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    Instructional leadership workshop Session 2 Instructional leadership workshop Session 2 Document Transcript

    • 2012/02/10 Instructional Leadership Workshop- How do SMT members ensure Quality Teaching andLearning for every learner, in every classroom, during every period of every school day, no exception? - Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) Session 2 1 Summary of Instructional Leadership Know Yourself Know Know your Job your School (T&L) Know your Context 2 1
    • 2012/02/10 Quote The core purpose of principalship is to provide leadership and management in all areas of the school to enable the creation and support of conditions under which high quality teaching and learning take place and which promote the highest standards of learner achievement.(South African Standard for School Leadership) 3 Introduction•  Teaching and learning is the core activity or focus of any school;•  There is clearly a different between teaching and learning ;•  There is a client , a service provider and a product/service in any transaction (where people are getting paid to render the product/ service.•  Service provider should render the product/ service as required by the client.•  The quality of your product/service is an Attitude. 4 2
    • 2012/02/10External and internal difference 5 Activity1.  Clearly define and explain the meaning of Teaching and Learning ;2.  Define what the difference is between these two activities;3.  Define the inter-connectedness of these terms; and4.  Define which one comes first, if any. 6 3
    • 2012/02/10 Different Perspectives Understanding the situation well 7 Origin of School Functionality Questionnaire Components Factors that The What makes a Characteristics of support change in Practical Contextual Conditions Learning Questionnaire school successful? successful schools different schools Successful stories recommendations elements elements school Clear and shared Dynamic leadership Mission and vision Clear1 School ethos focus [2] Vision [2] Teacher attitude [7] [3 + 4] statement [2] Leadership [3 + 4] purpose [1] Identity [1] Vision, Aims and Core values, Strategic High standards and Clarity of innovation Make structures principles and goals Political stability [5’ 6 Inspiring2 Planning expectations [1] Leadership [3 + 4] [2] more flexible [5] [1] + 7] vision [2] Strategy [2] Structures Allocate resources to and Effective school High Academic support educators [6 Administrative Levels of cooperation Strong procedures3 The Principal leadership [3 + 4] Standards [2] Teacher training [7] + 7] support [3 + 4] [7] ownership [6] [5] High levels of Communication and Principal and collaboration and Standards of the support Create a discourse of Develop governance Knowledge of reform Broad Technical4 SMT Communication [6] heart [1] implementation [6] possibility [10] structures [9] [10] capacity [5] support [5] Curriculum, Understanding Structures, Instruction and Family-school- Make contingencies processes and Tangible Human Roles and Assessment aligned community compatible with Set up broad relationships [5, 6 + organisationa resources [35 Responsibilities with standards [2] partnerships [8] classroom [10] advisory board [8] 7] l support [6] + 4] Leadership Decision making Frequent monitoring Ability and and and of teaching and Professional Develop evaluation willingness to support managemen6 Communication learning [5] development [7] plan [5] change [3 + 4] t [3, 4 + 9] Development Professional Focused professional Evidence of success standards and Administrative The context7 work relationship development [7] [10] assessment plan [6] capacity [3 + 4] [6, 7, 8 + 9] Links with Get internal and parents and Supportive learning external support [8 + Fiscal capacity [3 +8 community environment [5] 9] 4] High levels of communicty and Involve stakeholders parental involvement in all processes [8 +9 SGB and DoE [8 + 9] 9] Managing 810 Change 4
    • 2012/02/10 Conceptual Argument - Types of Functionalities (relating to the Core Purpose) Non- Low High Functioning Functioning Functioning Schools Schools Schools (NFS) (LFS) (HFS)Leadership Level 1Management Level 2Administration Level 3 9 10 Different mentalities1.  Definition of Teacher Quality;2.  Subject and/or learning area choices;3.  Time tabling;4.  Measuring productivity systems;5.  Quality Assurance systems;6.  Learner Expectation (success);7.  Data, Information, Knowledge, Intelligence Systems;8.  Multiple Opportunities; and9.  Time Utilisation; and10. Difference between Home-work and School-work. 10 5
    • 2012/02/10 1. Defining Teaching Quality•  Three related schools of thought - Good teaching is defined by (a) what the teacher brings into the classroom - that is, TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS, (b) what teachers do while they are in the classroom - TEACHING PRACTICES, and © what learners take out of the classroom - LEARNERS LEARNING GAINS;•  A. Focusing on TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS note that standards (e.g. obtaining a degree/diploma, passing a professional examination) are set to ensure a degree of quality. The logic here is that it is difficult to measure teaching quality directly, so indirect measures should be used;•  B. Others argue for a more direct measure of what teachers actually do. Those who focus on TEACHING PRACTICE argue for five common pedagogical principles, namely: 1. Building on learners prior knowledge; 2. Linking goals, assessment and instruction; 3. Teaching content and critical thinking; 4. Developing language skills; and 5. Creating a culture of learning;•  C. There are those who reject measuring inputs (teacher characteristics) or processes (teaching practices) and argue that only outcomes matter. In this case, defining teaching quality is about HIGH LEARNER PERFORMANCE. 11 2. Subject Choices Available No. Low-functioning School High-functioning School 1 Language 1st Language 1st 2 Language 2nd Language 2nd 3 Maths or Maths Lit Maths or Maths Lit 4 History or Science History 5 CAT or Accounting Science 6 Life Orientation CAT 7 Business Economics Accounting 8 Life Orientation 9 Business Economics12 6
    • 2012/02/10 3. Organising of Time table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mon 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 H I G H Tues 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 Wed 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 Thurs 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 L O W Fri 13 4. Measuring Teaching Quality i.r.t. different school functionalities Non-Functioning Low Functioning High Functioning Schools (NFS) Schools (LFS) Schools (HFS) Performance Management and Reward Systems Evaluation and Appraisal Systems Supervisory and Accountability systems 14The Judgement of Quality is dependent on the Quality of the Judgement. 7
    • 2012/02/10 5. Focus of the measuring tool .. Non-Functioning Low Functioning High Functioning Schools (NFS) Schools (LFS) Schools (HFS)Getting them Performanceto perform Management and optimally Reward SystemsGetting them Evaluation and to do Appraisalsomething SystemsextraGetting them Supervisory and to do their Accountabilityjob systems 15 5. Keeping their eye on achieving … Non-Functioning Low Functioning High Functioning Schools (NFS) Schools (LFS) Schools (HFS)Getting the PerformanceOUTCOMES Management andright Reward SystemsGetting the Evaluation andPROCESS Appraisalright SystemsGetting the Supervisory andINPUT right Accountability systems 16 8
    • 2012/02/10 6. In relation to Matric ResultsFigure 10: Three levels of school functionality in relation to the support needed by schools 100% 90% 80% Average (50%) in Matric Results 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% -10% -20% Non-Functioning Low-Functioning High-Functioning -20% – +20% 21% - 60% 61% - 100% 17 7. Data, Information, Knowledge, Intelligence SystemsData - what was (NFS);Information - what is (LFS);Knowledge - what could be (HFS);Intelligence - what should be (HFS). 18 9
    • 2012/02/10 7. SASAMS System 1. 2. 3. 4. Knowing Under- Teaching Another standing Teaching 7. 6. 5. Another Learning Support Learning 8. 9. 10. Assessment Support Evaluation 19 8. Multiple Opportunities Low-functioning SchoolQuarter 1 Test or Quarter 2 Test or Quarter 3 Test or Quarter 4 Test or Teach Exam Teach Exam Teach Exam Teach Exam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 High-functioning SchoolQuarter 1 Test or Fix Quarter 2 Test Fix Quarter 3 Pre- Fix Support Final Teach Exam gap of Teach or gap of Teach Test or gap of and Test or Q1 Exam Q2 Exam Q3 Support Exam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 20 10
    • 2012/02/10 9. Types of Teaching - Learning None or to Little time and support for LearningTeaching andLearning Teaching Learning Plenty of time and support for LearningTeaching forLearning Teaching and Learning All the time and support are for LearningTeaching as Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching LearningLearning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning 21 9. What do we know about our teachers and/or officials? Remembering Teaching (Information Sharing) Remembering Understanding Teaching Learning (Information Sharing) (Taking ownership of Information) 22 11
    • 2012/02/10 9. Time Utilisation Low-functioning School High-functioning School 20% Teaching 20% Teaching 20% Teaching 20% Learning 20% Teaching 20% Learning 20% Teaching 20% Learning 20% Learning 20% Learning 2310. Homework vis-à-vis Schoolwork vis-à- vis Busywork vis-à-vis Parent’s work •  Learning takes place throughout the day, whether ‘in school’ or ‘out of school’; •  They can be categorised as ‘different’ types of learning; •  Given different situations and circumstances, the one becomes more important than the other; •  We need all of them in our lives. 24 12
    • 2012/02/10 Activity •  Calculate the amount of learners who entered (Gr.1 or Gr.8) your school over the last five years (2005 - 2009); •  Calculate the amount of learners who successfully left your school at your highest exit grade (Gr.7 or Gr.12) during the last five years; - those who are all passing; - those who achieve a 60% and more. •  Based on the above-mentioned figures, calculate the Success-rate of your school. 25 Activity•  Make a list of all your teachers with the following information: - their age; - their qualifications (professional and academic); - their trained specialisation(s); - their teaching experiences in the different grades and subjects; - their % of success in these grades and subjects; - their current teaching load in % (grade and subject).•  Make a summary of your learners, stating the following; - different grades and subjects within these grades; - the % passes in these grades and subjects; - link the teachers in first list to the grades and subjects.•  Take 5 photos that represent the true image of your school. 26 13
    • 2012/02/10 Quote You can t dothings differently until you seethings differently. 27 Thoughts on Learning … 28 14
    • 2012/02/10 Your brain learn by … 29 How do you learn?Like this? Or like this? 30 15
    • 2012/02/10 What are we learning?Old view!The key skill was … 31 New view of learning … 32 16
    • 2012/02/10 But watch out … 33The key skills are … 34 17
    • 2012/02/10 And remember … 35 Learning Styles Activity•  You will be shown a screen with many different numbers in many different colours.•  You will have 30 seconds to look at the screen.•  When the time is up, you will be asked a few questions about what you saw. 36 18
    • 2012/02/10 14 67 0 42 00 27 72 11 50 61 81 16 37 Questions about the slide:1.  What number is in the top right corner?2.  What number is in the lower left corner?3.  What number is in the left center?4.  What number is in the bottom right corner?5.  What was the only white number?6.  What was the highest number on the screen?7.  What was the largest sized number that was shown in orange?8.  What were the two numbers that was shown in yellow?9.  What number was in the top center of the screen?10.  What was the only number shown in black? 38 19
    • 2012/02/10 What is a “learning style”?•  “The way that he or she concentrates on, processes, internalizes, and remembers new and difficult information or skills”. –  Dr. Rita Dunn, St. John’s University•  “Characteristic cognitive, affective, and physiological behaviors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment”. –  James W. Keefe 39 Learning Style - In Simple Terms •  Children learn through a combination of these elements: –  Physiological Conceptual Understanding –  Cognitive –  Affective 40 20
    • 2012/02/10 Affective Elements Conceptual Understanding •  Affective elements are the motivational forces within a learner typically viewed as stimulating and guiding behavior. – Conceptual Level – Psychological Types 41 Activity•  Go onto the internet - to;•  In the search block, type in learning styles questionnaire ;•  On the list, look for the following = Learning Styles Questionnaire (;•  Go into this website - You are now in the VARK website;•  On the left side, you will see Questionnaire (click on it);•  The VARK Questionnaire will appear - you now need to complete the questionnaire (answers all the questions as honestly as possible);•  At the bottom (when finished), press Ok ;•  Your score (learning style) will be analysed by the system;•  Make a printout of your results. 42 21
    • 2012/02/10 Quote You haveto know a lot to know how little you know. 43Cone of Learning 44 22
    • 2012/02/10 Teacher Absenteeism Figure 4: Proportion of schools reporting a teacher absenteeism problem, by school SES100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Source: SACMEQII, 2000 School SES quintile 45 Time in Class Teachers work an average 41 hours (out of 43)/week •  41% of this on teaching: 3.4h/day •  14% devoted to planning and preparation •  14% on assessment, evaluation, reports and record-keeping Chisholm et al, 2005 46 23
    • 2012/02/10 8 School Readiness Components Indicators of LFS SRC1. Low student performance 2. Learner information2. High rate of student absenteeism 1. Learner attendance3. High dropout rates of students 2. Learner information4. High level of disruption and violence 4. Annual planning5. Unclear academic standards 5. Implementable and flexible timetabling 6. Quarterly teaching schedule 7. Organogram 8. Learner support material6. High rate of staff turnover 3. Educator information7. High rate of staff absenteeism 1. Teacher attendance8. A negative school atmosphere 3. Educator information 47 The Numbers Game Scenarios A B C Constant Variable Knowledge 33.3% 25% 10% Skills 33.3% 25% 10% Disposition 33.4% 50% 80% Total 100% 100% 100% 48 24
    • 2012/02/10 Teacher Professional Path1.  First five to eight years (as teachers);2.  Second phase [nine to twelve years] as teacher;3.  First five to eight years (as senior teachers/mentor);4.  Second phase [nine to twelve years] as mentor;5.  First three to five years (as Head of Department);6.  First three to five years (as Deputy Principal);7.  First three to five years (as Principal);8.  Second phase [six to ten years] as Principal;9.  Third phase [eleven to twenty years +] as Principal;10.  Etc.BT1-4 T5-8 T9-12 HoD1-4 HoD5-8 HoD9-12 Pr1-4 Pr5-8 Pr9-12 Pr13 ST1-4 ST5-8 ST9-12 DP1-4 DP5-8 DP5-822-26 27-30 31-34 35-38 39-42 43-46 47-50 51-54 55-58 59-62 494yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs 4yrs Human Resources ManagementTotal cost of education in your school? Different Resource contributions100% 90% 30% 30% 80% 25% 70% 20% 60% 15% 10% 50% 5% 40% 0% 70% 65% 70% 30% 55% 60% 45% 50% 20% 40% 10% 0% Best 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 50 Human Cost Other resources 25
    • 2012/02/10 Why?, What?, How? Purpose and Function of Assessment Purpose Attainment Diagnostic/Prescriptive Why?1. To establish present levels of functioning. 1.  To determine ability/disability.2. To evaluate present knowledge of a subject. 2.  To determine potential.3. To assess progress (relative to peers or self). 3.  To indicate teaching programme.4. To build a profile of the whole person. 4.  To assess personality traits (aptitudes and5. To indicate future placement in class or employment. attitudes).6. To award qualification from a recognised body. What? Assessment Methods Formal Informal How? 1.  Continuous Assessment. 1.  Checklists. 2.  Examinations. 2.  Objective Tests. 3.  Standardised Tests. 3.  Observations. 4.  Self-Assessment. Profiles 51 The content of subsequent slides (16 - 59), excluding the Activities, was taken from Kyriacou C. (2001), Effective teaching in schools. Nelson Thornes. 52 26
    • 2012/02/10 The Effective Teaching FrameworkInput or Context Process variablesvariables Teacher Learner perceptions, perceptions,•  Teacher strategies and strategies andcharacteristics behaviour behaviour•  Learner Characteristics ofcharacteristics the learning task•  Class and activitiescharacteristics•  Subjectcharacteristics Outcome or Product variables•  School • Short and/or Long-term;characteristics • Knowledge, skills and behaviour educational•  Community outcomes e.g. change in attitudes of learnerscharacteristics towards school or subject; gains on attainment tests;•  Occasion increased level of self-concept; success in nationalcharacteristics examinations; greater learner autonomy; etc. 53 B. Models for Thinking about Effective Teaching 1.  A surface level of analysis; 2.  A psychological level of analysis; 3.  A pedagogical level of analysis 54 27
    • 2012/02/10 1. Surface level of analysis Maximising Active Learning LearnerTeaching Time (ALT) Learning and the Quality of Instruction (QI) 552. Psychological level of analysis Psychological concepts, principles and processes - LearnerTeaching e.g. attention, memory, Learning transfer, reinforcement, expectations, motivation, information processing, etc. 56 28
    • 2012/02/10 3. Pedagogical level of analysis Teacher Learner General perceptions, perceptions,Teaching teaching skills strategies strategies and and (e.g. being behaviour behaviour audible, Characteristics of managing the learning task learners and and activities activities) Presentation, -------------- content, Content structure, specific Learner monitoring, evaluation of teaching skills Learning lesson and (appropriately activities sound content and structure) 57Teaching Assessment Rating Scales (Kyriacou and McKelvey 1985)1.  Preparedness;2.  Pace and Flow;3.  Transition;4.  Cognitive Matching;5.  Clarity;6.  Business-like;7.  Withitness;8.  Encouragingness. (see additional page) 58 29
    • 2012/02/10 Activity•  Request your Heads of Department (HoDs) to use the eight dimensions of the Teaching Assessment Rating Scale , and to rate all the teachers in your school on a scale of 1 - 5 (where 1 is less desirable and 5 is more desirable);•  Submit a table of the results (see Example);•  Further, after discussing the results with your HoDs, record on an A4 page the main discussion and recommendations of the conversation.•  If you are unable to perform this task , please explain the reasons, and how you will go about remedying this situation. 59 Example Total divide by 8Name of Subject 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ave.TeacherT1 English 3 5 5 3 4 4 4 4 4T2 Maths 5T3 Science 5T4 Life Or. 3T5 Bus.Ec. 4T6 History 4Ave. 4 60 Total divide by number of Teachers 30
    • 2012/02/10 Teaching Competence Three main elements: •  Subject knowledge; •  Interest in and enthusiasm for the subject; and •  Ability to set up effective learning experiences. 61 Activity•  Like in previous activity, request your Heads of Department (HoDs) to use the three mail elements of Teaching Competence , and to rate all the teachers in your school on a scale of 1 - 5 (where 1 is less desirable and 5 is more desirable);•  Again, submit a table of the results (see Example);•  Also, after discussing the results with your HoDs, record the main discussion and recommendations of the conversation.•  If you are unable to perform this task , please explain the reasons, and how you will go about remedying this situation. 62 31
    • 2012/02/10 Example Total divide by 3Name of Subject Subject Interest in Set up Ave. Knowledge subject learningTeacher experienceT1 English 3 5 5 4T2 Maths 5T3 Science 5T4 Life Or. 3T5 Bus.Ec. 4T6 History 4Ave. 4 63 Total divide by number of Teachers Quote “Even if the student’s life away from school is bleak and miserable, she/he will work if what she/he finds in school is satisfying.” William Glasser 64 32
    • 2012/02/10 Logistics of Teaching and Learning 4.7 Previous Year Current Academic Year 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% School ReadinessHFS Assess- Components 30% Teaching 40% 90% Learning 50% ment 10% School Readiness Disrup-LFS Teaching Learning 50% Assessment Components tions 30% 20% 20% 30% 10% School Readiness Learn- DisruptionsNFS Learning for Teaching Components 30% 20% 30% ing 10% & Chaos 20% Assessment 20% 65 Time-on-Task Question •  Is your school Dysfunctional? •  Ten critical questions for every school leader 1.  Does every teacher teach everyday in every class for 196 school days in the year? [10] 2.  Do you as school leader regularly observe teachers teaching in their classrooms? [10] 3.  Do you spend at least 70% of your time in school on matters of teaching and learning? [10] 4.  Do you regularly visit parents of learners in their homes? [10] 5.  Is your school consistently clean, ordered and well-decorated in ways that convey positive sentiments about the learning environment? [10] 6.  Do more than 95% of learners pass the highest grade in the school every year for the past five years? [10] 7.  Do more than 98% of learners enrolled attend school everyday? [10] 8.  Does every learner have a textbook in every subject? [10] 9.  Does your school bring in at least R100,000 every year in external (private) funds e.g. the business community? [10] 10.  In the case of High Schools, do at least 80% of your learners go on to university/ university of technology? In the case of Primary Schools, do all your learners go on to high school? 66 Prof. Jonathan Jansen (Executive Leadership Programme 2008) 33
    • 2012/02/10 Functionality Score for your school 100 A Functional School 80 A Moderately Functional School 60 A Marginally functional School 40 A Seriously Dysfunctional School 20 A School? 67 School Readiness Components 8 Previous Year Current Academic Year 30% 20% 10% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% School Readiness 8 School Readiness ComponentsHFS Components Indicators of NFS SRC Component 30% 1.1 High rate of staff absenteeism 1. Teacher and Learner 1.2 High rate of learner absenteeism Attendance 2.1 High rate of staff turnover 2. Teacher Information 2.2 Negative school atmosphere School Readiness 3.1 Low learner performance 3. Learner InformationLFS Components 3.2 High dropout rates of learners 30% 4. High level of disruption and violence 4. Annual Planning 5. Unclear academic standards 5. Implementable and flexible timetable 6. Quarterly Teaching School Readiness schedulesNFS Components 7. Organogram 30% 68 8. Learner and Teacher support materials 34
    • 2012/02/10 Activity •  Provide evidence of examples from your school that represents the 8 School Readiness Components: - Teachers and Learners attendance register: - Teachers information; - Learners information; - Annual planning; - Timetable; - Quarterly Teaching Schedules; - Organogram; - Teachers and Learners Support Materials. 69 Level 1 - Facts•  The first level of learning deals with facts-details or data which result from direct observation and research.•  Facts make up the most basic level of learning.•  Taken on their own at this level, facts have no direct application.•  But without facts, you cannot move on to the other levels of learning. 70 35
    • 2012/02/10 Level 2 - Information•  The second level of learning deals with information-observational data in a usable form.•  The descriptions that information consists of tell who, what, when, where, and how many.•  With information, you can begin to make use of facts. 71 Level 3 - Know-how•  Know-how is the focus of the third level of learning.•  Know-how consists of a collection of descriptions in the form of instructions.•  Know-how is about having the instructions you need to make use of the information you have.•  With know-how, you derive knowledge from experience. 72 36
    • 2012/02/10 Level 4 - Comprehension•  The fourth level of learning deals with comprehension.•  Comprehension answers the question "Why?"•  At the comprehension level, learning is composed of explanations.•  When you understand why, you are better able to use the knowledge and know-how you already have. 73 Level 5 - Wisdom•  Wisdom is the focus of the fifth and final level of learning.•  Wisdom is the ability to evaluate, and it incorporates values.•  It is essential for development.•  Using know-how and comprehension without wisdom can result in actions that dont work for the overall mission of the learning process. 74 37
    • 2012/02/10Learning: From Past to Future 75 Question Which level of learning is facilitated in your school? 76 38
    • 2012/02/10 5 Levels of Learning Level Teaching Type of Days Teaching 1 35 Facts 2 70 Information 3 105 Know-How 4 140 Comprehension 5 175 Wisdom 77 Bloom s Level of learning and Thinking1.  Know - Define, match, repeat, memorise, label, outline, record, recognise, state, sort, list2.  Understand - Restate, show, illustrate, summarise, predict, locate, paraphrase, describe, explain3.  Apply - Demonstrate, solve, test, use, manipulate, organise4.  Analyse - Examine, debate/defend, compare/contrast, refute, relate, generalise, classify, research5.  Synthesise - Propose, design, construct, invent, formulate, plan, imagine6.  Evaluate - Judge, recommend, critique/criticise, justify, choose 78 39
    • 2012/02/10 QuoteIf you don t change, change will change you, or change will replace you. 79 Wheelchairs 80 40