24.3 The d- and f- block elementnsiss: Transistion and Inner Transistion Metals
Overview <ul><li>Most metals come from ores- these are minerals which contain metals;  metallurgy  is the process of  sepa...
Transition Elements <ul><li>In the d- block </li></ul><ul><li>Most have more than one oxidation state </li></ul><ul><li>Mo...
<ul><li>Study table 24.4 for uses of several transition metals </li></ul><ul><li>Notice several are imporant in small amou...
Titanium, Chromium and Zinc <ul><li>Ti  - low density, strong, corrosion resistant </li></ul><ul><li>- used in aircraft en...
<ul><li>Cr </li></ul><ul><li>- relatively rare </li></ul><ul><li>- corrosion resistant, high luster </li></ul><ul><li>- us...
<ul><li>Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>- obtained from a sulfide ore (sphalerite)n </li></ul><ul><li>- used widely in industry; pr...
Iron, Cobalt, Nickel <ul><li>All 3 have similar properties- including magnetism </li></ul><ul><li>Fe </li></ul><ul><li>- 5...
<ul><li>Fe </li></ul><ul><li>- most steels are carbon steels- which have no other metal than iron; can range from mild ste...
<ul><li>Ni and Co occur in suflide ores (along w/ several other trans. metals) </li></ul><ul><li>- used mostly in manufact...
Copper, Silver, Gold <ul><li>All 3 can occur in a free state </li></ul><ul><li>Called “coinage metals” </li></ul><ul><li>H...
<ul><li>Cu </li></ul><ul><li>- used for electrical wiring (only Ag is a better conductor) </li></ul><ul><li>- used in plum...
<ul><li>Ag </li></ul><ul><li>-  occurs freely and in ore argentite (Ag 2 S) </li></ul><ul><li>- usually obtained when othe...
<ul><li>Ag </li></ul><ul><li>- tarnishes easily ( tarnish is Ag 2 S)- redox reaction w/ H 2 S) </li></ul><ul><li>Au </li><...
<ul><li>Au </li></ul><ul><li>- also used in dentistry and to treat arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>- pure gold is very soft; o...
Lanthanides and Actinides <ul><li>Inner transistion metals;  in f- block </li></ul><ul><li>Called rare earth metals, altho...
<ul><li>Actinides </li></ul><ul><li>- all radioactive and have similar chemical properties </li></ul><ul><li>- those whose...
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Ch 24 sec3

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Ch 24 sec3

  1. 1. 24.3 The d- and f- block elementnsiss: Transistion and Inner Transistion Metals
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Most metals come from ores- these are minerals which contain metals; metallurgy is the process of separating the metals from the ore, there are 3 basic steps: 1) concentrating the ore </li></ul><ul><li>2) chemically reducing the ore to the metal </li></ul><ul><li>3) refining and purifying the metal </li></ul>
  3. 3. Transition Elements <ul><li>In the d- block </li></ul><ul><li>Most have more than one oxidation state </li></ul><ul><li>Most have colored aqueous solutions </li></ul><ul><li>They have typical metallic properties- ductile, malleable, good ocnductors of heat and electricity, lustrous ( silver except Cu and Au) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Study table 24.4 for uses of several transition metals </li></ul><ul><li>Notice several are imporant in small amounts for our health </li></ul><ul><li>Their reactivity varies: i.e. Sc,Y, La are reactive like Group 1a elements in water ( although to a lesser degree), whereas Pt and Au are very unreactive and resist oxidation </li></ul>Transition Elements
  5. 5. Titanium, Chromium and Zinc <ul><li>Ti - low density, strong, corrosion resistant </li></ul><ul><li>- used in aircraft engines, missiles, hip and joint replacement parts; TiO 2 is a white compd used in paint, paper and suncsreen </li></ul><ul><li>- found in the ore “rutile” whichis impure TiO 2, has a wide distribution </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Cr </li></ul><ul><li>- relatively rare </li></ul><ul><li>- corrosion resistant, high luster </li></ul><ul><li>- used in alloys- stainless steel is 18% Cr; often coats iron and steel objects </li></ul><ul><li>- has oxidation states of +2,+3, and +6 in chromate(CrO 4 2- ) and dichromate (Cr 2 O 7 2- ); when it has a ox.state of +6 it is a string oxiding agent </li></ul>Titanium, Chromium and Zinc
  7. 7. <ul><li>Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>- obtained from a sulfide ore (sphalerite)n </li></ul><ul><li>- used widely in industry; produces galvanized iron (the Zn keeps iron from rusting) </li></ul><ul><li>- alloy brass is made of Zn and Cu </li></ul><ul><li>- used as outer case of dry-cell batteries </li></ul>Titanium, Chromium and Zinc
  8. 8. Iron, Cobalt, Nickel <ul><li>All 3 have similar properties- including magnetism </li></ul><ul><li>Fe </li></ul><ul><li>- 5% of earth’s crust; 2 nd most common metal </li></ul><ul><li>- cheapest metal </li></ul><ul><li>- used to make steel: 2 types carbon steels and alloy steels </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Fe </li></ul><ul><li>- most steels are carbon steels- which have no other metal than iron; can range from mild steel to high-carbon steel which vary depending on the amount of C in the steel ( most is 1.5%C) </li></ul><ul><li>- alloy steels contain other transition metals in addition to the C: stainless steel tend to have hi % of Cr and Ni in them; stainless steel resists corrosion </li></ul>Iron, Cobalt, Nickel
  10. 10. <ul><li>Ni and Co occur in suflide ores (along w/ several other trans. metals) </li></ul><ul><li>- used mostly in manufacture of stainless steel (more ductile, corrosion resistant and tough) </li></ul><ul><li>- Ni often used to coat iron before it is coated w/Cr </li></ul><ul><li>- Co-60 is radioactive and used for cancer treatment </li></ul><ul><li>- both are uses as catalysts in industrial processes </li></ul><ul><li>- Monel metal is a an alloy of Ni and Cu used in boat propeller shafts </li></ul>Iron, Cobalt, Nickel
  11. 11. Copper, Silver, Gold <ul><li>All 3 can occur in a free state </li></ul><ul><li>Called “coinage metals” </li></ul><ul><li>Have low chemical reactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Cu </li></ul><ul><li>- found in the ores chalcopyrite ( CuFeS 2 ); chalcocite (Cu 2 S) and cuprite (Cu 2 O) </li></ul><ul><li>- processed using electrolytic refining </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Cu </li></ul><ul><li>- used for electrical wiring (only Ag is a better conductor) </li></ul><ul><li>- used in plumbing </li></ul><ul><li>- brass is an alloy of Cu and Zn; bronze is an alloy made of Cu and Sn ( earliest known alloys)-uses include marine equip., decorative arts, pipes, nozzles </li></ul>Copper, Silver, Gold
  13. 13. <ul><li>Ag </li></ul><ul><li>- occurs freely and in ore argentite (Ag 2 S) </li></ul><ul><li>- usually obtained when other metals get refined </li></ul><ul><li>- good light reflector and can be used to coat the back of mirrors </li></ul><ul><li>- excellent conductor of heat and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>- silver halides are used in film developing </li></ul>Copper, Silver, Gold
  14. 14. <ul><li>Ag </li></ul><ul><li>- tarnishes easily ( tarnish is Ag 2 S)- redox reaction w/ H 2 S) </li></ul><ul><li>Au </li></ul><ul><li>- recovered in free form, also as product of Cu refining </li></ul><ul><li>Most malleable and ductile of metals </li></ul><ul><li>Used for jewelery and in gold-leaf applications </li></ul><ul><li>High tech industry uses it to coat circuits because it is so corrosion resistant </li></ul>Copper, Silver, Gold
  15. 15. <ul><li>Au </li></ul><ul><li>- also used in dentistry and to treat arthritis </li></ul><ul><li>- pure gold is very soft; often alloyed to make it harder: 24 karat is 100% gold </li></ul><ul><li>22 karat is 22/24 x 100= 92% gold </li></ul><ul><li>-white gold is an alloy of gold,nickel and other metals </li></ul>Copper, Silver, Gold
  16. 16. Lanthanides and Actinides <ul><li>Inner transistion metals; in f- block </li></ul><ul><li>Called rare earth metals, although they are not as rare as first thought </li></ul><ul><li>Lanthanides are silvery, high melting pts </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the lantanide oxides are used in sunglasses, welders goggles, and camera lenses </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Actinides </li></ul><ul><li>- all radioactive and have similar chemical properties </li></ul><ul><li>- those whose atomic number is greater than 92 are called the transuranium elements and are made in particle accelerators </li></ul>Lanthanides and Actinides
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