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Instructional leadership workshop Session 4

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  • 1. 2012/02/10 Instructional Leadership Workshop- How should we change our current practice in order to attain Quality Education for All learners? - Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) Session 4 1 1.1 SRC Example: Teacher Attendance • No attendance system; • Tick next to name (!); • Sign their names; • Indicate ‘time in & out’; • Comments from Principal; • Number of days absent, late arrival, leaving early; • Leave form submitted (24h); • Leave form processed; 2 1
  • 2. 2012/02/10 Self-Evaluation of SRCSRC 1 2 3 4 5Teacher Tick Sign Time in Principal AbsentAttendance name name and out monitors submitted daily and processed 6 7 8 9 10 SMS - SMS - Computer Swipe Finger-print present Time in based card and out 31.2 Models of Teaching and Learning 4 2
  • 3. 2012/02/10 Peter Senge The Fifth Discipline, 1990 In the long run, the only sustainable source of competitive advantage is your organization s ability to learn faster than its competition. 5 A Learning Organisation★  Organization where people continually expand their capacity to create the result they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together - Senge 1990;★  A learning organization is an organization skilled at creating, acquiring and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights. Garvin 1993;★ A learning organization is an organisation that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt and change. Gephart et al 1996. 6 3
  • 4. 2012/02/10 The Laws of the Fifth Discipline 1.  Today s problems come from yesterday s solutions ; 2.  The harder you push, the harder they system pushes back; 3.  Behavior grows better before its grows worse; 4.  The easy way out usually leads back in; 5.  The cure can be worse than the disease; 6.  Faster is slower; 7.  Cause and effect are not closely related in time and space; 8.  Small changes can produce big results - but the areas of highest leverage are often the least obvious; 9.  You can have your cake and eat it too - but not at once; 10.  Dividing an elephant in half does not produce two small elephants; 11. 7 There is not blame. 72.6 Components of Learning Organisation1.  Systems thinking;2.  Personal mastery;3.  Mental models;4.  Building shared vision;5.  Team learningThe Fifth Discipline = Systems Thinking 8 4
  • 5. 2012/02/10 2.7 Systems Thinking•  The conceptual cornerstone that underlies all of the five learning disciplines;•  A discipline for seeing wholes;•  Seeing structures that underlie complex situations;•  Seeing interrelationships rather than linear cause and effect chains;•  Seeing processes of change rather than9 snapshots.10 5
  • 6. 2012/02/10 2.9 Personal Mastery•  The spirit of the Learning Organization;•  Organizations learn only through individuals who learn;•  Individual learning does not guarantee organizational learning, but without it, no organizational learning can occur;•  Personal Vision;11 2.9.1 Creative Tension12 6
  • 7. 2012/02/10 2.9.2 Structural Conflict13 2.10 Mental Models•  Why Best Ideas fail;•  Conflict with deeply held internal images of how the world works;•  Mental models determine how we take action;•  Mental models are so powerful - because they affect what we see.14 7
  • 8. 2012/02/10 2.11 Shared Vision•  A Common Caring;•  A shared vision is a vision that many people are truly committed to and it reflects their own personal vision;•  Helps establish overarching goals;•  Provides a rudder to keep the learning process on course when15 stresses develop. 2.11.1 Getzels and Guba Model (when Role meets Systems Theory)16 16 8
  • 9. 2012/02/10 2.11.2 17 172.11.3 Five Basic Assumptions of Effective Schools1.  The central purpose of a school is to teach;2.  The school is responsible for providing the overall environment;3.  Schools must be treated holistically in terms of instruction (unity);4.  The most crucial characteristics of a school are the attitudes and behaviours of the teachers and staff;5.  The school accepts responsibility for the success and failure of the academic performance of learners - all learners are capable of learning. 18 18 9
  • 10. 2012/02/10 2.12 Team Learning•  The fundamental learning unit is the team;•  Alignment - it is a necessary condition before empowering the individual will empower the whole team.19 2.12.1 Aligning the Team20 A B C 10
  • 11. 2012/02/102.12.2 21 21 2.13 Five Building Blocks (Garvin 1993) 1.  Systemic problem solving; 2.  Experimentation with new knowledge; 3.  Learning from experience; 4.  Learning from the experience and best practice of others; 5.  Transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization. 22 11
  • 12. 2012/02/10 2.14 Eleven characteristics of LO Pedlar et al 1995 1.  A learning approach to strategy; 2.  Participatory policy making; 3.  Information for learning at employee s fingertips; 4.  Formative accounting and control; 5.  Internal exchange of ideas and information; 6.  Rewards for flexibility; 7.  Enabling structures with supportive systems; 8.  Boundary workers as environmental scanners watching for change outside the organization; 9.  Inter-organizational learning; 10.  A learning climate; and 11.  Self-development opportunities for all. 23 23 2.15 LO Assessment ToolsAuthors Tool Content MethodologyWatkins and Marsick Dimensions of LO Leadership, structures, systems, Self-assessment (i.e. Questionnaire communication, technology Organizational members assess the organization against criteria). Likert scale format.Pedler, Burgoyne, Characteristics of a LO Leadership, structures, systems, Self-assessment. Likert scaleBoydell communication, technology, learning format. methodsDioxin Organizational Learning Competencies Survey Communication and Information Self-assessment. Likert scale systems format.Nevis, DiBella and Organization Learning Team learning, vision/ strategy/ Assessment by researchers. LikertGould Inventory structure communication scale format.Richards and Goh learning Organization Survey Learning processes, mission/ vision, Self-assessment. Likert scale processes, systems, leadership format. 24 12
  • 13. 2012/02/102.16 LO Scorecard: Logic Model252.17 The Learning Organisation★  Encourages Continuous Learning★  Promotes Access to Learning★  Maximizes Information Sharing★  Increases Flexible Access to Training★  Works Efficiently Using Interactive Relationships★  Sees the Big Picture★  Shares a Common Vision26 13
  • 14. 2012/02/103.1 Learning Activity Components 27 273.2 Types of Learning Outcomes 28 28 14
  • 15. 2012/02/103.3 Teaching and Learning Models 29 29 3.4 Assessment Task Type 30 30 15
  • 16. 2012/02/103.5 Assessment Task Technique31 313.5 Task Roles & Interaction32 32 16
  • 17. 2012/02/10 3.6 Task Tools33 333.7 Assessment Techniques34 34 17
  • 18. 2012/02/10 4.1 Pedagogy versus Androgogy Pedagogy AndrogogyIt is the method of teaching It is the method of teaching adults.children.Learners are dependent. Learners are independent.Learners have less or no Learners are experienced, henceexperience to share, hence teaching involves discussion, problemteaching becomes didactic. solving, etc.Learners learn whatever the The content has to be modifiedcurriculum offers. according to the learner s need.Teachers are required to direct The learners are self-motivated.the learner. Learners need teachers guidance. 35Learning is curriculum oriented. Learning is goal oriented. 4.2 Adult Learning -- n tio Fe cia eli so ng As s Facts 36 Information 18
  • 19. 2012/02/10 4.3 Motivational Learning 37 374.4 Tacit versus Explicit KnowledgeCharacteristics Tacit ExplicitNature Personal, context specific Can be codified and explicatedFormalization Difficult to formalise, record, encode Can be codified and transmitted in a or articulate systematic and formal languageDevelopment process Trial and error encountered in practice Explication of tacit understanding and interpretation of informationLocation People s mind Documents, databases, web pages, e-mails, charts, etc.Conversion process Converted to explicit through Converted back to tacit through externalization that is often driven by understanding and absorption metaphors and analogyIT support Hard to manage, share, or support Well supported by existing IT with ITMedium needed Needs a rich communication medium Can be transferred through conventional electronic channel 38 19
  • 20. 2012/02/10 4.5 Why do people not share what they know? Causes Cultural RewardKnowledge hoarding is considered a source of job securityFear of not getting credit and suspicionLoss of ownership of expertiseFear of making mistakesLack of comprehension of value of possessed knowledgeLack of time to share insights, knowledge, war stories andexperiencesLack of knowledge sharing mechanismsUnwillingness to use existing technology to share knowledge 394.7 Knowledge Management Benefits 40 20
  • 21. 2012/02/104.8 Knowledge Management Dimensions 41 Learning Signature (Business Lab, 2002) Attribute: • is taking place; • is unused or unconsidered; • has a barrier. 42 21
  • 22. 2012/02/10 Activity•  Please study the learning signature of Business Lab;•  Copy the design on an A4 page;•  Indicate with three different colours, which of these activities are ACTIVE, NOT IN USE, and HAS A BARRIER.•  For activities which are Active, indicate on a scale of 1 (low) and 5 (high), the level of activeness; and•  For activities which have barriers, indicate the nature of the barrier. 43 Levels of Time 44 44 22
  • 23. 2012/02/10 Activity•  Use the level of time design in the previous slide, and design backwards from school year length in order to calculate the actual Academic Learning Time at your school for 2010.45 5 (five) Successful Change Steps [Planning] 8 (eight) School Readiness Components [Planning] 6 (six) 16 (sixteen) Curriculum 6 (six) 16 (sixteen) Principle Management Issues TAS Sustainability Model Deliverables Design [Outputs] [Inputs] [Outputs] [Input] 4 (four) Closing the Gap BEAR [Process] 5 (five) Turn Around Phases [Process] 23
  • 24. 2012/02/10Focus of the Conversation TIME (Teachers) 1.  Academic Year CURRICULUM (SMT) 2.  Academic Quarter 1.  National Educational Goals 3.  Academic Month 2.  Provincial Curriculum Goals 4.  Academic Week 3.  District Implementation Goals 5.  Academic Day 4.  School Instructional Goals 6.  Academic Period 5.  Faculty Teaching Goals 7.  Teaching time 6.  Classroom Culture Goals 8.  Learning time 7.  Teacher Assessment Goals 9.  Learner success 8.  Learner Life Goals CONTEXT (Learners) •  Grade •  Support •  Culture & Climate •  Urgency •  Focus/Commitment Imagine this!•  End of this year – identify 1000 learners in one district, from a few schools, who failed;•  Ask the court for answers from education on the following:1. How much teaching and learning time the learner has been given in the particular subject for the year?;2. When was the learner identified as ‘at risk’ to fail?;3. What was the intervention strategy to prevent him/ her from failing?4. Etc. 24
  • 25. 2012/02/10 TIME - School Academic YearTeaching Academic Learning Learning Time Engaged Time Instructional Time Allocated Time School Day Length Attendance for the Year School Academic Year Calendar Year Do the Maths! Academic Year - SRC 4 – Annual Planning 25
  • 26. 2012/02/10Teacher Principal     1st Term 52 (54) 4th Term (202) 2nd Term 45 (47) 198 48 3rd Term 53Headof DeputyDepartment Principal 26
  • 27. 2012/02/10 School Academic Year•  202 days for teachers;•  198 days for learners;•  40 weeks per year;•  34 weeks for teaching and learning;•  8 weeks for administration and others;•  ..•  202 x 7 hours = 1414 hours per year;•  Basic Conditions of Employment Act = 1800 hoursBasic Conditions of Employment Act of 1997, p.8 27
  • 28. 2012/02/10Academic Quarter 1 2 3 Comments1st Term January February March Holiday 1 • Identify Learners at Risk • Intervention strategy • Teacher reflection2nd Term April May June Holiday 2 • Identify Learners at Risk • Intervention strategy • Teacher reflection3rd Term July August September Holiday 3 • Identify Learners at Risk • Intervention strategy • Teacher reflection4th Term October November December Holiday 4 • Identify Learners at Risk • Intervention strategy • Teacher reflection 28
  • 29. 2012/02/10Academic MonthMON TUES WED THURS FRI SAT SUN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30Being absent from School (policy is only step 1) 29
  • 30. 2012/02/10Academic WeekLEGAL REQUIREMENTS Grade 3 = 25 Grade 7-9 = 27.5 Grade 10-12 = 27.5 Grade 4-6 = 27.5 30
  • 31. 2012/02/10 OECD Report 2008, p.174- Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development - OECD Report 2008, p.174 31
  • 32. 2012/02/10Academic Day Periods per Day5 min 5 min 5 min 5 min 5 min 5 min 5 min 5 min 5 min 5 min 5 min 5 min 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 102 min 2 min 2 min 2 min 2 min 2 min 2 min 2 min 2 min 2 min 2 min 2 min Flying on an Aircraft! Playing a Soccer match! 32
  • 33. 2012/02/10 Use most of the time on ‘whatlearners need tolearn at the end’!Written Curriculum (100%) Taught Curriculum (70%)Assessed Curriculum (30%) 33
  • 34. 2012/02/1067 Influences on Achievement .40 .30 .50 .60 .15 Typ che Te .70 Eff ica r a ts ec D ffec l ev ts E .80 el ZONE OF op 0 m DESIRED en .90 ta EFFECTS l REVERSE 1.0 John Hattie68 68 34
  • 35. 2012/02/10 The Disasters ... Rank Category Influence Studies Effects ES 100 Mobility (shifting schools) 181 540 -.34 99 Retention 207 2675 -.16 98 Television 31 235 -.14 97 Summer vacation 39 62 -.09 96 Open vs. traditional 315 333 .01 95 Multi-grade/age classes 94 72 .04 94 Inductive teaching 24 24 .06 93 Reading: Whole language 64 197 .06 92 Perceptual-motor programs 180 637 .08 91 Out of school experiences 52 50 .09 John Hattie 69 69 The Winners ...Rank Category Influence Studies Effects ES 1 Self-report grades 209 305 1.44 2 Absence of disruptive students 140 315 .86 3 Classroom behavioural 160 942 .80 4 Quality of teaching 141 195 .77 5 Reciprocal teaching 38 53 .74 6 Prior achievement 3387 8758 .73 7 Teacher-student relationships 229 1450 .72 8 Feedback 1276 1928 .72 Providing formative evaluation to 9 21 21 .70 teachers 10 Creativity programs 658 814 .70 John Hattie 70 70 35
  • 36. 2012/02/10 Teaching or Working Conditions? Teaching ES Structural/Working Conditions Quality of teaching .77 Within class grouping .28 Reciprocal teaching .74 Adding more finances .23 Teacher-student relationships .72 Reducing class size .21 Providing feedback .72 Ability grouping .11 Teaching student self-verbalization .67 Multi-grade/age classes .04 Meta-cognition strategies .67 Open vs. Traditional classes .01 Direct Instruction .59 Summer vacation classes -.09 Mastery learning .57 Retention -.16 AVERAGE .68 .08 John Hattie71 7172 72 36
  • 37. 2012/02/1073 7374 74 37
  • 38. 2012/02/10 QuoteEducations purpose is to replace anempty mind with an open one.• Malcom S. Forbes75 Motivational … period! 76 38

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