Harnessing The Energy In A Snickers Bar
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Harnessing The Energy In A Snickers Bar

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A presentation created for an Introductory Biology high school class learning about Energetics. Basic overview of Cellular Respiration.

A presentation created for an Introductory Biology high school class learning about Energetics. Basic overview of Cellular Respiration.

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  • http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/BIOL115/Wyatt/Metabolism/Respiration.gif
  • Animation credits- http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/energy/atpsynthase_an.html

Harnessing The Energy In A Snickers Bar Harnessing The Energy In A Snickers Bar Presentation Transcript

  • Harnessing the Energy in a Snickers Bar
  • Recap:
    What is energy?
    What do living things use energy for?
  • Brainstorm Question:
    If energy cannot be created… then how do organisms acquire energy?
  • How much energy is in a Snickers bar?
    Energy is measured in calories.
    1 Calorie =
    the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1ºC
    Q: How do they figure this out for each food?
  • Q: Energy is not listed in the ingredients…
    CHOCOLATE:
    -high in saturated animal fats (lipids)
    -high in fructose (carbs)
    -protein rich (milk)
    PEANUTS:
    -high in plant oils (lipis)
    -high in starch (carbs.)
    CARAMEL:
    -high in sucrose (carbs)
    PEANUT BUTTER NOUGAT:
    -high in oils (lipids)
    -protein rich (egg whites)
    -high in sucrose (carbs)
    …so where is it?
  • Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of organic molecules.
    The highest energy yield comes from fats, carbs and proteins:
  • How does the body extract the energy from the chocolate bar?
  • COMBUSTION
    Combustion reaction takes place in the body to extract energy from the fuel.
    Same reaction that happens in a car engine or a burning candle.
    Q: Fuel does not spontaneously combust, what else is needed?
  • Potential energy is stored in the bonds between the atoms.
    Breaking these bonds is exergonic, it gives off energy.
    The combustion reaction in the body= CELLULAR RESPIRATION
    Cellular respiration takes place in every cell in the body.
  • A closer look…
    Fuel alone does not combust (think of a lump of sugar on a plate).
    Q: What does an engine need to start?
    Q: What does a match need to burn?
    Q: What does cellular respiration require other than fuel?
    A few different enzymes involved to help extract the most energy from the bonds.
    a spark + oxygen
    friction/ heat + oxygen
    enzymes+ oxygen
  • The Reaction:
    Reactants?
    Products?
  • If energy is not tangible, how can it be stored?
    We don’t use all energy right away
    Stored in the body as chemical energy
    Cell batteries= molecules
    ATP
    ADP= uncharged
    ATP= CHARGED
  • ATP molecules are synthesized during cellular respiration.
    ATP then used to provide energy for other reactions through out the body.
    When charge is drained, ADP is recycled in cells, gets charged again.
    Produced in exergonic reactions, used in endergonic reactions.
    Q: Example of an endergonic reaction where it may be used?
  • Back to our Snickers bar…
    Let’s harvest the energy from a glucose molecule in it…
    (remember the body will also get energy from the fats and proteins in it, but we will use glucose as an example since it’s body’s main fuel)
    Q: Glucose does not show up in the ingredients either, where is it?
  • TEM micrograph of mitochondria in human lung tissue cell
  • Where the respiration process takes place
    STEP 2: KREBS CYCLE
    STEP 3: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
    STEP 1: GLYCOLISIS
    Cytosol
  • Introducing the main players…
    Glucose
    Oxygen
    NAD+/ NAHD
    FADH/FADH2
    ADP/ATP
    ATPase
  • Cellular Respiration Role Play
    Who will play what molecule
    Read the handout with the player info
    Familiarize yourself with your role
    Get up and find your position around or inside the mitochondria
  • Lights, Camera, Action!
  • Basic steps
    1. GLYCOLYSIS (in cytoplasm)
    Glucose broken up into 2 3-C molecules (pyruvate)
    Some ATP made
    H+s and E-s given off from broken bonds loaded onto coenzymes (NAD+ and FADH)
    Loaded coenzymes “shuttle” E-s and H+s to mitochondria.
  • 2. KREBS CYCLE (in mitochondrial matrix)
    Atoms in the pyruvate molecules go through several rearrangements
    Pyruvate molecules get broken down further
    More H+s and E-s get loaded onto coenzymes and shuttled away
    By product of Cycle is CO2, waste gas
  • 3. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (across mitochondrial intermembrane space)
    NADH and FADH2 unload electrons into inner mitochondrial membrane
    Carrier proteins pass electrons along membrane, creating gradient
    H+s get unloaded into inter membrane space
    ATPase uses gradient to pump hydrogen atoms across the inner membrane into matrix
  • ATP Synthase (ATPase)
    Acts like a windmill
    The movement of protons creates the energy for ATPase to make ATP from ADP+P
    More detailed ATP Synthase animation
    ATPase dance (too funny!)
    • Oxygen then combines with H+s and E-s to create water (byproduct of respiration)
    • Overview of Respiration video
  • Lab: Calorimeter
    To determine how much energy is in food.
  • Next up…
    Can you respire without breathing?
    What is more important for life- oxygen or the sun?
  • FOOD FOR THOUGHT
    This special edition Snickers bar is extra “charged”- it contains caffeine, taurineand B-vitamins. How do these ingredients contribute to the energy content of this chocolate bar?
  • Image Credits
    Snickers bar (slide 5)- Flickr (Got Jenna)
    Calories graphic (slide 6)- www.deo.ucsf.edu
    Respiration graphic (slide 12)- http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/BIOL115/Wyatt/Metabolism/Respiration.gif
    Mitochondria (slide 17)- Public domain (tinojasontran)
    TEM human lung tissue (slide 16)- Public domain (Louisa Howard)
    Cell (slide 16)- European Bioinformatics Institute
    Calorimeter (slide 26)- www.sciencebuddies.com
    ATP synthase animation (slide 24)- Dr. Kaiser http://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/energy/atpsynthase_an.html permission pending
    Snickers Charged (slide 28)- Flickr (the futuristics)
    Snickers bar info (slides 4 +15)- www.snickers.com
    Clipart (slides 3+26)- Discovery School Clipart gallery