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Ch14 ecology
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Ch14 ecology

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  • 1. Ch 14 Human Nutrition
  • 2. 14.1 There are 2 main types of food groups Macronutrients Micronutrients Macro- fats, carbohydrates, lipids for energy Micro- vitamins & minerals small amounts- biochemical processes often these are “cooked “ out of foods- so don’t overcook your fruits & vegetables! Macronutrients- energy output is measured in Kilocalories (kcal or Cal)- a calorie is the amount of Heat needed to raise 1g of water 1 C
  • 3. Which of the following is a macronutrient?
    • Vitamin A
    • Zinc
    • Carbohydrate
    • Vit. B-12
  • 4. True or False
    • A calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 10 grams of water 1 C.
  • 5. A food calorie is
    • 100 calories
    • 1000 calories
    • 1kcal
    • Both b and c
  • 6. Humans are ominvores ( eat plants & animals) Food is used for life processes-growth, movement, repair of tissue, heat etc.
  • 7. People need 2000-2800 kcal/day
    • Carbohydrates
    • - made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
    • Sugars ( simple) and starches (complex)
    • Used for energy source
    • 4Kcal/gram
  • 8. Which of the following is a carbohydrate?
    • Sucrose
    • Vit A
    • Olive oil
    • meat
  • 9. Carbohydrates have
    • 4 kcal/g
    • 9 kcal/g
    • 5kcal/g
  • 10. Protein
    • Large compound made of amino acids
    • Provides construction materials for body-blood, muscle, skin, enzymes etc.
    • N is in proteins ( C,H,O also)
    • 4kcal/g
    • Made of 20 amino acids; 12 can be made by body; 8 need to come from food ( 8 essential amino acids)
    • Meats, eggs, dairy, some plants-legumes (peas, peanuts), beans
  • 11. What element is found in proteins, but not carbohydrates?
    • C
    • H
    • N
    • O
  • 12. True or False
    • Proteins are used for energy.
  • 13. Proteins have _____ of energy.
    • 4 kcal/g
    • 5kcal/g
    • 9kcal/g
  • 14. How many amino acids are there?
    • 8
    • 20
    • 12
    • 24
  • 15. Fats
    • Lipids- 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
    • Phospholipids- cell membrane ( contains P)
    • Solid lipids- fats ( butter, lard); liquid liquids- oils
    • 9kcal/g
    • Saturated- maximum number of H ( single bonds); most animal fats are saturated
    • Unsaturated- one or more double bonds ( not saturated with H)
    • Diets high in saturated fats can lead to heart disease, high blood pressure
  • 16. Saturated fats
    • Are healthier than unsaturated fats
    • Have a double or triple bonds
    • Have as many H atoms as possible
    • Are found most commonly in oils
  • 17. True or False
    • Solid fats are called lipids.
  • 18. How many kcal/g are found in a fat molecule?
    • A)4
    • b) 8
    • c) 9
    • d) 2
  • 19. Vitamins & Minerals
    • Micronutrients- play important roles in biochemical reactions of the body
    • All can be obtained from plants
    • (although animals have some also)
  • 20. Nutritional Deficiency
    • People who receive less than 90% of their nutritional needs are undernourished; those that receive less than 80%- severely undernourished
    • 13 million die each year of hunger
    • (1 every 2.5sec )
    • Malnutrition - lack of a specific nutrient in the diet
    • Scurvy ( Vit C), rickets (Vit D), beriberi ( Vit B1)
    • Kwashiorkor- lack of protein

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