Chapter 20
“Acids, and
Bases ”
20.1
Describing Acids and Bases
Properties of acids
• Taste sour (don’t try this at home).
• Conduct electricity.
–Can be strong or weak electrolytes in
a...
Acids Affect Indicators
Blue litmus paper turns red in
contact with an acid.
Acids React with Active Metals
Acids react with active metals to
form salts and hydrogen gas:
HCl(aq) + Mg(s) → MgCl2(aq) ...
Acids React with Carbonates
2HC2H3O2 + Na2CO3
2NaC2H3O2 + H2O + CO2
Effects of Acid Rain on Marble
(calcium carbonate)
George Washington:
BEFORE
George Washington:
AFTER
Acids Neutralize Bases
HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O
-Neutralization reactions
ALWAYS produce a salt and
water.
-Of course, it t...
Acids- Naming & Formulas
• Identify the anion making up the acid
- if its “-ide” then put a hypo in front
and “ic” at the ...
• To write a formula, make sure the
cation ( which is H+
), and the anion
add up to 0
-Ex. Hydroflouric acid- has “hydro”
...
Sulfuric Acid – H2SO4
Highest volume
production of any
chemical in the U.S.
Used in the production of
paper
Used in pro...
Nitric Acid – HNO3
• Used in the production
of fertilizers
• Used in the production
of explosives
• Nitric acid is a volat...
Hydrochloric Acid - HCl
• Used in the “pickling” of
steel
• Used to purify magnesium
from sea water
• Part of gastric juic...
Phosphoric Acid – H3PO4
o A flavoring agent
in sodas
o Used in the
manufacture of
detergents
o Used in the
manufacture of
...
Acetic Acid – HC2H3O2
Used in the manufacture
of plastics
Used in making
pharmaceuticals
Acetic acid is the acid
presen...
Properties of bases
• React with acids to form water
and a salt.
• Taste bitter.
• Feel slippery (don’t try this either).
...
Examples of Bases
 Sodium hydroxide (lye),
NaOH
 Potassium hydroxide, KOH
 Magnesium hydroxide,
Mg(OH)2
 Calcium hydro...
Bases Affect Indicators
Red litmus paper
turns blue in contact
with a base.
Phenolphthalein
turns purple in a
base.
Bases Neutralize Acids
Milk of Magnesia contains
magnesium hydroxide,
Mg(OH)2, which neutralizes
stomach acid, HCl.
2 HCl ...
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Chapter 20

  1. 1. Chapter 20 “Acids, and Bases ” 20.1 Describing Acids and Bases
  2. 2. Properties of acids • Taste sour (don’t try this at home). • Conduct electricity. –Can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution • React with metals to form H2 gas. • Change the color of indicators (blue litmus to red). • React with bases (hydroxides) to form water and a salt.
  3. 3. Acids Affect Indicators Blue litmus paper turns red in contact with an acid.
  4. 4. Acids React with Active Metals Acids react with active metals to form salts and hydrogen gas: HCl(aq) + Mg(s) → MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
  5. 5. Acids React with Carbonates 2HC2H3O2 + Na2CO3 2NaC2H3O2 + H2O + CO2
  6. 6. Effects of Acid Rain on Marble (calcium carbonate) George Washington: BEFORE George Washington: AFTER
  7. 7. Acids Neutralize Bases HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O -Neutralization reactions ALWAYS produce a salt and water. -Of course, it takes the right proportion of acid and base to produce a neutral salt
  8. 8. Acids- Naming & Formulas • Identify the anion making up the acid - if its “-ide” then put a hypo in front and “ic” at the end. Ex. HCl hydrochloric acid - if its an “-ite”, put a “ous” at the end. Ex. HNO2 nitrous acid - if its an “-ate” , put an “ic” at the end. Ex. H2SO4 sufluric acid
  9. 9. • To write a formula, make sure the cation ( which is H+ ), and the anion add up to 0 -Ex. Hydroflouric acid- has “hydro” and “ic” so its anion is flouride, fouride is - 1, so formula is HF - Ex. Phosphoric acid, has only an”ic”, so its anion is phosphate,PO4 3- so the formula would be H3PO4 Acids- Naming & Formulas
  10. 10. Sulfuric Acid – H2SO4 Highest volume production of any chemical in the U.S. Used in the production of paper Used in production of fertilizers Used in petroleum refining
  11. 11. Nitric Acid – HNO3 • Used in the production of fertilizers • Used in the production of explosives • Nitric acid is a volatile acid – its reactive components evaporate easily • Stains proteins (including skin!)
  12. 12. Hydrochloric Acid - HCl • Used in the “pickling” of steel • Used to purify magnesium from sea water • Part of gastric juice, it aids in the digestion of proteins • Sold commercially as “Muriatic acid”
  13. 13. Phosphoric Acid – H3PO4 o A flavoring agent in sodas o Used in the manufacture of detergents o Used in the manufacture of fertilizers o Not a common laboratory reagent
  14. 14. Acetic Acid – HC2H3O2 Used in the manufacture of plastics Used in making pharmaceuticals Acetic acid is the acid present in household vinegar
  15. 15. Properties of bases • React with acids to form water and a salt. • Taste bitter. • Feel slippery (don’t try this either). • Can be strong or weak electrolytes in aqueous solution • Change the color of indicators (red litmus turns blue).
  16. 16. Examples of Bases  Sodium hydroxide (lye), NaOH  Potassium hydroxide, KOH  Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2  Calcium hydroxide (lime), Ca(OH)2 What do you notice about all these bases?
  17. 17. Bases Affect Indicators Red litmus paper turns blue in contact with a base. Phenolphthalein turns purple in a base.
  18. 18. Bases Neutralize Acids Milk of Magnesia contains magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, which neutralizes stomach acid, HCl. 2 HCl + Mg(OH)2 MgCl2 + 2 H2O
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