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Ch 2 ecology notes

Ch 2 ecology notes

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  • 1. Methods of Science 2.1/2.2 Science is the study of nature- it involves researching, and trying to explain our natural world
    • _____________ ( made directly or with tools like_____)
    • State the problem
    • Research- find out what other know about the problem
    • Hypothesis ( possible explanation for a set of observations)
    • _______________________
  • 2. Experiments
    • Designed to test hypothesis
    • Must be repeatable
    • Should only test 1 variable ( any factor that affects the outcome of an experiment) at a time
    • Often has 2 groups- a control group and a experimental group
    • - control group- have all factors
    • - experimental group- one of the variables is purposefully changed to see what happens
    • variable being tested is called the independent variable; the variable that changes as a result of the independent variable is called the dependent variable
  • 3. Collecting, Analyzing and Organizing Data
    • Once data has been acquired scientists try to analyze it
    • They can organize the data into graphs, charts, tables; dependent variable is on y -axis, independent variable is on x -axis
    • Scientists then share their work and results with others- communicating by publishing in periodicals, presenting papers etc.
  • 4. Theory
    • is an explanation
    • explains many pieces of data and predicts
    • can be, and often is modified as new info is found
    • can _________________
    Activity- look at list of criteria for science Examine a scientific periodical, a newspaper, and a tabloid article. What criteria of science do they Meet and don’t meet.
  • 5. Hypothesis and Theories
    • Must be testable
    • If later observations do not fit the hypothesis, then you change it
    • Science is never 100% certain- it is based on the data we have at hand- new data can be discovered, new instruments made so we get new data; scientists have many times altered, thrown out, or confirmed their ideas about how things work
  • 6. Science & Society Science finds out information ; it does not decide on the value of that information, or how it is used
  • 7. 2.3 Environmental Science Our surroundings is called the _______________ Environmental Science is the study of our Surroundings and the interactions that occur with it. Env. Sci is an integrated science- uses many other fields of science such as 1.__________________ 2._________________ 3._________________
  • 8.
    • Types of scientists
    • hydrologist _____________________
    • oceanographer _____________________
    • Meteorologist _____________________
    • Climatologist _____________________
    • Geologist ______________________
    • Seismologist _____________________
    • Biologist ______________________
    • Ecologist ______________________
  • 9.
    • Paleontologist ______________________
    • Anthropologist ______________________
    2 Main Factors in the Environment 1._________- nonliving factors 2._________- living factors There is constant interaction between and among these factors
  • 10. Ecology and Environmental Science
    • Ecology is the study of the environment- regardless of human society
    • Environmental science studies how humans affect the ecology of a system
    • 1 st semester- ecology
    • 2 nd semester is environmental science- deals more with human interactions with the environment
  • 11. Interactions
    • The interaction of biotic and abiotic factors play a central role in ecology- sometimes we study the interactions between the living and non-living parts; sometimes we study the interactions between the biotic factors- read pg 28 about the interactions between the coyotes, deer, wolves and mountain lions in Arizona.