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Acid base chapter notes

Acid base chapter notes

Published in: Education, Business, Technology

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  • 1. 20.4 Strengths of Acids and Bases
  • 2. Strength • Acids and Bases are classified according to the degree to which they ionize in water: –Strong are completely ionized in aqueous solution; this means they ionize 100 % –Weak ionize only slightly in aqueous solution • Strength is different from concentration
  • 3. Strength • Strong – means it forms many ions when dissolved (100 % ionization) • Mg(OH)2 is a strong base- it falls completely apart when dissolved. –But, not much dissolves- so it is not concentrated
  • 4. Strong Acid Dissociation
  • 5. Weak Acid Dissociation
  • 6. Measuring strength • Ionization is reversible. • HA ↔ H+ + A- • This makes an equilibrium • Acid dissociation constant = Ka • Ka = [H+ ][A- ] (water is constant) [HA] • Stronger acid = more products (ions), thus a larger Ka (Table 20.8, page 602)
  • 7. What about bases? • Strong bases dissociate completely. • MOH ↔ M+ + OH- (M = a metal) • Base dissociation constant = Kb • Kb = [M+ ][OH- ] [MOH] • Stronger base = more dissociated ions are produced, thus a larger Kb.
  • 8. Strength vs. Concentration • The words concentrated and dilute tell how much of an acid or base is dissolved in solution - refers to the number of moles of acid or base in a given volume • The words strong and weak refer to the extent of ionization of an acid or base • Is a concentrated weak acid possible?
  • 9. Practice • Write the expression for HNO2 • Write the Kb for NH3 (as NH4OH)
  • 10. - Page 610

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