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14sec4

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ecology

ecology

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  • 1. 14.4 Sustainable Agriculture
  • 2. Why sustainable agriculture?
    • Modern agriculture is driven by economics and trade
    • To be competitive has meant: soil erosion, deforestation, desertfication, hunger, war and global environmental damage
    • Population is incresing and so food production must also
    • SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE REDUCES SOME OF THIS NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
  • 3. Sustainable Agriculture
    • Based on crop rotaion, reduced soil erosion, integrated pest management and minimal use of soil additives ( fertilizers)
    • Also called regenerative farming
    • Idea of it is to maintain the environment so fertility of soil, and minimal environmental damage allows the agriculture to continue indefinitely
  • 4. Crop Rotation
    • Changing the type of crop planted in a field on a regular basis
    • Cycle of rotation is from 1-6 years
    • Helps keep the soil from getting depleted of minerals ( especially N)
    • Legumes restore the N in the soil ( remember N-cycle?)
    • Reduces the amount of fertilizer needed
    • Often legumes can be planted as cover crops-nonfood plants between growing seasons- helps replenish the soil and prevent erosion
  • 5. Erosion
    • Natural process where soil gets transported from an ecosystem or region
    • Wind and water are main agents
    • Erosion is disastrous to farming-rich topsoil is what gets eroded- this is where the nutrients are in the soil
  • 6. Reducing Erosion
    • Careful irrigation: drip systems which apply water directly to roots of plants prevents erosion
    • Reduce tillage ( tilling the soil is turning the soil over)
    • Tilling soil is done to get rid of weeds and pests, aerate the soil, improve drainage, and bring fresh nutrients to the surface; however it incrases eroison
  • 7. Pest Management
    • IPM- integrated pest management reduces use of pesticides by 90% in some areas
    • Makes use of natural predators like lady bugs, wasps, cerain bacteria and virus that affect insects
    • Indonesia-brown plant-hopper became resistant to pesticides and was destroying rice crop; President banned use of almost all pesticides; natural enemies of the plant hopper then took over and were ablt to keep the pest under control; famers now have higher crop yields
  • 8. What caused the greatest famine in world history?

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