SaIF - Research journey

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SaIF - Research journey

  1. 1. SaIF – Research Students The Research Journey- Do you know your coordinates? - Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) Education Moving Up Cc. muavia@mweb.co.za http://muavia-gallie.blogspot.com http://supervisingwithadifference.blogspot.com www.slideshare.net 33 Baker Street, Rosebank, 2196 PO Box 5486, Johannesburg, 2000 www.sasol.com Content1.  Awareness - Navigation Map (3);2.  Research Journey (4-14);3.  Details of RJ: Step 1 - 11 (15-33);4.  System Views (34-35);5.  Supervisory Tracking System (36-41); Conclusion (42-44). www.slideshare.net Search SaIF - Research Journey 1
  2. 2. Awareness Test Do you know what it takes to navigate you through your research? Do you know the Map? (Turns, fill up points, slow down and speed up, etc.) Research Journey 1 Step 1. Identify theDiscipline and Paradigm 2
  3. 3. Research Journey 2 Step 1. Step 2. Identify the Determine theDiscipline and Area of Paradigm Investigation Research Journey 3 Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Identify the Determine the Identify theDiscipline and Area of Approach Paradigm Investigation 3
  4. 4. Research Journey 4 Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Identify the Determine the Identify the Conduct theDiscipline and Area of Approach Literature Paradigm Investigation Review Research Journey 5 Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Identify the Determine the Identify the Conduct theDiscipline and Area of Approach Literature Paradigm Investigation Review Step 5. Determine the Data Types 4
  5. 5. Research Journey 6 Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Identify the Determine the Identify the Conduct theDiscipline and Area of Approach Literature Paradigm Investigation Review Step 6. Step 5. Choose the Data Determine Collection the Data Instruments/ Types Methods Research Journey 7 Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Identify the Determine the Identify the Conduct theDiscipline and Area of Approach Literature Paradigm Investigation Review Step 7. Step 6. Step 5. Identify Choose the Data DetermineWhere, When Collection the Dataand Who data Instruments/ Typeswill come from Methods 5
  6. 6. Research Journey 8 Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Identify the Determine the Identify the Conduct theDiscipline and Area of Approach Literature Paradigm Investigation Review Step 7. Step 6. Step 5. Identify Choose the Data DetermineWhere, When Collection the Dataand Who data Instruments/ Typeswill come from Methods Step 8.Obtain Ethical Approval Research Journey 9 Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Identify the Determine the Identify the Conduct theDiscipline and Area of Approach Literature Paradigm Investigation Review Step 7. Step 6. Step 5. Identify Choose the Data DetermineWhere, When Collection the Dataand Who data Instruments/ Typeswill come from Methods Step 8. Step 9.Obtain Ethical Data Approval Collection 6
  7. 7. Research Journey 10 Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Identify the Determine the Identify the Conduct theDiscipline and Area of Approach Literature Paradigm Investigation Review Step 7. Step 6. Step 5. Identify Choose the Data DetermineWhere, When Collection the Dataand Who data Instruments/ Typeswill come from Methods Step 8. Step 9. Step 10.Obtain Ethical Data Analyse the Approval Collection data (Findings) Research Journey 11 Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Identify the Determine the Identify the Conduct theDiscipline and Area of Approach Literature Paradigm Investigation Review Step 7. Step 6. Step 5. Identify Choose the Data DetermineWhere, When Collection the Dataand Who data Instruments/ Typeswill come from Methods Step 8. Step 9. Step 10. Step 11.Obtain Ethical Data Analyse the Write up Approval Collection data Findings and (Findings) Conclusion (Discussion) 7
  8. 8. Step 1 – Identifying the Discipline and the Paradigm• Positivist or Post-positivists;• Interpretivist / Constructivist;• Pragmatic;• Transformative Paradigms Language commonly associated with major research paradigms Adapted from Mertens (2005) and Creswell (2003)Positivist / Post- Constructivist Transformative Pragmatic•  Experimental •  Naturalistic •  Critical theory •  Consequence•  Quasi- •  Phenomenological •  Neo-Marxist of action experimental •  Interpretivist •  Feminist •  Problem-•  Correlational •  Ethnographic •  Critical race theory centred•  Reductionism •  Multiple participant •  Freirean •  Pluralistic•  Theory meanings •  Participatory •  Real-world verification •  Social and •  Emancipatory practice•  Causal Historical •  Advocacy oriented comparative construction •  Grand narrative •  Mixed models•  Determination •  Theory generation •  Empowerment•  Normative •  Symbolic issue oriented interaction •  Change-oriented •  Interventionist •  Queer theory •  Race specific •  Political 8
  9. 9. Step 2 - Determine the Area of Investigation•  One of the major causes of ‘failure’ in research projects, is that the student is attempting to ‘solve the problems of the world’, rather than focusing on a specific portion, and making sense of that portion.•  Is it about “a mile wide, and an inch deep” or “an inch wide and a mile deep”? Step 3 - Identify the Approach For example: •  Historical; •  Correlational; •  Descriptive; •  Causal- comparative; •  Feminist; •  Experimental; •  Developmental; •  Quasi- •  Case study; experimental; •  Field study; •  Action. 9
  10. 10. Step 4 - Conduct the Literature Review •  To assist you in defining your Research Problem; •  By defining the problem in the of literature, you can generate your Research Question or Research Issue.Step 5 - Determine the Data Types• Quantitative;• Qualitative;• Mixture of Qualitative and Quantitative;• Mixed Method. 10
  11. 11. Mixing Paradigms, Methods and ToolsParadigm Methods (primary) Data collection tools (examples)Positivist/ Post- Quantitative – “Although qualitative •  Experiments methods can be used within this paradigm, •  Quasi-experiments quantitative methods tend to be •  Tests predominant …” (Mertens, 2005, p.12) •  ScalesConstructivist Qualitative methods predominate although •  Interviews quantitative methods may also be utilised. •  Observations •  Document reviews •  Visual data analysisTransformative Qualitative methods with quantitative and Diverse range of tools - mixed methods – “Contextual and historical particular need to avoid factors described, especially as they relate discrimination, eg. Sexism, to oppression.” Mertens, 2005, p.9) racism, homophobia.Pragmatic Qualitative and/or quantitative methods May include tools from both may be employed. Methods are matched positivist and constructivist to the specific questions and purpose of paradigms, e.g. interviews, the research. observations, and testing and experiments. Qualitative or Quantitative? Methodology or Method?“At one level quantitative and qualitative refersto distinctions about the nature of knowledge -how one understands the world and theultimate purpose of the research. Onanother level of discourse, the terms refer toresearch methods – how data are collectedand analysed – and the types ofgeneralisations and representations derivedfrom the data.” (McMillan and Schumacher, 2006, p.12) 11
  12. 12. Framework for Research Methodology Strengths and Deficiencies of Different Research Methods ... 1Method Strengths DeficienciesOpinion Suited for research on attitudes, Opinion is not fact, perceptions differ futures research, can use large from reality. Methodology is subject to samples, easiest method to use, bias in the survey instrument, and in and lends itself to many types of biases in the way people respond to data analysis. Herzbergs work questions. Opinions are unstable over on hygiene factors and time, and group opinion is difficult to motivators is an example. capture and analyse.Empirical Based on facts, not opinions. Only a small number of situations can Best suited to analysing actual be studied in detail and there is limited behaviour, fact finding and ability to generalise from these isolated seeking reality. Gets the cases. It is restricted to the present researcher involved. Case and and is the most time consuming field studies provide a rich method. Case research lacks context for research. experimental design and control. Field Laboratory studies provide the research has experimental design, but most control. Can use lack control. Laboratory has sophisticated techniques such experimental design and control, but as gaming and simulation. observations may be deficient for several reasons. 12
  13. 13. Strengths and Deficiencies of Different Research Methods ... 2Method Strengths DeficienciesArchival Best suited for analysis of Selective depositing - only certain data, in documents, historical things are recorded, e.g. the analysis, gathering hard accomplishments of the dominant group. evidence, extrapolation of Selective survival - much is lost, trends, etc. Ability to access unpublished, revised, etc. Selective a large quantity of hard, often retrieval - subject to bias and sampling factual information. errors. Filling in the gaps - editorialising.Analytic There is no need to search for The most abused strategy and the most additional data and analytic difficult to criticise. Requires a first rate research is not limited by mental ability that is rare. Can more existing data. It provides the readily be used to mislead. Often broadest scope for sloppy. It is subject to logical errors, imagination and creativity. problems of sematics, etc. Temptation Best suited for the use of to focus on trivial and irrelevant logic, philosophy, operation problems. Can only create theory, research techniques. never proof.Buckley et al (1976) Flowchart for Classifying Methodology 13
  14. 14. Step 6 - Choose the DataCollection Instruments/ Methods •  Surveys; •  Interviews; •  Document analysis; •  Observations •  Focus groups; •  Experiments; •  Tests. Step 7 - Identify Where, When and Who data will come from•  Developing timeline;•  Determining Who will collect data;•  Developing or identifying data collection tools;•  Piloting data collection tools;•  Refining data collection tools. 14
  15. 15. Step 8 - Obtain Ethical Approval • Type of approval is determined by the type of research you do; • And where the data are coming from. Step 9 - Data Collection•  Storage and management of data;•  Organising and sorting of data;•  Coding and displaying of data. 15
  16. 16. Step 10 - Analyse the data (Findings) • Thematic analysis; and/or • Statistics. • Data analysis may lead to further data collection. Step 11 - Write up Findings and Conclusion (Discussion) •  Return back to the literature prior to start writing the findings and conclusions; •  Ensure that these are ‘your findings and conclusions’. If not, indicate them as supporting and clarifying the findings and conclusions of other studies; •  Make recommendations for further studies. 16
  17. 17. Reference:•  Buckley, J.W., Buckley, M.H. and Chiang, H. (1976), Research methodology and business decisions, National Association of Accountants.•  Creswell, J.W. (2003), Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.), Thousand Oaks, Sage.•  McMillan, J. and Schumacher, S. (2006), Research in Education (6th ed.), Boston, Pearson Education.•  Mertens, D.M. (2005), Research methods in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative and qualitative approaches (2nd ed.), Thousand Oaks, Sage. Hierarchical View 17
  18. 18. Spiral View PhD - 32 Steps to your doctoral degreeStep Core Function Ch Description of the function P-D M-D Weeks Hours % Size 1 Understanding the Adm This step is intended to ensure that the student knows in advance the expectations of the 3 2.0 0.5 6 0.5% expectations of the programme, as stated in the administrative documents of the university, faculty and/or programme department. 2 Develop and Agree on Adm This process allows the student and supervisor to agree on delivery timeframes, output 3 2.0 0.5 6 0.5% delivery expectation by frequency, feedback and response time by supervisor. student to supervisor 3 Engaging in a conceptual Intro This step is the heart of the planning process for your dissertation. This is a conversation in 6 4.0 1 12 1.0% 18 conversation which you (and, ideally, your supervisor) map out the research proposal for your dissertation. 4 Read through a few well Intro This will allow you to get a sense of the layout, flow and detail necessary to make the pre- 3 2.0 0.5 6 0.5% crafted research proposals proposal acceptable. (Ensure that you adhere to the required amount of pages per your research proposal.) 5 Creating the dissertation pre- Intro In this step, you make the key decisions about your dissertation--research question, 3 2.0 0.5 6 0.5% 22 proposal categories of your literature review, data, methods of collecting and analyzing your data, significance of your study, and what your chapters will be. 6 Approval of the pre-proposal Intro Heres where you talk through your pre-proposal with your supervisor, modifying it as 3 2.0 0.5 6 0.5% 28 by your supervisor necessary. You want to end this conversation with agreement on the elements of your pre- proposal. 7 Collecting the literature Lit You collect the literature relevant to your project, which you mapped out in your pre-proposal 18 12.1 3 36 3.0% 9 and more. 8 Coding the literature Lit Review, code and make notations of your literature. 30 20.1 5 60 5.0% 8 9 Writing the literature review Lit Create a conceptual schema for the literature review and write the review. 24 16.1 4 48 4.0% 10 10 Writing the research proposal Intro Write the research proposal using your pre-proposal as your guide. 18 12.1 3 36 3.0% 16 11 Review of the research Intro Your supervisor reads and suggests revisions to your research proposal. (During this time, 12 8.0 2 24 2.0% 11 proposal by your supervisor you will continue with work in order to move the dissertation forward.) 12 Revising the research Intro Revise your proposal in line with your supervisors suggestions. The revisions should not be 6 4.0 1 12 1.0% 19 proposal major because the proposal follows the pre-proposal your supervisor approved earlier. 13 Defending the research Intro If your department requires a defense of your proposal, defend it before your supervisor and 30 20.1 5 60 5.0% 3 proposal members of your committee. (This isnt all time on task but allows time for proposal committee members to read the proposal.) 14 Obtaining ethical approval Adm Obtaining the approval to collect your data from your facultys ethical committee. (You can 30 20.1 5 60 5.0% 20 continue with the writing of the literature review chapter while you wait for ethical clearance.) 15 Collecting the data Data Collect your data through whatever method as indicated in your research methodology. 60 40.2 10 120 10.0% 1 16 Transforming the data to Data Transcribe your interviews or run your statistics or do whatever is required to get your data in 60 40.2 10 120 10.0% 2 codable form a form you can work with and analyze. 17 Coding the data Data Code your data based on your research question. 24 16.1 4 48 4.0% 12 18
  19. 19. Step Core Function Ch Description of the function P-D M-D Weeks Hours % Size 18 Developing a schema to Data Develop an explanatory schema that explains and captures in an insightful and coherent 6 4.0 1 12 1.0% 21 explain the data way the major pieces of your data. 19 Writing a sample analysis Rec Write a sample section of your analysis--something along the lines of five pages--so that 6 4.0 1 12 1.0% 23 your supervisor can take a look at it and tell you if there are any problems with your approach. You want to know before youve written up a whole chapter or chapters in that same way. 20 Review by of the sample Rec Your supervisor reviews and provides feedback on your sample analysis. 6 4.0 1 12 1.0% 29 analysis 21 Writing the findings chapter Rec Write your findings or analysis chapter(s) featuring your explanatory schema. (Based on 72 48.2 12 144 12.0% 4 or chapters assumption that you will have tlhree chapters - 40 hours per chapter.) 22 Writing the final chapters Conc Write the final chapter of your dissertation--the discussion, recommendations and/or 30 20.1 5 60 5.0% 17 conclusion chapter. 23 Transforming the proposal Intro Revise your proposal to turn it into your first chapter or your first three chapters, depending 6 4.0 1 12 1.0% 24 into a chapter or chapters on the format you are using for your dissertation. Also prepare your abstract, table of and preparing the front contents, acknowledgments, and lists of figures and tables. matter 24 Editing the chapters Adm Editing all of your chapters for substance and form. 48 32.2 8 96 8.0% 7 25 Review of the dissertation Adm Your supervisor reads the dissertation and makes suggestions for revision. (Of course, you 42 28.1 7 84 7.0% 5 by your supervisor are doing other work during this time, such as formatting the manuscript.) 26 Revising the dissertation Adm Following your supervisors suggestions, revise the dissertation. 24 16.1 4 48 4.0% 13 27 Approval of the dissertation Adm The final dissertation will be reviewed by a senior colleague in the department, just to 24 16.1 4 48 4.0% 14 by tsomeone in the ensure that the work is on a standard as expected. department. 28 Making final formatting Adm Make any formatting changes required by the faculty. 6 4.0 1 12 1.0% 25 revisions 29 Review of the dissertation Adm After your supervisor has approved your dissertation, distribute the dissertation to the other 48 32.2 8 96 8.0% 6 by the external committee members of your external review committee and give them two weeks to read it. 30 Defending the dissertation Adm Defend your dissertation. 6 4.0 1 12 1.0% 26 31 Revising the dissertation Adm Complete any revisions your committee wants you to make. 24 16.1 4 48 4.0% 15 32 Submitting the dissertation Adm Submit the dissertation either electronically and/or in hard copy, whichever your department 24 16.1 4 48 4.0% 27 requires. Total Hours Hrs 1398 Total Weeks (12 hours) Wks 116.5 Total Months (4 weeks) Mths 29.12 5 Total Years (12 months) Yrs 2.427 1hrActions Y M W Me Stu Su MEd Full - et p PhD - Dates DatesShare copy of administrative requirements with student. 1 1 1 1 6 1 7 13-Mar-12 13-Mar-12Student consults with family in order to identify the 1 1 1 2 6 1 7frequency time that will be appropriate to work on thesis. 16-Mar-12 15-Mar-12Supervisor and student get together to identify the different 1 1 2 3 12 1 13protocols and sections of the research proposal, anddefense date. 19-Mar-12 17-Mar-12Student will read Introductory chapters of numerous 1 1 3 4 6 1 7dissertations (at least 4) in the libraryin the same filed ofstudy. 25-Mar-12 21-Mar-12Student submitting the pre-proposal, It only contains detail 1 1 3 6 2 8of the research questions, the background and importanceof the study, and notations of limited literature. 28-Mar-12 23-Mar-12Agreement is reached on the pre-proposal. 1 1 4 5 6 1 7 31-Mar-12 25-Mar-12Collect literature. 1 2 5-7 36 36 03-Apr-12 27-Mar-12Make notations of literature. 1 2-3 8-12 60 60 21-Apr-12 08-Apr-12Create schema of literature review. 1 4 13-16 48 48 21-May-12 28-Apr-12Write the research proposal. 1 5 17-19 36 36 14-Jun-12 14-May-12Supervisor assess the research proposal, and give 1 5-6 20-21 24 5 29feedback. 02-Jul-12 26-May-12Revise the research proposal in line with feedback. 1 6 22 12 2 14 14-Jul-12 03-Jun-12Research proposal defense. When successful, complete 1 6-7 23-27 60 5 65the ethical clearance report as soon as possible. 20-Jul-12 07-Jun-12Ethical clearance for ethical committee. 1 7-8 28-32 60 60 19-Aug-12 27-Jun-12Collecting of data. 1 9-11 33-42 120 120 18-Sep-12 17-Jul-12Transcribe the data. 1-2 11-2.1 43-2.4 120 120 17-Nov-12 26-Aug-12Link data with research question(s). 2 2 5-8 48 48 16-Jan-13 06-Oct-12 19
  20. 20. Create schema of data analysis. 2 3 9 12 12 09-Feb-13 22-Oct-12Write a sample data analysis for supervisor. 2 3 10 12 12 15-Feb-13 26-Oct-12Supervisor review and give feedback on sample 2 3 11 12 2 14analysis. 21-Feb-13 30-Oct-12Write your data chapters. Give drafts to your 2 3-6 12-23 14 6 150supervisor. 4 27-Feb-13 03-Nov-12Write your final chapters. Give drafts to your 2 6-7 24-28 14 4 148supervisor. 4 10-May-13 21-Dec-12Write your introductory chapter(s). Give drafts to 2 8 29 12 1 13your supervisor. 09-Jun-13 10-Jan-13Editing of draft dissertation. 2 8-9 30-37 96 96 15-Jun-13 14-Jan-13Review and give feedback on draft dissertation. 2 9-11 38-44 84 6 90 02-Aug-13 15-Feb-13Student revising the feedback and suggestions. 2 12 45-48 48 48 13-Sep-13 15-Mar-13Review of dissertation by departmental colleague. 3 1 1-4 48 1 49 07-Oct-13 31-Mar-13Review format of dissertation. 3 2 5 12 12 31-Oct-13 16-Apr-13Review of dissertation by external review 3 2-4 6-13 96 5 101committee. 06-Nov-13 21-Apr-13Defend your dissertation. 3 4 14 12 12 24-Dec-13 23-May-13Revise your final dissertation in line with advise by 3 4 15 12 12committee. 30-Dec-13 27-May-13Submit your dissertation both hard copy and 3 4 16 12 1 13electronically. 23-Jan-14 12-Jun-13 Supervision Hours 43 16-Feb-14 28-Jun-13 Start with the End in Mind! Hours per Week Weeks Months Years Completion datePhD Student 30 46.6 11.7 1.0 15-Feb-13MEd Full 12 78.1 19.5 1.6 03-Oct-13MEd Course 12 58.3 14.6 1.2 11-May-13 13-Mar-12 339.79 13-Mar-12 569.15 13-Mar-12 424.73 20
  21. 21. Supervisor Tracking System (STS)32 Steps Year One Year Two Year Three 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 121. M.Ed (Course work)Course WorkModulesAdministrationPre-proposalResearch Proposal15-20 PagesMini-Dissertation90 Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 122. M.Ed (Dissertation only)AdministrationPre-proposalResearch Proposal20-30 PagesDissertation120 Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 123. PhD (Dissertation only)AdministrationPre-proposalResearch Proposal25-35 PagesDissertation180 Pages Motivational … Period 21
  22. 22. Muhammad Ali – Hard Work“The fight is won or lost faraway from witnesses –behind the lines, in thegym, and out there on theroad, long before I danceunder those lights.” Good Luck or Hard Work! Thank You!! 22

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