Tshwane University of Technology Faculty of Humanities Department of Education Studies Educational Management (EDU401T & EDU402T) Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) Session 8 Week: 18 - 19 April 2011
Content1. Introduction2. Human Resource Management defined;3. Contractual relationship;4. Decision-making;5. Delegation (as means of personnel development);6. Evaluation of personnel;7. Employment references;8. Conclusion.
Test 2You will write a test, during the first 30 minutes of our nextsession. Monday students will write their test on Tuesday at 16h00, due the the holiday (Easter Monday).
1. IntroductionParties with an interest in education:• Parents;• Learners;• The state;• Organised teaching profession;• General public.
2. Human Resource Management defined Process that focuses on the needs of the employee ??? (teaching-non-teaching; inside-outside; governance- professional; administrative/managerial-leadership);Focus of managers:• Recruit, screen and appoint most suitable staff;• Induct staff to ensure productivity;• Evaluate staff skilfully, fairly and open communication;• Develop and exploit human resources optimally;• Monitor internal motivational levels within a healthy, stress- controlled framework;• Utilise responsible planning, organisation, leadership and control to manage participants and interested parties.
3.1 Contractual relationship A contract is an understanding or agreement which exist between two persons with the intention of creating an obligation;• Includes spiritual and physical labour;• Employee surrenders a measure of freedom;• Failure/refusal to render service = breach of contract;• May withdraw from contract of service;• Inability to do agreed word --> dismissal;• Employer obliged to reward employee;• Pay of money or other forms of payment;• Contract of status - unequal bargaining position;• Conditions of service subject to provisions (Bill of Rights, EEA, LRA, PAM, ELRC, PSCBC).
3.2 Other Service Benefits1. Leave (vacation (12); sick (90-120); special sick; - study purpose (1+1); - examination purpose (1+1); - quarantine purpose; - participation in sports and cultural activities; - urgent private matters; - maternity purpose (84); extra-ordinary circumstances;2. Medical assistance;3. Government housing;4. Homeowners’ allowance scheme (pension fund; full time; not lawfully married who benefit; dwelling is registered);5. Service bonus;6. Resettlement expenses.
4. Decision-making Administrative and discretionary decision making;• Administrative managerial activities - prescribed by law, rules and regulations;• Discretionary - particular context or situation; - free judgement and opinion - context of prevailing circumstances - brings to bear experience, insight and logic; - always subject to some legal restraint
4.1 Administrative managerial activity• Consists of regulatory activities;• Rules are used to regulate activities• Execution of formulated policy from a position of authority;• Example: weekly attendance register by education; issuing school fund receipts in accordance with instructions;• Principles applied as an administrative management act;
4.2 Discretionary managerial activity• Use of personal or one’s own judgement• In accordance with rules and the principles of reasonableness and fairness;• It is not arbitrary, unfettered or unlimited;• May not be used to enforce personal will or judgement of a person;• Always after considering existing laws and rules, as well as the nature of the particular circumstance, customs and reasonableness.
4.3 Other Discretion (UK)• Discretio generalis = general discretion;• Discretio legalis = limits dictated by applicable law;• Discretio specialis = freedom to decide is allowed due to specialised skills and authority;
4.4 Problems regardingdiscretionary decision-making• Case (1970) - learner lost finger when she slipped and fell onto the moving lawnmover: - dangerous nature of the lawnmover; - time at which the lawn was mowed; - typical behaviour of primary school children at play• Case (1982) - corporal punishment - principal incorrectly exercised discretion; - found guilty of assault
4.5 Guidelines fordiscretionary decision-making• Existing legislation - variety of legally correct possibilities;• Quasi-judicial acts - the application of the rules of natural justice.
5. Delegation (as means of personnel development)• With the transfer of the necessary authority and responsibility• To complete a task within a framework of predetermined goals;• Minister delegates to HoD;
5.1 Reasons for delegation• Creates more effective work performance;• Concentrate on more important issues;• Makes use of expertise of the variety of personnel;• Important tool in developing personnel;• A form of training with a view to promotion;• Infuses the staff with a sense of satisfaction in being participants;• Sense of co-responsibility.
5.2 Forms of delegation• Mandate permits;• Deconcentration;• Decentralisation
5.3 Requirements for valid delegation • Must weighted up against the ability of the member of staff to perform task; • Complexity of the delegated task; • Importance of the delegated task; • Section 238 of the Constitution; • Section 6(2)(a)(ii) of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act.
6. Evaluation of personnel• Process where a group or an individual is evaluated to determine whether it has worked efficiently and achieved its goals;• Objectives of evaluation: - inform personnel of aims and objectives; - motivate personnel to work more; - make remuneration and promotion available; - ensure management involvement in work done.
6.1 Requirements for evaluation• Procedures and instructions; - process of achievement evaluation; - promotion of education staff; - give staff clear explanation on criteria used, procedures and steps involved;• Rules of natural justice; - should give attention to staff; - must evaluate personnel regularly + continually; - establish sufficient communication; - results should be discussed openly; - allow staff to state their case; - must be put to elicit defence; - must act impartial and objectively;• Confidentiality - respect educator’s right to have confidentiality; - Disclosure of confidential information is inadmissible.
7. Employment references• Recommendations about prospective employees normally in written or verbal form; - defamation (libel, slander, privilege) - negligent misrepresentation (subject of sexual harassment-type allegation; forced to resign under pressure);• Administrators should not fear the threat of defamation if they relied on truthful and well- supported documentation while exercising good faith and practising good judgement to support the content of their references.
8. Conclusion• HRM is one of the most important management activities;• Among many and varied tasks and responsibility of a contemporary education manager;• All about the establishment of a rapport, and relationship with staff.
List of examination questions will be available by Wednesday onwww.slideshare.net