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  • 1. Module 2: Managing Teaching and Learning Unit 1: Leading and Managing a School as a Learning Organisation Presenter: Dr Muavia Gallie (PhD) 28 February 2009
  • 2. Content
    • Introduction;
    • Preparing yourself as a curriculum leader;
    • The context for school leadership;
    • Distributed leadership for effective teaching and learning;
    • Establishing a learning culture;
    • Developing plans to manage and lead;
    • Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction
    • Teaching and learning is the core activity or focus of any school;
    • There is clearly a different between ‘teaching’ and ‘learning’;
    • There is a ‘client’, a ‘service provider’ and a ‘product/service’ in any transaction (where people are getting paid to render the product/service.
    • Service provider should render the product/service as required by the client.
    • “ The quality of your product/service is an Attitude.”
  • 4. Dysfunctionality vis-à-vis Under-performance Basics Gallie 2006
  • 5. External and internal difference
  • 6. Activity 1 (in class)
    • Mentors must identify themselves;
    • Mentors must identify a row they want to sit in (position yourself on the right hand corner);
    • Participants must join their mentor in the particular row;
    • Participants must arrange themselves (closest to the mentor), from ‘dysfunctional’ [-20%-20%], to ‘low functioning’ [21%-60%], to ‘high functioning’ [61%-100%] school they manage;
    • Primary schools must organise them based on the Matric results of their secondary schools (to which your are a feeder school).
  • 7. Activity 2 (in class)
    • Clearly define and explain the meaning of “Teaching” and “Learning”;
    • Define what the difference is between these two activities;
    • Define the ‘inter-connectedness’ of these terms; and
    • Define which one comes first, if any.
  • 8. Different Perspectives Understanding the situation well
  • 9. Origin of School Functionality Questionnaire Components Managing Change 10 Involve stakeholders in all processes [8 + 9] High levels of communicty and parental involvement [8 + 9] SGB and DoE 9 Fiscal capacity [3 + 4] Get internal and external support [8 + 9] Supportive learning environment [5] Links with parents and community 8 The context [6, 7, 8 + 9] Administrative capacity [3 + 4] Development standards and assessment plan [6] Evidence of success [10] Focused professional development [7] Professional work relationship 7 Leadership and management [3, 4 + 9] Ability and willingness to support change [3 + 4] Develop evaluation plan [5] Professional development [7] Frequent monitoring of teaching and learning [5] Decision making and Communication 6 Human resources [3 + 4] Tangible organisational support [6] Understanding processes and relationships [5, 6 + 7] Set up broad advisory board [8] Make contingencies compatible with classroom [10] Family-school-community partnerships [8] Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment aligned with standards [2] Structures, Roles and Responsibilities 5 Technical support [5] Broad capacity [5] Knowledge of reform [10] Develop governance structures [9] Create a discourse of possibility [10] Communication and support implementation [6] Standards of the heart [1] High levels of collaboration and Communication [6] Principal and SMT 4 Structures and procedures [5] Strong ownership [6] Levels of cooperation [7] Administrative support [3 + 4] Allocate resources to support educators [6 + 7] Teacher training [7] High Academic Standards [2] Effective school leadership [3 + 4] The Principal 3 Strategy [2] Inspiring vision [2] Political stability [5’ 6 + 7] Core values, principles and goals [1] Make structures more flexible [5] Clarity of innovation [2] Leadership [3 + 4] High standards and expectations [1] Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning 2 Identity [1] Clear purpose [1] Leadership [3 + 4] Mission and vision statement [2] Dynamic leadership [3 + 4] Teacher attitude [7] Vision [2] Clear and shared focus [2] School ethos 1 The Learning school Conditions elements Contextual elements Practical recommendations Successful stories Factors that support change in different schools Characteristics of successful schools What makes a school successful? Questionnaire
  • 10. Questionnaire on School Functionality (SFI)       1.   Is the school receptive to innovation and change? Responses J. Managing Change       1.   Are the staff and governing body enjoying a positive and harmonious relationship? Responses I. The Governing Body and Department of Education       1.   Are teachers working to build and maintain good relations with parents? Responses H. Links with Parents and the Community       1.   Is there a good team spirit? Responses G. Professional Working Relationships       1.   Are staff meetings used for the discussion of major policy issues? Responses F. Decision Making and Communication       1. Is there a clear organisational structure that is appropriate for meeting the school’s aims? Responses E. Structures, Roles and Responsibilities       1.   Are they working well together as a team through clearly defined roles and responsibilities known to staff? Responses D. The Principal and the Senior Management Team       1.   Does the principal provide strong leadership and a definite sense of direction through a clear vision based beliefs and values? Responses C. The Principal       1.   Do the principal and you, as staff member share a common vision about the school’s future development? Responses B. Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning       1.   Are attendance, discipline and vandalism by learners major problems in school? I don’t know No Yes Questions Responses A. School Ethos
  • 11. Summary of Analysis of Questionnaire responses           8% 88% 4% 4 2 2 21 1 1.10 Are teachers working in a stimulating, enjoyable and satisfying atmosphere? p 9% 74% 17% 17 3 2 17 4 1.9 Are learners and teachers feeling safe and secure at school? p 8% 25% 67% 67 2 2 6 16 1.8 Are teachers talking freely about professional matters? p 26% 39% 35% 35 3 6 9 8 1.7 Is there an open atmosphere for change in the school? p 17% 65% 17% 17 3 4 15 4 1.6 Are teachers holding high expectations of learner behaviour and achievements through displaying confidence in them? p 21% 38% 42% 42 2 5 9 10 1.5 Is there a continual striving for improvement and growth among teachers? p 13% 42% 46% 46 2 3 10 11 1.4 Is a questioning, critical attitude actively encouraged, and a complacency attitude actively discouraged among staff? n 8% 13% 79% 79 2 2 3 19 1.3 Is there a general concern through the teaching and learning process to provide quality education? p 67% 17% 17% 17 2 16 4 4 1.2 Are most of the parents proud that their children are attending this school? p 0% 4% 96% 4 2 0 1 23 1.1 Are attendance, discipline and vandalism by learners major problems in school? n Don't know No Yes % Diff. Don’t know No Yes Questions Y=p Pos A. School Ethos Y=n Percentage   Summary Responses Y = Preferred response (both Yes and No)  
  • 12. Entire summary
  • 13. Results 1 Results 2 Results 3 Results 4 Graph 9 - School Ethos 4 17 79 46 42 17 35 67 17 4 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 10 - Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning 8 13 38 25 38 54 52 13 13 21 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 11 - The Principal 21 17 42 39 38 63 30 42 42 50 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 12 - The Principal and SMT 25 63 43 25 38 42 46 33 33 29 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  • 14. Results 5 Results 6 Results 7 Results 8 Graph 13 - Structures, Roles and Responsibilities 33 39 39 35 26 26 38 67 25 8 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 14 - Decision Making and Communication 96 54 78 61 52 33 54 58 92 67 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 15 - Professional Working Relationships 38 29 67 42 46 70 35 54 42 17 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 16 - Links with Parents and Community 50 29 67 74 75 4 0 21 38 8 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  • 15. Results 9 Results 10 Graph 17 - The SGB and DoE 8 50 54 21 0 0 4 25 0 43 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Graph 18 - Managing Reform 54 17 33 21 4 21 13 14 21 17 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 35.7 Average   21.5 J. Managing Change 20.5 I. The Governing Body and Department of Education 36.6 H. Links with Parents and the Community 44.0 G. Professional Working Relationships 64.5 F. Decision Making and Communication 33.6 E. Structures, Roles and Responsibilities 37.7 D. The Principal and the Senior Management Team 38.4 C. The Principal 27.5 B. Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning 32.8 A. School Ethos Graph 19 - Level of school Functionality A 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 School Ethos Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning The Principal The Principal and SMT Structures, Roles and Responsibilities Decision making and Communication Professional Work Relationships Links with Parents and Community SGB and DoE Managing Change
  • 16. Level of School Functionality (SFI) Requests for use of the SFI - [email_address] Graph 20 - Level of School Functionality B 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 School Ethos Vision, Aims and Strategic Planning The Principal The Principal and SMT Structures, Roles and Responsibilities Decision Making and Communication Professional Work Relationships Links with Parents and Community SGB and DoE Managing Change
  • 17. Defining Dysfunctional schools
    • Schools who continue to function, but do not accomplish the purpose for which they were created;
    • Schools exist to help each child realise his or her fullest potential as a human being;
    • Schools become dysfunctional when they stop serving the needs of the individuals with them;
    • School can take on a life of their own where their main objective becomes self-preservation ;
    • One of the key indicators that a school has become dysfunctional is the ‘no talk rule’ . Those within the school are not permitted, and do not permit themselves, to speak (or even think) critically about the school
    • Critical thinking begins with the question “ why? ” Why are we doing this? Why are things arranged this way? Why do we do it this way and not that way? These kinds of questions are not allowed in a dysfunctional group;
    • The other indicator is the evolution of a priestly caste whose allegiance is more strongly tied to the school than it is to the learners the school is meant to serve - this means the teachers and administrators within the school
  • 18. Conceptual Argument - Types of Functionalities (relating to the Core Purpose) Level 3 Administration Level 2 Management Level 1 Leadership High Functioning Schools (HFS) Low Functioning Schools (LFS) Non-Functioning Schools (NFS)
  • 19. 10 Different mentalities
    • Definition of Teacher Quality;
    • Subject and/or learning area choices;
    • Time tabling;
    • Measuring productivity systems;
    • Quality Assurance systems;
    • Learner Expectation (success);
    • Data, Information, Knowledge, Intelligence Systems;
    • Multiple Opportunities; and
    • Time Utilisation; and
    • Difference between Home-work and School-work.
  • 20. 1. Defining Teaching Quality
    • Three related schools of thought - Good teaching is defined by (a) what the teacher brings into the classroom - that is, TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS, (b) what teachers do while they are in the classroom - TEACHING PRACTICES, and © what learners take out of the classroom - LEARNERS LEARNING GAINS;
    • A. Focusing on TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS note that standards (e.g. obtaining a degree/diploma, passing a professional examination) are set to ensure a degree of quality. The logic here is that it is difficult to measure teaching quality directly, so indirect measures should be used;
    • B. Others argue for a more direct measure of what teachers actually do. Those who focus on TEACHING PRACTICE argue for five common pedagogical principles, namely: 1. Building on learners’prior knowledge; 2. Linking goals, assessment and instruction; 3. Teaching content and critical thinking; 4. Developing language skills; and 5. Creating a culture of learning;
    • C. There are those who reject measuring “inputs” (teacher characteristics) or “processes” (teaching practices) and argue that only outcomes matter. In this case, defining teaching quality is about HIGH LEARNER PERFORMANCE.
  • 21. 2. Subject Choices Available Business Economics 9 Life Orientation 8 Accounting Business Economics 7 CAT Life Orientation 6 Science CAT or Accounting 5 History History or Science 4 Maths or Maths Lit Maths or Maths Lit 3 Language 2nd Language 2nd 2 Language 1st Language 1st 1 High-functioning School Low-functioning School No.
  • 22. 3. Organising of Time table Fri 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 W 2 O 1 L Thurs 7 7 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 Wed 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Tues 9 8 7 6 5 4 H 3 G 2 I 1 H Mon 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • 23. 4. Measuring Teaching Quality i.r.t. different school functionalities The Judgement of Quality is dependent on the Quality of the Judgement. Supervisory and Accountability systems Evaluation and Appraisal Systems Performance Management and Reward Systems High Functioning Schools (HFS) Low Functioning Schools (LFS) Non-Functioning Schools (NFS)
  • 24. 5. Focus of the measuring tool .. Supervisory and Accountability systems Getting them ‘to do their job’ Evaluation and Appraisal Systems Getting them ‘to do something extra’ Performance Management and Reward Systems Getting them to perform ‘optimally’ High Functioning Schools (HFS) Low Functioning Schools (LFS) Non-Functioning Schools (NFS)
  • 25. 5. Keeping their ‘eye’ on achieving … Supervisory and Accountability systems Getting the INPUT right Evaluation and Appraisal Systems Getting the PROCESS right Performance Management and Reward Systems Getting the OUTCOMES right High Functioning Schools (HFS) Low Functioning Schools (LFS) Non-Functioning Schools (NFS)
  • 26. 6. In relation to Matric Results Average (50%) in Matric Results
  • 27. 7. Data, Information, Knowledge, Intelligence Systems Data - what was (NFS); Information - what is (LFS); Knowledge - what could be (HFS); Intelligence - what should be (HFS).
  • 28. 7. SASAMS System 10. Evaluation 9. Support 8. Assessment 5. Support 6. Learning 7. Another Learning 4. Another Teaching 3. Teaching 2. Under-standing 1. Knowing
  • 29. 8. Multiple Opportunities Test or Exam Quarter 4 Teach Test or Exam Quarter 3 Teach Test or Exam Quarter 2 Teach Test or Exam Quarter 1 Teach Low-functioning School Test or Exam Support and Support Test or Exam Quarter 3 Teach Test or Exam Quarter 2 Teach Test or Exam Quarter 1 Teach High-functioning School
  • 30. 9. Time Utilisation 20% Learning 20% Learning 20% Learning 20% Teaching 20% Learning 20% Teaching 20% Learning 20% Teaching 20% Teaching 20% Teaching High-functioning School Low-functioning School
  • 31. 9. What do we know about our teachers and/or officials? Teaching (Information Sharing) Learning (Taking ownership of Information) Remembering Understanding Teaching (Information Sharing) Remembering
  • 32. 9. Types of Teaching - Learning Teaching Learning Teaching and Learning Teaching and Learning Teaching for Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching Learning Teaching as Learning None or to Little time and support for Learning Plenty of time and support for Learning All the time and support are for Learning
  • 33. 10. Homework vis-à-vis Schoolwork vis-à-vis Busywork vis-à-vis Parent’s work
    • Learning takes place throughout the day, whether ‘in school’ or ‘out of school’;
    • They can be categorised as ‘different’ types of learning;
    • Given different situations and circumstances, the one becomes more important than the other;
    • We need all of them in our lives.
  • 34. Conclusion - You Taught Me
    • You taught me the names of cities in the world, but;
    • I don’t know how to survive the streets in my own city;
    • You taught me the minerals that are in the earth, but;
    • I do not know what to do to prevent my world’s destruction;
    • You taught me how to speak and write in three languages, but;
    • I do no know how to say what I feel in my heart;
    • You taught me all about reproduction in rats, but;
    • I don’t know how to avoid pregnancy;
    • You taught me how to solve maths problems, but;
    • I still can’t solve my own problems;
    • Yes, you taught me many facts, and thank you, I am now quite clever, but;
    • Why is it that I feel I know nothing? Why do I feel I have to leave school to go and learn about coping with life?
  • 35. Essence of being a Teacher
  • 36. Homework Task 1.1
    • Calculate the amount of learners who entered (Gr.1 or Gr.8) your school over the last five years (2004 - 2008);
    • Calculate the amount of learners who successfully left your school at your highest exit grade (Gr.7 or Gr.12) during the last five years;
    • - those who are all passing;
    • - those who achieve a 60% and more.
    • Based on the above-mentioned figures, calculate the ‘Success-rate’ of your school.
  • 37. Success rate = 8,1%
    • Success-rate of the system = 8,1%
    • Of every 12 learners starting Grade One, only 1 learner attains what the system is promising them - data 2005!
  • 38. Homework Task 1.2
    • Bring along a list of all your teachers with the following information:
    • - their age;
    • - their qualifications (professional and academic);
    • - their trained specialisation(s);
    • - their teaching experiences in the different grades and subjects;
    • - their % of success in these grades and subjects;
    • - their current teaching load in % (grade and subject).
    • Bring along a summary of your learners, stating the following;
    • - different grades and subjects within these grades;
    • - the % passes in these grades and subjects;
    • - link the teachers in first list to the grades and subjects.
    • Bring along 5 photos that represent the ‘true’ image of your school.
  • 39. Quote of the Day!
    • You can’t do
    • things differently
    • until you see
    • things differently.
  • 40. Contact details:
    • E-mail: [email_address] ;
    • Fax: 0866720520
    • Cell: 0828229494 (only emergencies)
    • Powerpoint website: www.slideshare.net