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26sec1

  1. 1. Ch .26 Functional Groups and Organic Reactions 26.1 Intro to Functional Groups
  2. 2. Functional Groups <ul><li>Most organic chemistry involves substituents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>often contain O, N, S, or P </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also called “ functional groups ”- they are the chemically functional part of the molecule, and are the non-hydrocarbon part </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Functional Groups <ul><li>Functional group - a specific arrangement of atoms in an organic compound, that is capable of characteristic chemical reactions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the best way to classify organic compounds? By their functional groups. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Functional Groups <ul><li>The symbol “R” is used to represent any carbon chains or rings </li></ul><ul><li>Important: Table 26.1, page 774 -- shows some of the major categories, and their functional groups - KNOW THESE. </li></ul><ul><li>Table 26.2, p. 775 - alkyl groups </li></ul>
  5. 5. Halogen Substituents <ul><li>Halocarbons - class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General formula: R-X (X = halogen) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Naming? Name parent as normal, add the halogen as a substituent (or prefix) - Examples on page 775 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Halogen Substituents <ul><li>Common names…p.774 </li></ul><ul><li>The more highly halogenated the compound is, the higher the b.p. (see Table 26.3, page 775) </li></ul><ul><li>Few halocarbons found in nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but, readily prepared and used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halothane( an anesthetic) and also the hydrofluorocarbons (refrigerant) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Substitution Reactions <ul><li>Organic reactions often much slower than inorganic reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must break strong covalent bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trying to find new catalysts to use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Substitution - an atom (or group of atoms) replaces another atom or group of atoms </li></ul>
  8. 8. Substitution Reactions <ul><li>A halogen (shown as “X”) can replace a hydrogen to make a halocarbon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R-H + X 2  R-X + HX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunlight is often a sufficient catalyst: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CH 4 + Cl 2 -> CH 3 Cl + HCl </li></ul></ul>UV light
  9. 9. Substitution Reactions <ul><li>Treating benzene with a halogen? Examples on Page 776 </li></ul><ul><li>Halogens on carbon chains are readily displaced by hydroxide ions (OH 1- ) to make an alcohol + a salt: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R-X + OH 1-  R-OH + X 1- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CH 3 -Cl + NaOH  CH 3 -OH + NaCl </li></ul></ul>Methanol + sodium chloride
  10. 10. Substitution Reactions <ul><li>CH 3 -I + KOH  CH 3 -OH + KI </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 CH 2 Br + NaOH  CH 3 CH 2 OH + NaBr </li></ul>Iodomethane Methanol Bromoethane Ethanol

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