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26sec1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Ch .26 Functional Groups and Organic Reactions 26.1 Intro to Functional Groups
  • 2. Functional Groups
    • Most organic chemistry involves substituents
      • often contain O, N, S, or P
      • also called “ functional groups ”- they are the chemically functional part of the molecule, and are the non-hydrocarbon part
  • 3. Functional Groups
    • Functional group - a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound, that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions.
      • What is the best way to classify organic compounds? By their functional groups.
  • 4. Functional Groups
    • The symbol “R” is used to represent any carbon chains or rings
    • Important: Table 26.1, page 774 -- shows some of the major categories, and their functional groups - KNOW THESE.
    • Table 26.2, p. 775 - alkyl groups
  • 5. Halogen Substituents
    • Halocarbons - class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine
      • General formula: R-X (X = halogen)
    • Naming? Name parent as normal, add the halogen as a substituent (or prefix) - Examples on page 775
  • 6. Halogen Substituents
    • Common names…p.774
    • The more highly halogenated the compound is, the higher the b.p. (see Table 26.3, page 775)
    • Few halocarbons found in nature
      • but, readily prepared and used
      • Halothane( an anesthetic) and also the hydrofluorocarbons (refrigerant)
  • 7. Substitution Reactions
    • Organic reactions often much slower than inorganic reactions
      • must break strong covalent bond
      • trying to find new catalysts to use
    • Substitution - an atom (or group of atoms) replaces another atom or group of atoms
  • 8. Substitution Reactions
    • A halogen (shown as “X”) can replace a hydrogen to make a halocarbon:
      • R-H + X 2  R-X + HX
    • Sunlight is often a sufficient catalyst:
      • CH 4 + Cl 2 -> CH 3 Cl + HCl
    UV light
  • 9. Substitution Reactions
    • Treating benzene with a halogen? Examples on Page 776
    • Halogens on carbon chains are readily displaced by hydroxide ions (OH 1- ) to make an alcohol + a salt:
      • R-X + OH 1-  R-OH + X 1-
      • CH 3 -Cl + NaOH  CH 3 -OH + NaCl
    Methanol + sodium chloride
  • 10. Substitution Reactions
    • CH 3 -I + KOH  CH 3 -OH + KI
    • CH 3 CH 2 Br + NaOH  CH 3 CH 2 OH + NaBr
    Iodomethane Methanol Bromoethane Ethanol