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28.1 28.1 Presentation Transcript

  • Ch 28.1 Nuclear Radiation
  • Radioactivity
    • Nuclear reaction- radioisotopes undergo “decay” into stable isotopes ( which don’t decay )
    • Nuclear reactions release lots of energy
    • Not affected by pressure, temp, catalysts- cannot be sped up, slowed down or stopped
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  • Radioactivity
    • Henri Bequerel showed Uranium salts fogged up photo plates- gave off what was later known as radiation
    • Marie and Pierre Curie- isolated the radioactive substances ( discovered new elements in process) and found “rays” were emitted which caused this radiation and termed it radioactivity
  • Radioactivity
    • This process of unstable nuclei emitting radiation and eventually forming stable nuclei has to do with a neutron:proton ratio that is greater than or less than 1 (there are either more neutrons or fewer neutrons than there are protons)
    • Radioactive decay is spontaneous
  • Types of Radiation
    • 3 types- alpha, beta, gamma
    • Rutherford experiment
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  • Alpha
    • He nulcei
    • +2 charge
    • Stopped by paper or skin
    • Nuclear equation for alpha decay:
  • Beta
    • Electron ( from a neutron breaking down into a proton and a electron) from the nucleus
    • -1 charge
    • Can be stopped by aluminum foil
    • Nuclea equation fro beta decay:
  • Gamma
    • Hi energy electromagnetic radiation
    • Not a particle
    • Most dangerous
    • Can be partially stopped by thick concrete and lead
    • Often emitted with alpha and beta decay
    • Nuclear equation:
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  • X-rays
    • Are a type of electromagnetic radiation
    • Not gamma rays
    • Comes from excited electrons; not from nuclear decay
  • How does radioactive decay hurt Dalton’s atomic theory?