, whether the work is c hallenging and instructive, and whether individual differences between learners are accommodated. 5. Clarity The notion of clarity refers to the extent to which the teacher’s instructions and explanations are clear and are pitched at the appropriate level for learner comprehension. 38
  39. 39. 6. Business-like This dimension is co ncerned with the manner in which the lesson is conducted. It f ocuses on matters of authority, reaction to m isbehaviour, and teacher expectations with together create a n impression that the TARS teacher is in control. This impression is conveyed by a tone of confidence and firmness regarding teaching and control, together with positive expectations regarding the quality of work and behaviour occurring in the 3 lesson. 7. Withitness This notion, developed by Kounin, deals with the teacher’s monitoring of the lesson so that he or she is alert to and can p re-empt learner misbehaviour, or ta ke swift action when it does occur. Such monitoring includes taking note of inattention by learners and a n inability to do the work set. 8. Encouragingness This dimension explicitly examines the nature of teacher-learner interaction in terms of the e xtent to which the teacher uses a mixture of praise, instructive criticism, enthusiasm and good humour to develop a positive and encouraging tone in the lesson that will foster and s upport learners’ self-confidence and self-esteem. (Source: Kyriacou C. (2001), Effective teaching in schools. Nelson 39 Thornes.)
  40. 40. Homework 3.1 • Request your Heads of Department (HoDs) to use the eight dimensions of the ‘Teaching Assessment Rating Scale’, and to rate all the teachers in your school on a scale of 1 - 5 (where 1 is less desirable and 5 is more desirable); • Submit a table of the results (see Example); • Further, after discussing the results with your HoDs, record on an A4 page the main discussion and recommendations of the conversation. • If you are unable to ‘perform this task’, please explain on an A4 page the reasons, and how you will go about remedying this situation. 40
  41. 41. Example Total divide by 8 Name of Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ave. Teacher T1 English 3 55344444 T2 Maths 5 T3 Science 5 T4 Life Or. 3 T5 Bus.Ec. 4 T6 History 4 Ave. 4 41 Total divide by number of Teachers
  42. 42. G. Key Classroom Teaching Tasks 1. Planning; 2. Presentation and Monitoring; and 3. Reflection and Evaluation. 42
  43. 43. 1. Planning To ensure that the learning experience fulfils three psychological conditions necessary for learner learning to occur: 1. Attentiveness - learning experience must elicit and sustain learner’s attention; 2. Receptiveness - learning experience must elicit and sustain learners’ motivation and mental effort; and 3. Appropriateness - learning experience must be appropriate for the educational outcomes desired. 43
  44. 44. Some questions involved in planning: 1. What level and range of ability is there in the class? 2. What do I want the learners to learn in this lesson? 3. What constraints need to be accommodated? 4. Are there any other considerations of note? 5. What teaching method will be foster the cognitive and affective outcomes desired, given the context and constraints? 6. Having chosen a particular method and general academic topic for the lesson, what sequencing of the tasks/activities/experience, level of difficulty and structuring of topic, and pace of lesson will be best for the lesson to be successful? 7. What level of learner performance will be expected, and how will the degree of success of the learning taking place to be determined? 8. What preparation is necessary before the lesson? 9. What teacher behaviour is required during the lesson to ensure its success? 10. How will the lesson be perceived and experienced by the learners, and what problems might arise? 44
  45. 45. 2. Presentation and Monitoring • Presentation refers to all aspects of lesson organisation and its implementation (effective use of time); • Monitoring refers to the ways in which the teacher needs to assess the progress of a lesson to ensure its success (knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes). 45
  46. 46. Characteristics of effective Presentation and Monitoring: 1. The teacher appears to be self-confident, is normally patient and good humoured, displays a genuine interest in the topic, and appears to be genuinely concerned with each learner’s progress; 2. The teacher’s explanations and instructions are clear, and pitched at the right level for learner comprehension; 3. The teacher’s voice and actions facilitate learners maintaining attention and interest; 4. The teacher makes good and varied use of questioning to monitor learners’ understanding and to raise the level of learners’ thinking; 5. The teacher monitors the progress of the lesson and learners’ behaviour, and makes any adjustments necessary to ensure the lesson flows well ad that learners are engaged appropriately; 6. The teacher encourages learners’ efforts; 7. Learner misbehaviour is minimised by keeping their attention maintained on the lesson, and by use of eye-contact, movement and questions to curtail any misbehaviour which is developing; 8. Potential interruptions to the lesson caused by organisational problems are dealt with in such a way that the interruptions are minimised or prevented; 9. Criticism by the teacher of a learner is given privately, and in a way likely to encourage and foster progress; and 10. Learner misbehaviour, when it does occur, is dealt with in a relaxed, self-assured and firm manner. 46
  47. 47. 3. Reflection and Evaluation Reflection and evaluation after a lesson are essential if the teacher is to continue to improve the quality of the learning experienced offered. Two main tasks: 1. Consider whether the lesson has been successful and to act on any implications for future teaching; and 2. Assess and record the educational progress of the learners. 47
  48. 48. Questions for Reflection and Evaluation 1. Did the lesson go well? 2. Did any learner or group of learners fail to benefit? If so, could this have been avoided? 3. What changes can I usefully make before giving a similar lesson to another class? 4. What have I learnt about this class, or particular learners, that might influence future lessons with this class? 5. What have I learnt about this topic or subject matter that might influence future lessons? 6. Are there any immediate actions I should take following this lesson? 7. Am I satisfied with my general planning of this lesson, and its presentation and monitoring? 8. Did any problems occur in the lesson that I should take note off? 9. How can I consolidate the learning which occurred and relate it to future demands and applications? 10. How did this lesson fit in with the teaching the department and school, and with curriculum developments concerning teaching in this area? 48
  49. 49. H. Relationships with Learners 1. The teacher’s authority; 2. Mutual respect and rapport; 3. Classroom climate; and 4. Pastoral care. 49
  50. 50. 1. Teacher’s Authority Four main factors: • Status; • Teaching competence; • Exercising control over the classroom; • Exercising control over discipline. 50
  51. 51. Status of Teachers • By appearing to be relaxed and self-assured - one’s tone of voice, facial expression, use of posture; • By exercising rights of status - teacher moving freely around the room, picking up learners’ exercise books and occasionally touching learners; • By communicating an expectation of imposing one’s will - tone of delivery of instructions and control over who speaks and when. 51
  52. 52. Teaching Competence Three main elements: • Subject knowledge; • Interest in and enthusiasm for the subject; and • Ability to set up effective learning experiences. 52
  53. 53. Homework 3.2 • Like in Homework 3.1, request your Heads of Department (HoDs) to use the three mail elements of ‘Teaching Competence’, and to rate all the teachers in your school on a scale of 1 - 5 (where 1 is less desirable and 5 is more desirable); • Again, submit a table of the results (see Example); • Also, after discussing the results with your HoDs, record on an A4 page the main discussion and recommendations of the conversation. • If you are unable to ‘perform this task’, please explain on an A4 page the reasons, and how you will go about remedying this situation. 53
  54. 54. Example Total divide by 3 Subject Interest in Set up Name of Subject Ave. Knowledge subject learning Teacher experience T1 English 3 5 5 4 T2 Maths 5 T3 Science 5 T4 Life Or. 3 T5 Bus.Ec. 4 T6 History 4 Ave. 4 54 Total divide by number of Teachers
  55. 55. Exercising control over the classroom Laslett and Smith (1984) identified four key rules of classroom management: • Get them in; • Get them out; • Get on with it; • Get on with them. 55
  56. 56. 2. Mutual Respect and Rapport • When the teacher fails on the four issues related to ‘teacher’s authority’, mutual respect gets undermined; • Good rapport refers to teacher and learners having a harmonious understanding of each other as individuals; • Three qualities to develop good rapport: - teacher shows quite clearly that he/she cares for each learner’s progress; - teacher has respect for learners as learners; - teacher has respect for learners as individuals. 56
  57. 57. 3. Classroom Climate • Effective teaching can facilitate learning; • Influenced by the physical appearance and layout of the classroom; • The way in which the teacher’s actions convey information concerning his/her perceptions, expectations, attitudes and feelings about the teacher’s role, the learner’s role and the learning activity; • Importance of Language for Learning. 57
  58. 58. 4. Pastoral Care • Focuses on the individual well-being of each learner; • To ensure that each learner is able to take advantage of what schools have to offer • Four aspects: - academic progress; - general behaviour and attitudes; - personal and social development; and - individual needs. 58
  59. 59. Exercising control over Discipline Setting up a learning experience that is exciting and challenging. • Introducing an interesting anecdote or application of the topic - oral or written work, give individual help; • Teacher exercising power in a dominant manner - raise voice, imperative command (‘get on with your work’, ‘pay attention’), aggressive tone, posture and facial expression. 59
  60. 60. Quote of the Day! “Even if the student’s life away from school is bleak and miserable, she/he will work if what she/he finds in school is satisfying.” William Glasser 60

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