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Task 4 handbook paty
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  • 1. PATRICIA MARTINEZTASK 4.2PREPARING A TRAINEE HANDBOOKAim: To design a training manual for a teacher training. Handbook for UT Teacher Training in UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLOGICA DEL SURESTE DE VERACRUZ.GENERAL INFORMATIONThe aims of the trainingThe requirementsWhich language the training is offered in and forRequirements of the traineeApplication form for trainees interestedA questionnaireCourse rulesSTRUCTURE AND TIMINGCONTENTSCERTIFICATEGeneral informationApplication form for certificationApplication form for lesson observationMANUALDossiers ExplanationInstructions for dossier ElaborationEVALUATIONTeaching dossiers checklistsClass Observation checklistEvaluation Procedure and Assessment criteriaTrainer Evaluation checklistMATERIALReading ListDossiers ExamplesMaterialsEXTRASResume
  • 2. GENERAL INFORMATIONThe aims of the trainingThis Trainee handbook (TH) is designed and produced by Patricia Martinez memberof the English Academy from Universidad Tecnologica del Sureste de Veracruz(UTSV), which has provided examinations in English for speakers since 2003.The teacher in training should know: concepts related to pronunciation training,listening comprehension, understanding different accents, learning spoken andwritten language, planning and preparing dossier in language awareness, languageand culture, language learning processes, language teaching, planning andevaluation and self-assessment and development.This handbook also will encourage teachers in their professional development byproviding steps in a developmental framework of awards for teachers of English.
  • 3. The requirementsThe trainee handbook is suitable for: - Teachers in training who teach level 1 in the Universidad Tecnologica del Sureste de Veracruz - Classroom assistants who work with level 1 in the UTSV - Candidates taking this certification will normally have some experience of teaching English to speakers of other language. - Teachers need at least an intermediate level of English level B1 of the Council of Europe‟s Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), e. g. TKT band score of 2. - English as an additional language teacher who work with non-native speaker learners in mainstream classes.Which language the training is offered in and forThis trainee handbook is offered only in English language for helping teachers intraining to develop their own teaching dossiers. The TH includes the language usedas English teachers and their activities. It guides to understand and design a dossierfor the 6 areas, for any topic and level 1-9 that they choose to work on.Requirements of the traineeLanguage awareness 3/89
  • 4. All the candidates taking this training will normally have experience in teachingEnglish to speakers of other language. They may also be taken: - Candidates studying for teaching qualifications who may have non-native learners in their classrooms. - Teachers need at least an intermediate level of English. Level B1 of the Council of Europe‟s Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) - Candidates taking this training are expected to be familiar with the language of teaching a represented in the glossary from level 1 as well as the terminology related to the description of language, subject vocabulary and concepts for this training. - Successful candidates are likely to have experience of teaching school subjects through the medium of English. - Candidates should be certificated in a teaching Knowledge Test with minimum band 3. - All trainees must receive at least major or bachelor necessary for our college admission. - All trainees must update their application form for trainees interested. - We are required to send a quarter progress report on the training. - All trainees must answer the questionnaire for getting integrated in their profile. - Trainees‟ updated CVs every year - All trainees are required to be involved in conducting or teaching research and policy. All trainees are required to present work in progress about their dossiers. - Trainees will receive formal and informal instructions in the responsible conduct of research, including language and teaching integrity and ethical principles of teaching.Language awareness 4/89
  • 5. Application form for trainees interested Personal Information Saludation First Name Last nameEmail( ) ( )Phone Mobile phone / /Birth day Birth month Birth yearCitizenship F M GenderMarital StatusCityCountryZip / Postal code Education and ExperienceTitle of BachelorYears of experience Years as a teacher Certification Band /Score SignatureLanguage awareness 5/89
  • 6. A questionnaireNAME:____________________________________________________________Instructions: Choose the best answer1. When you are teaching do you use the appropriate terminology to your students?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it2. Do you understand the principles of language learning and teaching?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it3. Do you select the appropriate teaching points from teaching materials to suitsdifferent levels?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it4. Do you provide your students with clear and effective explanations in a way that is helpful to them?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it5. Do you use grammar books, platforms or websites effectively to provide your students with clear answers?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it6. Do you provide to my students styles and strategies for learning?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it7. Do you give your students feedback on their language competence in a way that isappropriate and helpful?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it8. Do you encourage and motivate your students to improve?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it9. Do you define the aims of my lesson and understand how to achieve them?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it10. Do you use a variety of exercise types?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in it11. Do you use various media forms appropriately as moodle, whiteboard, smartboard, etc?a) Yes b) Sometimes c) No d) I need to improve in itLanguage awareness 6/89
  • 7. Course rulesThis training handbook includes all the rules to do these certifications possible. - All trainees must update their application form for trainees interested before starting the training. - Trainees‟ updated CVs with their application form - We are required to send a quarter progress report on the training, depending the English level that they‟re teaching. - All trainees must answer the questionnaire for getting integrated in their profile. - All trainees are required to be involved in conducting or teaching research and policy. All trainees are required to present work in progress about their dossiers. - Trainees will receive formal and informal instructions in the responsible conduct of research, including language and teaching integrity and ethical principles of teaching. - This course should be read it completely before planning and doing the dossier. - The questionnaire should be answered by all candidates without any exception.Language awareness 7/89
  • 8. STRUCTURE AND TIMINGFace to faceThe face to face program provides you an opportunity to sit in on University ofTechnological of south-east from Veracruz class to explore experiential learning in asmall class setting. This trainee handbook can be development in different structuresor way to teaching.The training will include “train the trainer” programmes. This course also comes witha set of a manual where it describes and explains how to do the dossier in sixdifferent areas and it will explain the topic of the dossier as Language Awareness,Language and Culture, Language Learning Processes, Language Teaching,Planning and Evaluation, Self-Assessment and Development.Members of the English academy will explain to the trainees what the aims of eachlesson are, it will give an example of the description of a class, and it also will explainwhat the correct procedure to do the dossier and the conclusion of the lesson are. Itis also important for trainees to know all attachments or resources that they coulduse for develop their classes.All the material or resources to support are showed face to face by the EnglishAcademy will also be made available. The ultimate objective should be to createincreased the best methodology and strategies for teaching, so that all trainees canutilise the information for improvement of their quality of teaching, and to createscope for teaching skills development.All nine members of the English academy will be instructors who will teach in the faceto face format. We should not forget all benefits of face to face training which arethough face to face communication, additional information is available such as thededucting through body language, tone, volume and modulations of voice.Sometimes technology often does not facilitate the right type of information beingshared or exchanged. This means that learning potential can be limited. However,the trainees are not entirely passive in this relationship or tutorial, as they give theinstructor valuable information about how they are progressing, areas in which theyare doing well and those that would benefit from further input. Face to face alsodelivery allows trainees to share their personal experiences, thoughts and challengesin relation to the content. This can be a rich source of learning and one that manytrainees miss when undertaking distance education.The timing for this program using face to face training will be twice a week, threehours per day, counting 60 hours in totalLanguage awareness 8/89
  • 9. Blended courseThe benefits of face to face courses are well documented elsewhere on thishandbook. Onsite courses have the face to face contact which online courses lack,and online courses do not include any practice teaching, and for this reason are lessrecommended for absolute beginner teachersThere are many factors which may lead a trainee to go for online training, however,factors which include convenience, cost, access, location, learning styles andpreferences.Online courses do enable you to gain a useful insight into this handbook, and wherethere is a lower minimum requirement for the qualifications of teachers, thesecourses can serve as a passport into teaching. Online courses give a foundationwhich is ideal for helping to orientate potential teachers who may be going off on ashort term teaching mission, where teaching English is not being seen as a long-termcareer, nor to provide a sustainable source of income, where teaching might takeplace on a casual or volunteer basis.This kind of course will take more time because it will required more practice for faceto face and online practices. It should count 60 hours in total.Online courseWith our busy lives, conventional employee training can become a repetitive, time-consuming task for all involved. In-person classroom training requires that everyoneinvolved get together at the same time/place, and the teacher must be paid forhis/her time, even though the same material is presented again and again.Conventional training involves print materials, travel expenses, and many other cost-producing aspects.Flexibility: Online training works great with tight schedules. Since many people areliving busy lives, these Web-based applications can be reached from home or anyother Internet-accessible computer anytime! No more scheduled training sessions towork around. Trainees can train at their own pace, and work around their schedules,thereby minimizing loss of productivity.Relevance: All content-managed courses stay up-to-date, ensuring that the mostaccurate, relevant information reaches trainees.Affordable: Companies with a large volume of high-turnover positions wherecontinuous training is necessary can save thousands with online training programs.They eliminate classroom related costs and materials expenses. Now trainers candevelop the course content, present it once and go on to the next project. Trainersonly need to revisit the course if the content needs to be modified.Retention: Since trainees are learning at their own pace, the learning retention rate isoften higher than in a classroom setting. They can still have opportunities to email orcall the teacher to ask questions, although many online courses now offer anLanguage awareness 9/89
  • 10. updatable FAQ section where they can look first for answers to the most commonlyasked questions, which reduces repetitive questions.Reporting: Most applications, like Osmosis, are customizable. The reporting tools arealso customized to suit the company. During the analysis phase of the project,specialists determine what components are most important and develop easy waysto gather the exact data needed for grading.This kind of course will take more time because it will required more practice for faceto face and online practices. It should count 60 hours in total.Weekend courseThe way for this training will be only apply on weekends, it gives to teachers all theinformation that they need to know but on weekends so they will be able to developtheir work and put in practices their experimental work in the week with theirstudents.Compact courseIn this course, we use the summary of all the methodologies and strategies forteaching, it also focus in the meaning of the main concepts and includes a lot ofexamples about to how make the dossiers. Talking about compact course isspending the same hours for having this course but the insensitive for learning andpractice increase, it means that teachers will have to spend more time practicing anddoing research that reading or assist face to face to a course. It will be more practicalthan theoretical.Language awareness 10/89
  • 11. CONTENTSThis handbook helps the teachers in training to develop their own teaching dossier. Itis really practical for trainees; it will help in order to design teacher‟s teachingdossiers. This manual contents general information such as the aims of the training,the requirements of the trainee, the application form for trainees interested, thequestioner and all the course rules.It also specifies all strategies, structure and timing that we are using for this training.Some strategies are face to face, blended course, online course, weekend course,compact course.This trainee handbook will develop the language awareness, language and culture,Language Learning Processes, Language Teaching, Planning and Evaluation andSelf-Assessment and Development in all the trainees teachers in order to guide tomeet, understand and design six dossiers for different areas, for any topic and levelthey choose to work on.The six main areas of the training are:1. Language awareness, where trainees will improve their pronunciation training, learning vocabulary, listening comprehension, understanding different accents, learning spoken and written languages. Trainees will be able to describe the language I am teaching and use the appropriate terminology, to understand the principles of language learning and teaching, to select the appropriate teaching points from teaching materials to suit different levels, to provide my students with clear and effective explanations in a way that is helpful to them, to select and apply the appropriate methodological tools to highlight differences in language systems, to use reference materials (i.e. grammar books) effectively to provide my students with clear answers with regards to language-related questions at the end of the course.2. Language and culture, the purpose in this area is awareness of socio-cultural and intercultural aspects of language use and language learning, dealing sensitively with difficult classroom situations relating to intercultural differences, understanding different backgrounds (therefore different study methods) of students, cross- cultural communication and application of this knowledge to the teaching situation. Trainees will be able to take into account and incorporate into my teaching the educational experiences my students have had previously, to provide for individual learner styles and strategies in my teaching, to design my lessons with my students needs and interests in mind in order to make it interesting, lively and motivating, to give my students feedback on their language competence in a way that is appropriate and helpful (i.e. error correction) taking into account the stage of language development they are at, to encourage and motivate my students to improve at the end of the course.Language awareness 11/89
  • 12. 3. Language learning processes, in this area the trainees will be able to take into account and incorporate into my teaching the educational experiences my students have had previously, to provide for individual learner styles and strategies in my teaching, to design my lessons with my students needs and interests in mind in order to make it interesting, lively and motivating, to give my students feedback on their language competence in a way that is appropriate and helpful (i.e. error correction) taking into account the stage of language development they are as well as the stage aim we are trying to achieve in a particular stage of a lesson, to encourage and motivate my students to improve, being aware of different types of motivation and capable to relate those to my students at the end of the course.4. Language teaching, trainees will be able to define the aims of my lesson and understand how to achieve them by the end of the lesson as well as make my students aware of what my aims are, to be confident in selecting, adapting and designing materials to suits those aims, to use a variety of exercise types, to use various media forms appropriately (Module, whiteboard, Smart board...), to evaluate learning tasks and activities, to incorporate learning tasks and activities which encourage and facilitate learner autonomy and take into account learners learning styles and cultural expectations, to give clear instructions and make sure they are understood, to manage a class effectively in a wide variety of contexts taking into consideration the learners needs and levels of language competence as well as mixed abilities and clarify the meaning of new vocabulary through the use of different means and I am able to check that the students have understood at the end of the course.5. Planning and evaluation, in this area trainees will be able to state the general aims of a course with reference to the CEFR (European Framework), to define the aims of my lesson so that they fit within the context of the whole course, to plan lessons and teaching programs and include appropriate tasks to suit the learning outcomes, to use various ways of conducting a course evaluation, to do a needs analysis and assess my students language competence according to the CEFR, to inform my students on language examinations available to them and advice them on the appropriate options for them, to help my students to plan further learning to suit their needs and use a variety of inductive and deductive approaches to present a grammar structure and select an effective approach taking into account the grammar point in question and the group Im teaching at the end of the course. At the last area but not the least6. Self-assessment and development, in this area trainees will be able to reflect and draw conclusions from observations and self-observation in order to gain a better understanding of the teaching situation and validate, bring changes to and improve my own teaching, to receive and make use of feedback on my teaching performance, to give constructive feedback to colleagues , to incorporate the systematic sharing of ideas with colleagues to promote best practice, to access the relevant support systems that will enable me to develop further and find solutions to my teaching problems and to put forward ideas on how to ensure continuous professional development at the end of the course.Language awareness 12/89
  • 13. CERTIFICATEGeneral InformationGetting a certification as English trainee teachers will improve the trainee teaching-learning strategies in English as second language. It gives the teacher the abilitiesand understanding to increase the cognitive process in the way that they teach, italso helps all the communications strategies to develop the interculturalunderstanding.The global necessity to learn another language, specially English, as teacher, weshould motivate our student the importance of this language at present and gettingthis certification will help teachers to do that kind of motivation.This certification will provide to teachers to develop their own teaching strategies ormethodologies for teaching. Getting this certification, teachers will improve how tocorrect mistakes from their students in class, it is really important to teachers usesocial forms and identify how adults learn a language.The documents require to obtaining the certificate are: - A bachelor degree - Teaching Knowledge Test certification (three modules with at least band 3 in each one) - Elaborate and develop six dossiers in areas as Language Awareness, Language and Culture, Language Learning Processes, Language Teaching, Planning and Evaluation and Self-Assessment and Development. - Have at least 1 year of experience in teaching - Trainee teachers should be attendance to all hours of this courseThe candidates receive a certificate for Trainee Teachers. Candidates‟ performanceis reported to the European Competence Systems Certificate and evaluated it by thisimportant and international organization. This one will be who decided is thecertification has been successful and it will let the teachers know about it.Language awareness 13/89
  • 14. Application form for certificationFill of the boxes with your information, all required fields must be completed or yourform will be returned.LAST NAME (as photo ID)FIRST NAME (as photo ID)ADDRESS. LINE 1ADDRESS. LINE 2CITYCOUNTRY ZIP CODEPHONE NUMBER GENDER MAL FEMALE EDATE OF BIRTH NATIVE LANGUAGEMONT DA YEARH YLanguage awareness 14/89
  • 15. Application form for lesson observationDate / Time: Duration:Teacher: Level. & Subject: No. in Class:Support Staff: Observer:Context:Where the teaching was effective, it was Where the teaching was not so effective itbecause: was because:Where the learning was effective, it was Where the learning was not so effective itbecause: was because: Agreed areas for developmentLanguage awareness 15/89
  • 16. MANUALDossiers ExplanationThe first area is Language Awareness. Here the trainee is going to be able todescribe the language taught in class, and making reference about appropriateterminology. The apprentice is going to learn how to select the appropriate teachingpoints from materials, in order to share the principles of language learning; alsohe/she is going to learn how to provide effective explanations to the learners throughthe use of appropriate methodological tools. By doing this, is necessary to make useof reference materials which are going to provide clear information related to thelanguage.Instructions for dossier ElaborationCover.- Your dossier must contain a cover where you specify the area that you aregoing to work with. Provide the title, the date, and the name of the person that iselaborating the dossier.Description of the area.- Here you have to explain the characteristics of the area thatyou are developing, providing just a brief explanation about the area in no more thana full page.Description of the class and course.- here you have to explain the participants of theclass. You have to include number of students that are in the class, the level of thelearners, their age; the characteristics of the course like the goals of the session, thetopic, and the order which is going to be performed.Topic.- You have to provide the main topic that you are using to elaborate yourdossier.Aims of the lesson.- provide the objectives that learners have to achieve at the end ofthe lesson according to the topic.Personal aims.- provide the personal objectives that you want to achieve at the endof the lesson.Procedure.- In this section you have to describe all the activities of the class. Thisdescription has to be very detailed. It must be described in order, and explainingwhat should the learners do and the dynamic issues. It is important to add thematerials that students need in every activity. It must cover the whole class, from theintroduction to the conclusion.Conclusion.- here you have to write a general conclusion about the way youdeveloped the dossier. You have to provide your thoughts about the aims youcompleted, and if it is necessary changing anything.Language awareness 16/89
  • 17. Self evaluation.- in this section you have to elaborate a personal evaluation aboutyour performance and if you found any problem during the dossier creation. Youhave to include what you have learnt, and what do you think you could improve forfuture activities.Lesson plan.- here you have to include the lesson plan that you elaborated for thedossier. You have to consider all the activities of the class, the material that you aregoing to use, the time for each activity, and how is going to be the interaction peractivity.Attachments.- in this section you have to include all the extra materials that you aregoing to use for the class; they could be worksheets, flashcards, pictures, etc.Dossier FormatCover.- “ENGLISH LEVEL” Objectives of the lesson Topic Theme: “NAME OF THE AREA” DateBody.-You have to consider this format: Font: Arial 12 Line space: 1.5 Include a content table.Note: The information of each section of the dossier, does not have to pass 15 lines,only the procedure section must be no less than a full pageEVALUATIONLanguage awareness 17/89
  • 18. Teaching dossiers checklists Teaching Dossier Area: Language AwarenessNecessary point to cover Covered? Observation/comment yes noThe teacher is completely familiarwith the basic tools for languageanalysis.The teacher is able to make generalcomparisons between the sourcelanguage of the learners and thetarget language.The teacher can deploy thisknowledge in his/her teaching, usingit in particular for the planning oflanguage lessons and languagecourses.The teacher is able to check his/herknowledge of the language systemand to further develop it, usingrelevant reference sources.Uses correct and appropriateterminology to describe language.Formulates learning objectivesclearly and comprehensibly forlanguage lessons and parts oflanguage lessonsAnalyses language and helplearners to understand languagestructuresPerceives and understand difficultiesrelated to the structures of the targetlanguage which learners encounterand to provide appropriate didacticaland methodological measures todeal with such problemsLanguage awareness 18/89
  • 19. Provides grammatical explanationswhich are readily comprehensibleand accessible to his/her learners Teaching Dossier Area: Language and CultureNecessary point to Covered? Observation/commentcover yes noThe teacher is aware of socio-cultural and intercultural aspects inlanguage use and languageproduction.The trainer is able to sensitivelearners to cultural differences.Shows empathy with/sensitivity tothe cultural background(s) of thelearnersPromotes sensitivity towardscultural differences whilst avoidingcultural stereotypes in his/herlearners.Integrates socio-cultural andintercultural topics into thelanguage lessons.Language awareness 19/89
  • 20. Teaching Dossier Area: Planning and EvaluationNecessary point to Covered? Observation/commentcover Yes noIs the teacher able to plan andevaluate language lessons withinthe context of a givencurriculum/course of studies?Understands the institutionalcontext of his/her teachingactivities and is familiar with theoverall training programmesoffered within his/her institution.Understands the levels ofcompetence defined in theEuropean Framework ofReference, is familiar with themain language examinationsoffered in the target language andis able to prepare learners to takesuch examinations.States general aims andobjectives for a course or a seriesof lessonsDefines aims and objectives for alesson and integrate them in thecontext of a coursePlans lessons, selectingappropriate learning tasks andactivities to suit the aims andobjectives of the lessonLanguage awareness 20/89
  • 21. Language awareness 21/89
  • 22. Teaching Dossier Area: Language AcquisitionNecessary point to Covered? Observation/commentcover yes noThe teacher is aware of the mostimportant concepts related tocurrent theories of languageacquisition, can recognisedevelopment patterns in the targetlanguage, and is able to integratethese into the planning oflanguage lessons, thus structuringand supporting the languagelearning process.Integrates learners previouslearning experience in his/herlanguage lessonsPresents learning materials in alively and relevant mannerTakes into consideration theneeds and interests of the learnersRecognises the level of languagecompetence of the learnersAnticipates possible languageproblems and show evidence ofenvisaged solutions in his/herplanningLanguage awareness 22/89
  • 23. Language awareness 23/89
  • 24. Teaching Dossier Area: Global EvaluationNecessary point to Covered? Observation/commentcover yes noCombines theoretical knowledgewith practical language teachingAcquires basic methodological-didactic competence and skillsand know when and how to applythemUnderstands the different aspectsand problems related to modernlanguage teachingReflects and analyse ownteaching, based on practicalexamples, and draw conclusionsfor own further development.Tries out and evaluate new andalternative solutions.Learns from others.Works together with others.Language awareness 24/89
  • 25. Language awareness 25/89
  • 26. Class Observation checklistName of trainee Observer_____________________ ___________________________Class observed Date_____________________ ______________________________ Mark with an X in the appropriate space: 1: Excellent, 2: Good, 3: acceptable 4: Could improve, 5: Not observed Teaching Dossier Area: Global EvaluationNecessary point to cover Result Observation/ 1 2 3 4 5 CommentBefore the lesson takes part: The planning of the lesson The choice of material, activities and tasks Reflection on potential problems Well designed materialsDuring the lesson: Review of previous topic Invites to class discussion Solicits students input Demonstrates awareness of individual needs of students aims of the lesson (clear and transparent) correction (how) language of instruction Context appropriate?Language awareness 26/89
  • 27. classroom management social forms atmosphere Confidence provider Content organized Relates concept to students needs and experienceAfter the lesson: topics to be discussed Commitments Proper and clear feedback Personal feedback (if needed)Language awareness 27/89
  • 28. Evaluation Procedure and Assessment criteriaThe evaluation criteria for the trainee are going to be according to the way whichevaluation is held in the institution. The evaluations‟ university is divided in two parts,70% practice and 30% theoretical knowledge. Based on this, the observation mustbe considered by following the practical part. It is important that the trainee providespractical activities, more than grammar explanation. Also, the institution is focused oncommunicative approach; for this reason, the interaction must be by speakingpractices.The evaluation criteria would be obtained by taking into account the next activities:Class preparation, class development, and class ending. The first part must containthe way which the trainee is getting ready for the class, including material, resources,and how there is an anticipation to possible problems.During the class development, it is considered the interaction between the traineeand the students. It is necessary to catch student‟s attention by providing interestinginformation for them. One of the most important points to consider in this part isclarifying doubts and questions properly, as well as providing clear explanationsabout grammar structures and communication patterns.Finally, the class ending must cover a feedback about the topic. It is important thatduring this section of the class, students clarify all the doubts. It is needed a generalreview of the session as well.In order to achieve a satisfactory evaluation of 70% of practice, and 30% theoreticalknowledge, the teacher has to achieve those three sections in every session. For thatreason, the trainee has to comprehend and put into practice all those requirements.The evaluation will be divided in the next form:Class preparation.- 30%Class development.- 45%Class ending.- 25%Language awareness 28/89
  • 29. Trainer Evaluation checklistName of trainer Date_____________________ ______________________________Class observed______________________ Mark with an X in the appropriate space: 1: Excellent, 2: Good, 3: acceptable 4: Could improve, 5: Not observed Trainer EvaluationPoint to cover Result Observation/ 1 2 3 4 5 Comment 1. The training met my expectations. 2. I will be able to apply the knowledge learned. 3. The training objectives for each topic were identified and followed. 4. The content was organized and easy to follow. 5. The materials distributed were pertinent and useful. 6. The trainer was knowledgeable. 7. The quality of instruction was good. 8. The trainer met the training objectives.Language awareness 29/89
  • 30. 9. Class participation and interaction were encouraged. 10. Adequate time was provided for questions and discussion. 11.- The trainer showed patience during the training 12.- The trainer showed fairness and objectivity in evaluationsLanguage awareness 30/89
  • 31. Dossier for language teaching training. CONTENTSTask 1: LANGUAGE AWARENESS – Topic: What do you do? – Two syllable nouns pronunciation.Task 2: LANGUAGE AND CULTURE - Topic: DowntownTask 3: LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESSES - Topic: Talking about family (speaking activities)Task 5: LANGUAGE TEACHING - Topic: Here, there and everywhereTask 4: PLANNING AND EVALUATION - Topic: Different strokesTask 6: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT – Topic: Day in, day out (difficult classroom situations)Language awareness 31/89
  • 32. UTSV Task 1: LANGUAGE AWARENESS To learn information questions with Who and articles a and an. Who is a doctor? Who is an engineer? Theme: WHAT DO YOU DO?
  • 33. JANUARY 2013UTTable of Contents: - Description of the area - Description of class and course - Topic - Aims of the lesson - Correction - Procedure - Conclusions - Self evaluation - Lesson plan - Attachments 33/89
  • 34. 3. Description of the area This area includes to Analysis of phonology, grammatical and lexical structures and use of related basic terminology, to link between linguistic competence and communicative competence, to target language description and appropriate terminology, language description being understood as a system of abstract elements, constructions, and rules, to awareness of language systems differences to application of this awareness to teaching and learning experience (i.e. analysis of learning materials) 2. Description of class and course This course is level 1 course. There are twenty students between the ages of 18 and 21, 15 male and 5 female. Three of the ladies like to talk and express their feelings in English. The other two ladies join the class but they admit that they do not like English language because the pronunciation is difficult for them. Ten male students join the English class they say they like English but it is not their favorite subject. The other eight male students say they do not like the grammar. The group meets on Monday mornings from 12 to 1:40 p.m. The course book is OpenMind 1. The reasons for joining the course were to accredit their English class but also communicate with friends abroad, for being able to have a normal conversation about general information, their abilities, professions, their likes and dislikes, routines in present.3. Topic – What do you do?4. Aims of the lesson b) To revise and practice articles a and an. c) To revise and practice possessive nouns „s and s‟ d) To expand vocabulary related to family members and occupations. e) To read and talk about jobs, celebrities, family members and ideal careers. f) To revise adjectives for describing jobs and adjectives for describing employees. g) To revise two-syllable nouns. 34/89
  • 35. 5. Personal aims h) To provide an interesting, entertaining lesson for the students to enjoy. i) To explain the uses of the articles in a simple way that students understand. j) To motivate students to experiment with the language. k) To promote learner autonomy. l) To motivate students to experiment with their skills. m) To show students the importance of knowing how to express themselves using general information. 35/89
  • 36. 6. ProcedureThe topic of the new chapter (Unit 2/p.17) was WHAT DO YOU DO? In this lessonwe looked students asking about other people‟s occupation, describing people‟scareers, talking about jobs and talking about family members. A good part of thislesson directly follows the lesson layout of the Teacher‟s Guide which is verypractical and has a variety of different pieces of advice that help improve teaching.During our UT‟s term, we have been able to discuss and use many of thesestrategies and examples, which have made our experience as teachers richer andmore useful.For the first exercise, the Icebreaker, I had 3 pictures of famous people (JohnTravolta, Woody Allen and Beyonce). I wrote the celebrities‟ name on the boardworksheets, I asked the students to identify the three famous people in the pictures.The students worked individually to match the people to their main occupations. Aftersome minutes the students compared their answers in pairs, then they checked theanswers with the class. After that I gave them pictures that I had cut from magazines.The pictures were of people with different professions, e.g., baseball player, doctor,teacher, police officer, etc. I wrote the corresponding occupations on pieces of paperand had the students play with the pictures as a team memory game. I place thepictures and the occupations face down on a table and asked teams to come up andtake turns trying to find matching pairs. The team that found the most matching pairswon.We now opened the books (p.18) and individually the students looked at the 10pictures of different professions. I had students work individually to match theoccupations with the correct picture. When they finished they checked their answers,first in pair, and then with the class. The next exercise was to give their opinions onthe most (and least) interesting jobs. After doing that, I asked them to compare theprofessions using numbers and ranking the pictures from 1 to 10 (in this case from 1for very dangerous to 10 for not dangerous). The second step of this exercise wasmaking students to number again the pictures but this time the ranking was foroccupations they thought were very interesting (1) and which they thought were notinteresting at all (10). I encouraged the students to give reasons why they thoughtthe jobs were interesting or not interesting, e.g., a taxi driver meets a lot of people.It was interesting listening to their opinions and to notice that they are able to expressthemselves in simple sentences. But also it was a good tool to see who the weakeror shy students were. It was nice to observe them talking about their ideas, and as itwas expected the stronger students made more comments than the others and theyparticipated more often with different ideas.We continued with a pronunciation exercise. It is important that students know thecorrect pronunciation for the professions because they have to use articles at thesame time. If they are not aware of the correct pronunciation the make the mostcommon mistakes we all make when learning a second language. 36/89
  • 37. I wrote on the board the words teacher and doctor. I asked the students how manysyllables each word had. Then I had students to repeat the words chorally. After thatI asked students to go to page 19 and look at the words. I played the recording once(CD 1 Track 8) and had students just listen with their books closed. Then I hadstudents open their books and draw their attention to the underlined (stressed)syllables. Then I played the recording again and asked the students to repeat thewords with the correct stress. I emphasized that the stress is on the first syllable.Some students found the pronunciation of “lawyer” challenging. I asked them torepeat the word several times until they could say it comfortably.As a consolidation exercise the students looked at the Watch out! Box. I emphasizedthat with occupations, we always use a or an in English. I reminded the students thatwhen they see a noun in plural form, it will never have the indefinite article a/an.After that they did the exercise about writing the indefinite article when necessary insome sentences. To wrap up I had students repeat the correct sentences, firstchorally and then individually, focusing on the stress of the two-syllable nouns.Finally, I showed the students the pictures of the famous people again. I askedindividual students what does he/she do? And elicited answers, he’s a/an…; she’sa/an… After that I wrote on the board, what_____ _____ do? And I pointed to thepicture again, I had students tell me the missing words in the question (does, she). Ielicited the answer; she’s a singer, from the class. I had the students to ask andanswer the questions about the remaining pictures in pairs. When they finished wechecked the answers with the class. For homework they had page 10 from theworkbook, section 2.7. ConclusionsI think this lesson contained a variety of exercises for checking the correctpronunciation of the two-syllable nouns, also the students had the opportunity to askand answer question in simple present about different occupations. Giving them theopportunity to personalize the subject and talk about something “real” and interestingfor them. The activities motivated the students to expand the discussions, as well aspromoting group adhesion. Using visual aids is also very popular in this group. Ithelps them remember and produce vocabulary, without inhibiting their own input.8. Self EvaluationI tried to make this lesson interesting and fun, providing pictures of people thestudents admire which would appeal to all learner types and promote learner 37/89
  • 38. autonomy. I attempted to encourage the students to participate and it was not difficultbecause everybody loves famous people. I motivated the students to use thegrammatical structure as a communicative tool to help them complete the task.However, errors continue to be made but with more practice they tent to disappear. 38/89
  • 39. 9. Lesson PlanT = teacher / S = studentsPhases of Time Social Media/ma Aim ofLearning Activities (mins Form terials activity )Icebreaker/ - T. Write the words teacher and - introduce 1Introductio doctor on the board. Ask the Teache N/A theme.n to theme students how many syllables each r -two syllable„Talents“ word has. Have the students repeat nouns. the words chorally, and ask them whether the stress is on the first or the second syllable in each word.Extension Recognizeof theme T. See the student‟s book page for -Student the stressed the audio script. student book syllable. s 5 T: play the recording once, and have the students just listen with - Audio their books closed. Then ask them to tell you which syllable is stressed in each word (the first in all cases) T. Have the students open their books and draw their attention to the underlined (stressed) syllables. Then play the recording again, and ask the students to repeat the words with the correct stress. Emphasize that the stress is on the first syllable. T. Note that many learners find the pronunciation of lawyer challenging. You may need to ask the students to repeat this word several times until they can say it comfortably. 39/89
  • 40. Personalis n) See the student‟s book page - -Student - Practiceation for the audio script. Before you individu book pronunciatio 10 have the students work in pairs, al n give them time to practice saying the words individually.Transfer- - put the students into pairs, and - - practice have them take turns saying the individu -Student pronunciatio words. al book n and 15 - Encourage students to listen to - correct their partner‟s pronunciation and plenary stress make sure that the first syllable is - stressed. Collaborativ - when the students finish, play the e learning recording and have them repeat the words chorally.Consolidati -Look at the watch out box. - -S. can seeon - Ask them to identify the error. individu -student‟s structure Emphasized that with occupations, al book clearly. 15 we always use a or an in English. - students complete the sentences - using a or an. plenary - when the finish have them check the answers with the class. Ask individual students what does he/she do? Elicit answers, he‟s a/an… she‟s a/an…Conclusion - S ask and answer what are the - -Pictures -S. “see”and occupations of the famous people individu what they 20Evaluation in the pictures. al have learned and - that they plenary can apply it. 40/89
  • 41. Homework -T. asks S. to complete - -workbook -speaktask WORKBOOK(p.10 section 2) individu about al different occupations .10.Attachments 41/89
  • 42. Task 2: LANGUAGE AND CULTURE Theme: DOWN TIME - Sensitising students about the use of different types of words - Reading: Recognizing cognates January 2013 42/89
  • 43. Table of Contents: 1. Description of class and course 2. Aims of the lesson 3. Personal aims 4. Procedure 5. Conclusions 6. Self evaluation 7. Lesson plan 8. Attachments 43/89
  • 44. LANGUAGE AND CULTURE1. Description of the area This area will aware of socio-cultural and intercultural aspects of language use and language learning, dealing sensitively with difficult classroom situations relating to cultural aspects like music, clothes, art, architecture, food, and customs. Understanding different backgrounds, using different reading strategies for reading comprehension of students.2. Description of class and course This course is the same A1 course as for Language Teaching. Students will be able to understand and use cognates when reading. There are nineteen students between the ages of 19 and 25, 15 male and 4 female. 3 male students come from different classrooms and careers and the rest of them come from the same classroom and career. The group meets on Tuesday mornings between 9.30 and 11 a.m. The course book is Openmind1 (Cambridge). The reasons for joining the course is because is part of the syllabus for University Superior Technician and when they finish the career they have to be able to read different texts and understand at least the main idea and know different information related to culture.3. Aims of the lesson - To talk about hobbies and interests - To recognize words from different countries. - To compare own language with a foreign language.4. Personal aims - To provide an interesting, lively lesson that students will enjoy. - To explain the difference between cognates and false cognates. - To encourage my students to be aware of different type of words. - To promote reading for getting information from other cultures.5. Procedure Before the lesson began, I wrote words that are cognates in the students‟ language, e.g. hotel, television, interesting and program on the board. I asked the students if they recognize these words or parts of them, I told them that some English words were similar to words in their language. I read the information in the skills box in their books to emphasize those sometimes long words in English can be cognates, and students might be able to 44/89
  • 45. recognize at least parts of the word and this was particularly useful when reading. Next, I had students to open their books on page 29 and asked them to read the title of the text “do you want a celebrity hobby?” and find a word that was similar to one in their own language (e.g. hobby and celebrity were likely to be cognates). I had students to complete the task by circling or underlining words they recognized. When they had finished we checked the answers with the class. The possible answers were: celebrities, antique, editions, valuable, condition, model, imagination, create, systems, passengers, interested, architecture, reconstruction, probably, design, decorate, art, objects. I encouraged students to read because I believe that “reading” in any language help to extend our knowledge about different topics or disciplines, because the most you read the most you learn about different cultures. The text titled “do you want a celebrity hobby?” described the hobbies of different celebrities around the world for example: the British singer and songwriter Rod Stewart who has achieved numerous solo hits worldwide, but mainly in the U.K. where he has had six consecutive number one albums and he has lived in the U.S. since 1975 or the American actress Sarah Michelle Gellar best known for her role as the character Buffy Summers in the famous TV series Buffy The Vampire Slayer for which she has won many awards and finally Brad Pitt is an American actor and film producer. He is known for his roles in many movies, including Ocean‟s Thirteen and the Curious Case of Benjamin Button. He is married to actress Angelina Jolie. For the next exercise I asked the students to do this exercise individually and then to compare their answers in pairs. The activity consisted in match each celebrity hobby to the correct famous name. I encouraged students to discuss any different answers they had and decide with their partner which one was the correct. Then, I checked the answers with the class. I asked them to explain how the pictures helped them to make their choices (e.g. picture A showed antique books, etc.). Here the students recognized the importance of “knowing” themselves about different cultures aspects for example, music, clothes, art, architecture, food, and customs. To conclude I questioned the students to discuss why was it important to read different types of text and help them to comprehend what they are reading by using reading comprehension strategies like recognizing cognates and also all agreed that it is important to make predictions about any text that you have to read and you can do this using your previous information learned from different sources.6. Conclusions I think this lesson encouraged students to reflect on their own cultural knowledge and in the use of their own language as the use of vocabulary in a foreign language. 45/89
  • 46. 7. Self-Evaluation I tried to make this lesson interesting and with a real text than can be found in everyday life.It is important for me as a teacher to sensitize students about the importance of developing the competences necessary for reading comprehensionand the great need of teaching students different strategies that can be useful for a better comprehension e.g. prediction, use of cognates, scanning, skimming, etc.LESSON PLAN “Culture”T = teacher / S = studentsPhases Activities Social Media/materi Aim of Timeof Form als activity (minLearning s)Introducti -Teacher writes -Plenary -Board, To 5on to some cognates on markers introducetheme: the board and ask the themeDown students totime recognize them.Sensitizin -Have students to -individual -Student book Introducing 10g open their books on readingstudents page 29 and asked comprehento read in them to read the title siona foreign of the text. strategies.languageComparin -students complete -individual -Student book Apply 10g L1 vs task 1 by circling or readingL2 by underlining words strategyRecognizi they recognized that recognizingng are similar in their cognatescognates own languageSensitizin -Encourage students Group -N/A Making 5g to read as a way to studentsstudents learn about different awareabout the cultures. aboutimportanc reading fore of gettingreading knowledge from different cultures 46/89
  • 47. Brainstor Elicit information Group -N/A Using 10ming from the people in previousabout the reading. Have knowledgeculture them know some from facts about the students famous people in the text.Making I asked the students Group -N/A Using 15agreemen to do this exercise collaborativt when individually and then e learninglearning to compare theirin a group answersConclusio Have students to -Plenary -N/A To reinforce 5n discuss the the importance of importance reading different of reading types of text and and use help them to techniques comprehend what strategies they are reading by when using techniques reading a strategies text. 47/89
  • 48. 9. Attachments Activity 1 Activity 2 48/89
  • 49. Task 3: UTSV JANUARY 2013 LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESSES To learn the simple present, and express general information Theme: WHAT DO YOU DO? 49/89
  • 50. UTSVTable of Contents: b) Description of the area c) Description of class and course d) Topic e) Aims of the lesson f) Personal aims g) Procedure h) Conclusions i) Self evaluation j) Lesson plan k) Attachments 50/89
  • 51. January 20139. Description of the areaThis area covers the needs that a learner requires when learning a language. It isfocused on correcting their own mistakes and other‟s mistakes, the learner is ableto learn by being autonomous, and using his/her own learning style. The studentsare going to be able to create their own learning strategies in order to interact withtheir classmates and imitate real life situations and in this way they are going toimprove their learning process.10. Description of class and courseThis, material is designed for learners in a level 1 course. Most of the learners arestudents between the ages of 18 and 20, with some age exceptions.This class is going to let students interact in a conversation, and talk about realexperiences. The main purpose is to use of the simple present, including previousvocabulary about occupations and family members. At the end, learners have tobe proficient to express their own ideas and talk about other person besidehimself/herself. The book needed for this class is open mind 1 from Macmillaneditorial; covering the unit 2, page 23.11. Topic - Simple past present12. Aims of the lesson b) Students can use previous vocabulary in a conversation. 10. Students can form questions and negative statements in the simple present. b) Students can understand and use simple present. 11. Students can talk about real people. b) Students can use verbs with −s endings for third persons correctly. 12. Students can understand other people in a real conversation. 51/89
  • 52. 13. Personal aims b) To show students that they are able to communicate in a real life situation. c) To motivate and encourage students to experiment with the language. d) To promote learner autonomy and improvisation during a conversation. e) To help them to interact with each other and use previous vocabulary in a conversation. f) To show students that they can ask and answer questions about general information.14. Procedure The utsv is focused on communicative approach development; which is achieved through a constant interaction between students. This topic is focused in unit 2, “What do you do?” (p. 23). In this section learners have to use the simple present to talk about general information and express it by making use of the previous vocabulary seen in class. They also have to understand the main idea in a present context, and also share information related to the topic they are discussing. For this reason the first aim that students must cover is getting in contact with verbs in present. The book is going to provide clear examples of how to express ideas in present, and activities that are going to help the learners to practice. The first exercise is a reminder for previous vocabulary. All have to draw a version of their family tree. The main idea is reviewing the vocabulary the already saw. The activity consists in drawing the picture and writing who is who in the family tree. After they finish drawing their family tree and writing the names of their family members, they have to say the relationship of each person in the drawing. They work in pairs. They have to ask and answer questions (e.g., student 1: who is Francisco?; student 2: he is my father). The next activity is in the book (p.23). Here the learners are going to listen to a conversation (CD1, track 14) with their books closed. I wrote two questions on the board. I played the recording once so that students can look for the answers in the recording. After playing the recording once, students compare their answers in pairs. Then, students opened their books and checked their answers. After understanding the conversation they have to make a similar conversation, using the pattern given by the book but inserting their own information about their family members. 52/89
  • 53. Once all students practice the conversation in pairs I asked several students to tell me something about their partner‟s family, e.g., Maria‟s father is a doctor. This is a good time, when all they have finished to correct the mistakes heard during the practice with the students‟ help. Finally, they are going to go to the Watch out box in their books (pag. 23) to emphasize that we do not say, “This is the pen of Maria” in English.15. Conclusions Personally, I consider this topic one of the most important because it is necessary to understand, use and remember verbs in simple present in the correct form for different subjects (singular and plural). I consider that these activities are helpful to let students practice in a situation that could be very similar to a real situation. Also it helps students to realize about the knowledge that they already have. Finally they have to use that new knowledge. In the end, they are going to learn progressively, each one at their own rhythm and they are going to notice it.16. Self Evaluation The main objective of all the lessons is having a communicative approach, for this reason it is important that learners interact between them. Activities have to be different, interesting, and valuable for the students. Activities also have to be related to reality, so they can see that what they are learning in the classroom can be applied to a similar situation outside the classroom. Interaction between the learners is important and has to be taken into account. No matter the topic, it is important to provide confidence to the students, so they can feel eager to interact with each other and make questions and answer them when necessary. 53/89
  • 54. 17. Lesson PlanT = teacher / S = studentsPhases of Activities Social Media/mat Aim of TimLearning Form erials activity e (min s)Icebreaker/ - S. have to draw a picture of their--group - To introduce 5drawing family tree. -None the topic. - T. has to explain the instructions of -to elicit the activity. vocabulary - T. has to say that they are only already drawing and writing the names known. under each picture without any other information.Extensionof theme -S. work in pairs. They have to ask -group -notebook - To review 30 and answer questions about the previous members in their family (relationship vocabulary and occupations) about family members and occupations. -to practice simple present tense for questions and the correct structure for answers for third persons.Personalisa - After finishing the activity S. have - - None -Talk about 20tion to tell the T. information about their individu their families. classmate‟s family members. al - Provide feedback of the mistakes made during the drill. 54/89
  • 55. 10.Attachments 55/89
  • 56. UTSV Task 4: LANGUAGE TEACHING TOPIC: Different Strokes To revise and practice present simple affirmative sentenceswith Lifestyles Adjectives vocabulary….?The Class has to make an action plan for changing any area of their lives for examplebeing green, social relationships, work and study or healthy living, etc. Describe thearea of life to change.Look back through the unit book for ideas. 56/89
  • 57. January 2013 Task 4: LANGUAGE TEACHINGTable of Contents: Page 1. Description of the area 2. Description of class and course 3. Topic 4. Aims of the lesson 5. Personal aims 6. Procedure 7. Conclusions 8. Self evaluation 9. Lesson plan 10. Attachments 57/89
  • 58. Task 4: LANGUAGE TEACHING 1. Description of the area This area includes Selection of appropriate methods to suit learning and teachingobjectives, evaluation, selection and adaptation of teaching and learning materialsto suit the aims of the lesson, evaluation of language learning tasks, use of media,definition of teachers and learners role in a learner-centered approach, use oftarget language for instructions and explanations and classroom management. 2. Description of class and course This course is anA1 course. Students will be able to understand and producesimple present sentences with vocabulary adjectives and talk about lifestyles. Thereare nineteen students between the ages of 19 and 25, 15 male and 4 female. 3male students come from different classrooms and careers and the rest of themcome from the same classroom and career. The group meets on Tuesday mornings between 9.30 and 11 a.m. The course book is Openmind1 (Cambridge). The reasons for joining the course is because is part of the syllabus for University Superior Technician and when they finish the career they have to be able to communicate basic ideas with friends, at work or for travelling purposes. 3. Topic: Different strokes. 4. Aims of the lesson - To revise and practice affirmative forms in present simple tense. - To expand vocabulary relating to a green lifestyles and lifestyle adjectives. - Students talk about green lifestyles. - To revise family members vocabulary 5. Personal aims - To provide an interesting, lively lesson that students will enjoy. 58/89
  • 59. - To explain the use of adjectives in simple steps that the students understand and can easily employ.- To motivate and encourage the students to experiment with the language.- To promote learner autonomy.6. Procedure The topic of the new chapter (Unit 6/p.57) was Different Strokesand in this lesson we looked at “A green lifestyle”. A good part of thislesson directly follows the lesson layout of the Teacher‟s Guide. This book is an invaluable selection of guidelines and tips, which not only facilitate lesson planning, but have taught me many useful strategies to improve my teaching and help my studentseveryday. For the first exercise, the opener, I read aloud the words and phrases next to the pictures, and I had the students repeat them. Then I asked the students to look at the pictures and gave me a few examples for what each category meant. I elicited answers like social relationships: friends, people having fun; entertainment: relaxing, listening to music, watching movies/TV; food: going to restaurants, cooking at home, eating with friends; exercise: playing sports, going to the gym, jogging; shopping: buying clothes, books, DVDs, food. (see p 57). Next, I asked them to check the things individually that were a big part of their life. I explained to students that a big part of their life meant something that was important in their life. After that, students worked in pairs and they compared the similarities or differences in lifestyles. This was a nice introduction and as individual were keen to see what the others had written about lifestyles, so it motivated them to study this topic. We now opened the books (p.58) and I read the instructions to the class, and nominated two students to read a model conversation. Reading these aloud gave the students time to digest the information and reflect on how this information (which can be found throughout the book) can help them. I pointed out that speakers in the model sentences added extra information to their answers. For example, they did not just said, Food is a big part of my life; they added details to support the answer (I like going to restaurants…)I told the class that this was an important conversation skill. I wrote phrases on the board to help students to add extra information, e.g. I like… I also like…, I often…, and I don’t usually… For each of the categories, I had the class brainstorm different preferences, e.g. Social relationships: Spending time alone, spending time with friends; food: cooking at home, eating in restaurants; exercise: going to the gym, playing sports, etc. Then, I put the students into pairs to discuss their personal preferences. This social strategy, helps students to learn from each other, not only benefits group cohesion, but promotes autonomous learning. This exercise discussing in pairs discuss their personal preferences also allowed the students to use the vocabulary they have learned previously. When the pairs finished, I elicited some ideas from the class and I found out which activities are a big part of the lives of most of the students in the class. Finally, I nominated several students to tell me about their partner, e.g. Exercise is a 59/89
  • 60. big part of Martha´s life. She goes to the gym three times a week. Shoppingisn‟t a big part of Frank‟s life. He doesn‟t like shopping.At least two students on each pairsaid 1 sentence. As this is a medium group,we can work more often in plenary, but I use pair work a lot, as peer help canbe a strong motivating factor. Also students have the possibility to formulateanswers in a “closed” atmosphere, before presenting ideas in a big group. Thisis particularly advantageous for the shy or weaker students. Anotheradvantage is that students are recycling and using the vocabulary and allstudents are involved. I reminded my students that they often won´t know orremember the exact word they are looking for, but they can describe what theyneed by using other words they know.After the introduction, I make a list of pairs of opposites the students will know,e.g. big/small; long/short, old/new; hot/cold. I wrote the pairs in random orderand asked the students to make four pairs of opposites. Then I told them theywere going to do the same thing with some new adjectives. I explained themwhat is the function of adjectives because I did not want the students confusedgrammatical terms.To conduct this exercise I read the instructions to the class. Then I read theadjectives in the box, and had the students repeat them after me.After, I had the students work individually or in pairs to match the words to thepictures. I checked the answers with the class. After that, I asked the studentsto work in pairs to match the adjectives with their opposites. I checked theanswers with the class (relaxing/stressful; healthy/unhealthy; boring/exciting;wasteful/green.To encourage students to speak using the new vocabulary and also to transferthe vocabulary learnt into a different context, I asked the students to practicein pairs saying what type of lifestyle his/her family had and saying why. E.g.Student A: My mom has a healthy lifestyle. She plays sports and she eatshealthy food. Student B: Really? Well, my dad is 65 now, so his life isn’t veryexciting, to perform this activity we reviewed vocabulary for family members. Ielicited vocabulary the students know for other family members and wrote thewords on the board. Then, I put students into pairs to complete the task. Atthis level it‟s important to give students time to gather their thoughts. Icirculated and gave help where required. It is not only a good opportunity tomonitor whether the vocabulary has been understood and can be employed,but also shows the students that you are a part of the group. When circulated Ihelped students to correct mistakes using the guidelines to correct DT2activities. To conclude I asked students to readpersonal profiles individually onsection 2 of the unit to reinforce what they had been studying that day. Theactivity consisted on reading some profiles and say where did they think theycame from and answer some questions with the information on the profilese.g. What do the people have in common? In what ways are they different? Iasked students to compare their answers in pairs and we finished this classeliciting some examples of the vocabulary studied that day and asking themwhen we can use these words. 60/89
  • 61. As part of the homework and reinforcement I asked students to write a personal profile similar to the previous exercise and making activities on Macmillan platform.7. Conclusions I think this lesson contained a variety of exercises for revising the present simple affirmative form. The conversation model usedrecycled vocabulary and it was a good idea for integrating old vocabulary in students‟ conversations or activities. The activities used gave them the opportunity to personalize the subject and talk about something “real” and interesting to each of them motivated them to expand the discussions, as well as promoting group adhesion. Using visual aids like pictures in their book is also very popular in this group. It helps them remember and produce vocabulary, without inhibiting their own input.8. Self Evaluation I tried to make this lesson interesting and varied, providing material which would appeal to all learner types and promoting learner autonomy wherever I could. I attempted to encourage the students to use the grammatical structure they learned before as a communicative tool to help them complete the task in hand, and they did it very successfully. I also established that errors in using new vocabulary is completely normal and they need to use them to understand when can they use these type of vocabulary. 61/89
  • 62. 9. Lesson PlanT = teacher / S = studentsPhases of Activities Social Media/materials Aim of TimeLearning Form activity (mins)Icebreaker/ -Introduce the --group Student Book -Introduce 5Introduction to activity theme.theme - Students -to elicit„different look at -pairs vocabularystrokes“ pictures and already brainstorm a -plenary known. few examples for different preferences e.g. social relationships, food, exercise, etc. -students in pairs discuss their personal preferencesExtension of . Make a list -Teacher Board -Extendtheme of pairs of - Markers vocabulary opposites the Students Student Book -Lifestyle students will adjectives 10 know, e.g., big-small, long-short, old-new, hot- cold. Write the pairs on the board in random order, and ask the students to make four pairs of opposites. Then tell them they are going to learn some more new adjectives o) Have - Student book - 10Personalization the students Individual Recognition work -Pairs of individually -Plenary vocabulary 62/89
  • 63. or in pairs to match the words to the pictures (on page 58). p) Check the answer with the class. q) Ask the students to work in pairs to match the adjectives with their opposites. Check the answers with the class.Transfer Ask ss to - N/A S: Use the practice in Individual information pairs saying -pairs in a 15 what type of -Plenary different lifestyle context - his/her family provides a had and progressive saying why. way to build E.g. Student vocabulary A: My mom skills for has a healthy education lifestyle. She and for plays sports practicing and she eats vocabulary healthy food. studied Student B: recently. Really? Well, my dad is 65 now, so his life isn’t very exciting. -Elicit vocabulary for family members from ss write the words on the board.Consolidation -Have ss read - -Student book S:Reflect personal Individual on their 63/89
  • 64. profiles on -pairs lifestyles section 2 and -plenary and 15 answer some practice the questions learned after reading vocabulary with the information on the profiles e.g. What do the people have in common? In what ways are they different?Conclusion I asked T. Measureand students to the 20Evaluation compare their progress of answers in students pairs and we about the finished this numbers of class eliciting words some learned and examples of the concept the they vocabulary studied. studied that day and asking them when we can use these words.Homework Ask ss Individual Internet Reinforcetask to work on connection knowledge. activities at Macmillan platform section vocabulary 64/89
  • 65. 10. AttachmentsAttachment 1 65/89
  • 66. Attachment 2Attachment 3 66
  • 67. Task 5: PLANNING AND EVALUATIONClass project to manage their time by writing a to-do list with activities for each day ofthe week. Theme: Here, there and everywhere 67
  • 68. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKTable of Contents: January 2013 1. Description of the area 2. Description of class and course 3. Theme and motivation 4. Aims of the project 5. Planning 6. Procedure 7. Conclusions 8. Evaluation of the project and self-evaluation 9. Lesson plans and attachments
  • 69. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK1. Description of the area. This area covers a wide range of needs especiallyElementary students. For this area it is necessary to recycle and consolidate the target language of the unit, and to expose the students to vital soft skills that will enable them to become more competitive and successful in their academic and professional lives. It is also important to remember that the skills developed can be applied in contexts beyond the English classroom.2. Description of class and course This course is the same A1 course as for Language Teaching. Students will be able to understand and use cognates when reading. There are nineteen students between the ages of 19 and 25, 15 male and 4 female. 3 male students come from different classrooms and careers and the rest of them come from the same classroom and career. The group meets on Tuesday mornings between 9.30 and 11 a.m. The course book is Openmind1 (Cambridge). The reasons for joining the course is because is part of the syllabus for University Superior Technician and when they finish the career they have to be able to read different texts and understand at least the main idea and know different information related to culture.3. Aims of the project - to recycle and consolidate the target language - to expose the students to vital soft skills4. Personal Aims. - Evaluate students in a different way e.g. by developing a project. - Help my students to plan further learning to suit their needs. - Analyze and assess my students‟ language competence according to the CEFR.5. Planning: The project was to cover the last lesson of the current UT term. Step 1: To understand different problems to manage time Step 2: To write a to-do list and categorize each task Step 3: To make decisions on the order of tasks.6. ProcedureStep 1: 69/89
  • 70. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKTo start the lesson I asked students if they had time to do things, or if theysometimes feel they didn‟t enough time to do all the things they needed to do. Ichecked that they understood the word busy (a busy person has many things to doand not enough time).I emphasized the importance of effective time management. I also explained theconcept of a to-do list (writing down all the things you have to do in a day or a week)and the benefits of putting these in order of priority (from most important to leastimportant).I asked the students if they wrote to-do lists and, if they did, how they help them plantheir days.The first exercise consisted on looking at the pictures on the quiz on page 44 onstudent book. I asked them which picture showed a calm, organized person. I wentover the meanings and pronunciation of worried and waste time. Then I read theinstructions for the quiz. I made sure the students understood that they needed tochoose one answer for each question. I told them to circle the answer that was truefor them in each case and next I had them to do the exercise individually.I circulated while the students were working, and offered help when needed. Whenstudents finished I had them to calculate their scores according to the chart at thebottom of the quiz. I took a class poll to find out which category the studentsbelonged to. At this point was necessary to explain the concept achieve (dosomething successfully) and attitude (your opinion about something).Step 2:At this step I referred the students to the term to-do list (a list of everything you wantor need to do). I asked the class how many of them made to-do lists regularly.I then, had students look at the example list on student‟s book and I asked them whatthree categories were included in the to-do lists (the day or date, the tasks, theestimated time for each task) I checked that they understood the word task(something that you need to do, often something that is difficult).After, I asked the students to make s similar to-do lists for all the days of the nextweek. I wrote the three categories on the board to remind the students to includethem all. I gave them plenty of time to think about this before moving to step 3 on thislesson.Step 3:At this stage, I nominated four students to read aloud the four categories. I explainedthat this is one possible way of prioritizing tasks when writing a to-do list – important,not important, necessary, and not necessary. I pointed out to the How to say it box,(Is this important? How important is this?, It‟s very important!, I don‟t really needto…and I had the students repeat the sentences chorally and then individually. Next,I put the students into pairs, and told them to exchange to their to-do lists with theirpartner, I encouraged them to use the questions in the How to say box to find outwhether the tasks in their partner‟s to-do list were important or not, and had themwork together to rank the tasks from category 1 to category 3. When they finished Itold them to give the to-do lists back to their partner.To finish this class I asked students to reflect on their lists. I explained that theywould need to reorganize their original to-do lists based on how important each task 70/89
  • 71. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKwas. I highlighted the importance of prioritizing. I emphasized that the students mightfind it helpful to balance out their to-do lists if they moved tasks from one day toanother. While the students were doing this task, I circulated and monitored and gavehelp where required.I encouraged them to evaluate each other‟s lists and decide if they had enough timeto do everything they had listed. When the pairs finished, briefly got some feedbackfrom the class. I briefly reminded the class effective time management can help us tobe calm and relaxed, even when we are busy. Making to-do lists, planning;prioritizing can help us to organize our time much more effectively.7. ConclusionsThe project turned out to be a success and an enjoyable way to end the term. Thestudents agreed that know how to manage our time it‟s a good skill than could beapplied not just for classroom but beyond it in their real life.8. Evaluation of the project and self-evaluationThe development of this project was very satisfactory, because this life skill sectionhas the purposes to include a linguistic focus and a soft skill focus and the aim of thefirst is to recycle and consolidate the target language of the unit, and the aim of thesecond is to expose the students to vital soft skills that will enable students tobecome more competitive and successful in their academic and professional lives.However, this project should have taken more than one class because sometimesthe fact of explaining a lot of new terms to students took more time from the originallyplanned time for this classroom situation. On the other hand, this was a greatopportunity to encourage students to reflect on how does categorizing tasks help usto organize our time and on what they had learned or practiced in this section andwhere and how they could apply the strategies outside the classroom. 9. Lesson Plans and Attachments: 71/89
  • 72. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKLesson Plan: Planning and EvaluationT: Teacher / S: StudentPhases of Activities Social Media/ma Aim of TimeLearning Form terials activity (mins )Icebreaker/ - T. asked ssif they have time to -group -None - To introduce 5Managing do things, or if they sometimes feel the topic.time they don‟t have enough time to do -to elicit all the things they need to do. vocabulary -T. explained basic concepts like already the word busy, the expression to- known and to do list. T. emphasize the importance of explain new effective time management. vocabulary and expressions.Extension -T. askss to look at some pictures - -course - To analyze 40of theme on a quiz on page 44. Individ book own activities T. askss to say which picture ual and evaluate shows a calm, organized person. themselves T. Read the instructions for about the way answering the quiz. they manage T.askss to do the exercise -group their time individually. - -to extend T. circulate while ss are working, individ vocabulary. and offer help as needed. ual- T. When the ss finish, have them calculate their scores according to -Pairs the chart at the bottom of the quiz. T. take a class poll to find out which category the students belong to. T. Explain any concept that may be necessary for students understanding. Note: the quiz can be done as an interview. (Ask ss to work in pairs and ask each other the questions. They should then write down their partner‟s answers to each question, and figure out their partner‟s score and which category they belong to. 72/89
  • 73. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKPersonalis T. refer ss to the term to-do -group Course -writing to-do 30ation - book list. T. ask the class how many of them individ -Learn make to-do lists regularly. ually sentences for evaluating T. have students to look at the priority in example list on student‟s book. tasks T. check any difficult term. T. asked the students to make similar to-do lists for all the days of the next week (alternative: ask the students to make a to-do list for just two or three days of the next week) T. Nominate 4 students to read aloud the four categories (important, not important, necessary, not necessary) Explain that this is a way of prioritizing tasks when writing a to-do list. I point out to the How to say it box, (Is this important? How important is this?, It‟s very important!, I don‟t really need to… T. Have students to repeat the sentences chorally and then individually. T. put the students into pairs, and tell them to exchange their to-do lists with their partner T. Have them work together to rank the tasks from category 1 to category 3. 73/89
  • 74. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKConclusion T. class I asked students to reflect - Course -Reflect on 15 on their lists individ book their ual management T. highlight the importance of -pairs time prioritizing. Encourage them to evaluate each other‟s lists and decide if they have enough time to do everything they have listed. When the pairs finish, briefly get some feedback from the class. T, Briefly remind the class effective time management can help us to be calm and relaxed, even when we are busy. Making to-do lists, planning; prioritizing can help us to organize our time much more effectively.Step 1:(a) Quiz management timeStep 2:(a) To-do list formatStep 3:a) Schedule for managing time. 74/89
  • 75. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKAttachment 1 75/89
  • 76. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKAttachment 2Attachment 3 76/89
  • 77. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKTask 6: SELF-ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT Topic: Day in, day out.This lesson we will use feedback rules, difficult classroom situations. As teachers,our purpose is to observe the student‟ skills, dealing with feedback, awareness ofone‟s own strengths and weaknesses, and awareness of possibilities for furtherprofessional development.Students will be able to reflect and draw conclusion from observations and self-observation in order to gain a better understanding of their own skills. 77/89
  • 78. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKTable of Contents: - Description of the area - Description of class and course - Theme and motivation - Aims of the project - Planning - Procedure - Conclusions - Evaluation of the project and self-evaluation - Lesson plans and attachments 78/89
  • 79. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK- Description of the area This area includes Development of observation skills, dealing with feedback, awareness of ones own strengths and weaknesses, awareness of possibilities for further professional development and the resources and sources of help.2. Description of class and course This course is a level 1 course. Where students will be able to understand and use the simple present, frequency adverbs and prepositions of time to talk about interesting activities. In this lesson students will talk about when things happen, they will learn to organize and plan activities (time management) and also the will learn to describe weekday and weekend routines. 3. Topic: day in, day out. Theme and motivation The real motivation for students about this course was seeing that they can apply what they practice in class in a real life situation. We believe that it is a successful lesson because students get more interested in their activities and also they show interest in their classmates‟ activities. Students will feel motivated when they share their interest with other students. 79/89
  • 80. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK4. Aims of the lesson - Students describe weekdays and weekend routines. - Talk about interesting activities - talk about unusual activities - talk about the frequency they do their activities - Use prepositions of time correctly.5. Personal aims r) To receive feedback on my teaching performance s) To give constructive feedback to colleagues t) To share ideas with colleagues to promote best practice u) To promote learner autonomy. 80/89
  • 81. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK- ProcedureYou can find this topic in the unit 4 (p. 41). A good part of this lesson directly followsthe lesson layout of the Teacher‟s Guide. During UT‟s term, the English academy hasbeen able to discuss and share ideas to promote best practice.For the first exercise, the icebreaker, ask the students to look at the picture on page41. Ask them what a routine is. Then explain them that they will hear Mark talking toJanet about his routine. Don‟t expect them to produce any complicated sentenceshere; it is just to let them know what is the audio listening about.Before starting this exercise students have already practice simple present in pastsessions and also they just saw and learn how to use frequency adverbs andprepositions of time. Students opened the book (p. 41) and individually they read thequestions at the end of the conversation. After doing that, I played the recording onceand checked progress. I asked if they need to listen to the recording again andchecked the answers with the class.The next step is to walk around the classroom and ask each person to tell them twointeresting or unusual things their classmates do each week. Students have to find asmuch as they can. Give students a little time to think about the interesting or unusualthings they do. (e.g., suggest sports or hobbies). To give them a better idea of whatthe objective of the class is, I asked two students to read the model conversationaloud. When they finished, all the class start to walk around the classroom.When students finish the exercise, I asked for the first volunteers to share someinteresting things they learned about their classmates. As students give theiranswers, I encourage the rest of the class to ask questions to find out moreinformation about their classmates‟ interests. It is interesting to write on the boardsome interesting or unusual activities to help them stimulate and increase theirvocabulary.Finally I ask the students how they felt during the activity, if the activity was easy ordifficult for them. If they found useful the vocabulary during the activity. If they thinkthey could find a similar situation in real life. They all agreed that was fun, interestingand they probably will face a similar situation in the futureConclusionsI think this lesson encouraged students to experiment with the language, to use theprevious vocabulary and grammar they learned. I consider that this lesson was usefulfor them because it made them realize that there is a purpose, that they can use it ina real life situation. The objective in general of this course is that students realize that 81/89
  • 82. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKthey can apply the language, the can use the activities practiced in the classroom tointeract outside the class.Self EvaluationI try to do this lesson authentic, using slide in a language classroom, giving studentsreal life situations, encouraging and motivating the students to learn and use thelanguage and I also incorporate listening task and activities which encourage andfacilitate learner autonomy and interaction between the integrants of the class. Theseactivities take into account learners‟ learning styles and cultural expectations. I alsoshared ideas with colleagues to promote the improvement in our classrooms andstudents. This is also important to find solutions to difficulties in teaching during aclass. 82/89
  • 83. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK9. Lesson planPhases of Time Social Media/ma Aim ofLearning Activities (mins Form terials activity )Icebreaker: - Before lesson begins, T. ask - group -engage 5Routines students to look at a picture. - book students in - T. ask what a routine is. image topic. - S. share their ideas. (p.41) - introduce theme.Extension Identifyof theme T. explain that students will hear a -Student routines and conversation between Mark and student book interesting 10 Janet about his routine.. s activities. S. read the questions at the end of - Audio the conversation. T. play the recording once and check progress. T. play the recording again and check the answers with the class.Personalis v) Students walk around the - -Student - Practiceation classroom and ask each person to individu book simple 35 tell them two interesting things or al present unusual things they do each week. questions, w) Before doing that, two use the students read the model vocabulary conversation aloud. and x) After reading the prepositions conversation T. gives a little time of time to think about the interesting or during a unusual things that they do. conversatio n. 83/89
  • 84. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKTransfer- - encourage students to circulate, - - practice asking and answering questions individu -N/A questions about their activities. al and 15 - answers in plenary simple presentConsolidati -when students finish asking and - -S. can seeon answering questions around the individu -N/A report what classroom, ask for the first al they found 15 volunteers out of several to share out some interesting or unusual things - they learned about their classmates plenaryConclusion - as students give their answers, - -N/A -S. “see”and encourage the rest of the class to individu what they 10Evaluation ask questions to find out more al have information about their classmates‟ learned and interest. - that they -write on the board some interesting plenary can apply it. or unusual activities to help them stimulate and increase their vocabulary. 84/89
  • 85. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK10.Attachments 85/89
  • 86. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKMATERIAL1.- A reading list1.- The importance of language awareness, Maria Prtic Soon; see the article at:http://dspace.mah.se/bitstream/handle/2043/6229/Examensarbete100%25vers.fin.pdf?sequence=12.- Language awareness: an international project, Dolors Masats; see the article at:http://jaling.ecml.at/pdfdocs/articles/English.pdf3.- 100+ ideas to promote language awareness, Joe Debono; see the article at:http://www.newburypark.redbridge.sch.uk/langofmonth/activitiesbooklet.pdf4.- Culture and Language, Edward P. Lazear; see the full article at: http://faculty-gsb.stanford.edu/lazear/personal/PDFs/culture%20and%20language.pdf5.- culture and language studies-wonderland through the linguistic looking glass,Biljana Misic Ilié; see the article at: http://facta.junis.ni.ac.rs/lal/lal2004/lal2004-01.pdf6.- Factor affecting the language learning process, Bilqees Shabbir; see the completearticle at: http://www.usindh.edu.pk/irjah/irjah_37/6.%20Bilqees%20Shabbir.pdf7.- Interpreting communicative language teaching, Sandra J. Savigon; see thecomplete article at: http://yalepress.yale.edu/yupbooks/pdf/0300091567.pdf8.- Planning, conducting, and evaluating parenting education programs, KarenDeBond; see the full article at:http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/temp/parent_ed/pdfs/planning%20family%20programs.pdf9.- Self-assessment and development planning; you can see the full article at:http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/4104/1/self-assessment-and-development-planning.pdf 86/89
  • 87. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOKTASK 4.3PREPARING FOR LESSON OBSERVATIONA live lesson observation will take part in your training exam.The lesson observation consists in the preparation, actual teaching, a written self-assessment by the trainee and a written evaluation of the teacher trainer of a languagelesson.Please consider the following questions and send a file with your responses: · How would you as a teacher trainer introduce the peer lesson observation? I consider that the best option is to have a real practice, so the most efficient way to do it is by providing a sample class where the observation is going to be made. First of all it is necessary an introduction about what a peer lesson observation is; also, it would be helpful if the there was a video recording of an observation example. Then it would be time to take a real peer lesson observation. · Which observation tasks could be interesting for your trainees? Write down some ideas. The most interesting task for me would be identifying certain behaviours, for example, finding communicative patterns while students are having a speaking activity, finding behaviours of students when they are exposed to the language in long periods of time, to identify when learners feel frustrated or blocked when expressing an idea (marking their actions in order to express an idea), identify what kind of activities do students enjoy most, and based on that start with an analyze of the kind of learners that the group has. · How would you prepare your visit with the trainee? Which information do you need before the observation? The preparation would be based on the kind of materials that the observer could need for support. The observation could be helped with a diary, or a video recorder, it is important to have an extra tool that clarifies and provides the most important points in the observation. Before an observation, it is necessary to know the amount of participants involved in the process. It is important also to know what would be the most important points to cover with the observation, and the time required for it. · How long should the lesson observation last? The appropriate time would depend on the objective(s) of the observation; however, a good observation process must be precise, and held in a brief period of time. The analysis of the observation could be covered by the tools selected to support the process. 87/89
  • 88. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK · How would you write down your feedback? Create a feedback sheet which you could use for your future lesson observations.Observation Point Example of proper teaching Comments on the real strategy/technique observation.Provide the objectives of the - Explains the objectivesclass to the learners, - Makes questions to the learners to check their understandingInvolve learners in self- - Helps learners toassessment understand learning outcomes in the context of the topic - Provide time to the learners in order to reflect on what they have learned. - provides opportunities for discussion, so that learners are able to make comments, express ideas, in order to improve their skills.Provide feedback that lead - Questions the learnersthe learners clarify doubts about the activity.and continue practicing - Provides information that let students continue learning and improving. - Provides a brief general explanation about the topic at the end of the class.Promote confidence to the - Provides challenginglearners objectives to their needs. - Provides positive comments and constructive feedback. -Congratulates the good performance of the learners.Involve the learners in - Maintains continuousreviewing and reflecting on dialogue about the progressassessment information of the learners. - Constantly reminding about the objectives that learners had covered. · How would you manage the feedback-discussion? Write down the most important rules. - Feedback discussion must be covered by following the most important points on the topic. 88/89
  • 89. UTSV TRAINEE HANDBOOK - It is important to consider every comment as something important; it is not allowed to minimize any participation. - To avoid conflict generated by differences in the points of view. - To provide time to every participant equally. -To manage the discussion by making direct questions about learners´ understanding. -Making proper correction on the possible misunderstandings presented by learners - To conclude the topic with brief and general feedback about the topic. · What happens if the trainee fails? What advice would you give him/her? First of all, it is important to have a record of his/her performance, could be a checklist, a video recording, a report, etc. Based on this, clarify the strong points and weaknesses that the trainee has to cover. It is important to make the observation process as clearer as possible. Then, it is necessary to provide examples of good techniques that the trainee could use to improve the performance. · What can the trainee do, if he does not accept the feedback of the trainer The best solution would be requesting for the evidence of the observation process that provided the feedback. If that is not enough, it would be good having a second opinion, or even doing the observation again; only if it is necessary. · Is a second visit possible? With the same trainer? It would be possible if it is necessary; only if the results and the evidence are questionable, or if it is necessary to make a deeper analysis on the performance of the trainee. It is not recommended that the same trainer covers the observation; this would be taken as personal. The best solution is to have a second opinion in order to corroborate or deny the first feedback. 89/89

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