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World War I
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  • 2. REASONS FOR WAR1. MILITARISM or aggressive preparation for war grows.• Mili leaders develop war plans & stock supplies.• Refuse to change plans for anything & were basis for all decisions.• Drafted men. Armies
  • 3. REASONS FOR WAR2.Europe divided into many alliances & the big 2 were: a. Triple Alliance – Italy, Austria-Hungary & Germany b. Triple Entente- France, Great Britain & Russia
  • 4. REASONS FOR WAR3. Imperialismled to competitionfor colonies to get controlof resources.Germ had little while Br & Fr had a lot
  • 5. • 4. NATIONALISM:desire for own nation grows.•many ethnic groups want freedom from the states in which they live.
  • 6. • 1914: Serbia wants to all Slavic peoples (Bosnia, others) to join together to create Slavic state, but Aus- Hun against it (they own Bosnia)
  • 7. •June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to A-H throne & wife Sophia visited Sarajevo, Bosnia.
  • 8. •BLACK HAND (Serbian terrorist group who want Bosnia free),try to kill Franz.• Tried a bomb & failed.•GAVRILLO PRINCEP shoots both
  • 9. DON’T WRITE!!!!•Aus-Hun doesn’t know if Serb govt involved• Want to attack.•Afraid of Russia•Turn to Germ for help.
  • 10. Germ EmperorKaiserWilhelm IIgives “BLANKCHECK”,promising fullsupport ofAus-Hun, evenif Rus getsinvolved
  • 11. WAR BEGINS!!!• Serbs turn down AUS- Hun demands• A-H declares war on Serbs July 28 , 1914 th
  • 12. WAR BEGINS!!! • Czar Nicholas II of Rus orders partial MOBILIZATION (assembling troops & supplies & making them ready for war).
  • 13. WAR BEGINS•Russia’s war plans say to fight Germ & Aus-Hun, Czar Nicholas must mobilize against both.•Czar orders full mobilization on July 29th, 1914.
  • 14. WAR BEGINS!!!•Ger sees mobilization as act of war & declares war on Russia.
  • 15. •German Gen Alfred Von Schlieffen plan calls for a 2 front war & makes Germ invade Belgium to attack France to get Russia (written in 1894)(think aboutalliances)
  • 16. •Ger declared war on France on Aug. 3 , 1914 rd
  • 17. DON’T WRITE•Germ told Belgium (neutral) to let troops pass through
  • 18. •Aug. 4th, 1914, Great Brit declares war on Germ for violating Belgium’s neutrality.• GB part of alliance w/ Fr & Rus(Triple Entente)
  • 19. 1. Franz Ferdinand (next leader of Aus-Hun) assassinated by Serb terrorists the Black Hand 6/28/142. Aus-Hun gets Blank Check from Germany 7/5/143. Aus-Hun declares war on Serb 7/28/144. Russia Mobilizes army on 7/ 29 – 31/14 against both Aus-Hun & Germ
  • 20. 5. Germans see mobilization as act of war. Declares war on Russia6. German Schlieffen plan makes Germ invade Belgium & France to get Russia7. Germany declares war on France 8/3/148. Great Britain declares war on Germany 8/4/14
  • 21. WAR BEGINS•Govt spreads PROPAGANDA- ideas used to influence public opinion for or against a cause-• helped to create hatred & support for causes.• Most believe war will end in 2 weeks or less
  • 22. • Western Front-Mostly in Fr• Schlieffen Plan says go thru Belgium to circle Paris, trapping Fr.• Ger stopped at 1st Battle of Marne (Sept. 6-10, 1914).• Fr troops sent in taxis to front line in red uniforms.
  • 23. • v=lJXAcl8D51Y (failure of the Schlieffen plan
  • 24. WESTERN FRONT• Both sides dig trenches• New technology• (Poison gas, tank, plane, mortars, machine gun, zeppelin)• Little movement• Many deaths• Bad conditions
  • 25.
  • 26. BATTLE OF THE SOMME (July 1916)
  • 27. NO MAN’S LAND
  • 28. • v=o8DH0YtRQMc&feature=related
  • 29. • v=SXtsiqrhqsU Opening scenes All quiet
  • 31. •Eastern Front (other side of Germany)- Very mobile, w/ huge losses of life. 1. Rus is beaten in E. Germ & suffers major losses2.Aus-Hun defeated by Rus
  • 32. 3.Italy joins Triple Entente (now called the ALLIES w/ GB, FR, RUS) in 19154.Germ pushes Russians back into Russia w/ heavy losses(Russia out of war)5. Bulgaria joins w/ Germ & Aus-Hun. (now Central Powers)6.Serbs destroyed in Sept ’15*Ottoman Empire joins CP
  • 33. • US neutral• GB blockades Germ w/ navy• Germ uses unrestricted submarine warfare (will shoot down any ship)
  • 34. •May 7, 1915 Germ sinks LUSITANIA, a BR passenger liner, killing 1000 (128 Americans)•Germ stops subs, afraid USA will join war.
  • 35. • Jan. 1917, ADMIRAL HOLTZENDORF talks KAISER into using unrestricted sub warfare & blockades again to break stalemate
  • 36. •HOLTZENDORF promises Kaiser Wilhelm II that Brits will starve before US acts• “I give your majesty my word as an officer, not one American will land on the continent”
  • 37. • April 1917 US enters war over unrestricted sub warfare & Zimmerman telegram!
  • 38. •Became TOTAL WAR-complete mobilization of resources & people.•Women take over jobs in factories
  • 39. •Euros went to PLANNED ECONOMIES- systems run by govt agencies that expanded powers to meet needs such as: drafts,regulate import/exports, ration food,control prices, wages &rent control
  • 40. •Don’t write!•1918 better for Allies w/ arrival of US troops
  • 41. •Germ GENERAL ERICH VON LUDENDORFF gambles & planned 1 big offensive on Western Front
  • 42. •Get w/in 50 miles of Paris, but stopped at 2 Battle of Marne nd
  • 43. 2 Battle of the Marnend
  • 44. GERMANY LOSES•Germ forced back by US troops•Sept 29, 1918, Gen. Ludendorff says war is lost.•Allies won’t make peace w/ Germ imperial govt
  • 45. • Kaiser William II gives up & flees.• AUS-Hun fell apart & new nations emerge*Freidrich Ebert, new temp leader announces Armistice is signed Nov, 11,
  • 46. END OF THE WAR •Jan 1919, 27 ALLIED nations meet to make final settlement
  • 47. PARIS PEACE CONFERENCEProblems at PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE (1919) due to secret treaties & own selfish interests• Russia can’t come• Germ not invited• Run by BIG 3- US, FR & GB.• Big battle btw them
  • 48. WOODROW WILSON• WOODROW WILSON-US pres- presented 14 Points to Congress to take to meeting. He said they should:
  • 49. 14 Pointsa.reach peace openly & reduce weaponsb. Create a “general association of nations” to guarantee independence. (League of Nations)c.Must create democracies & self-determination (right of each people to have own nation).
  • 50. • DAVID LLOYD GEORGE – Brit Prime minister wants Germ to be punished & pay for crimesGEORGES CLEMENCEAU – premier of France says Fr suffered most, needs security. Wants fines, land, and no weapons
  • 51. PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE• Jan. 25, 1919. League of Nations created (US DOES NOT JOIN due to Versailles).
  • 52. • Demands Germ: stripped of weapons 2. pay REPARATIONS- damages to pay for war 3. create a buffer area btw FR & Germ called Rhineland.
  • 53. PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE• Jan. 25, 1919. League of Nations created (US DOES NOT JOIN due to Versailles).• Compromises made.
  • 54. • TREATY OF VERSAILLES- signed w/ Germ. Most important. 5 others signed• Germ unhappy w/ Article 231, which is War Guilt Clause, stating Germ admits guilt for war.
  • 55. MUST DO THE reparations2. reduce army to 100,0003. get rid of air force & reduce navy4. return Alsace & Loraine,5. Sections of E. Germ given to create Poland.6.Germ along Rhineland now a DMZ, (no weapons)
  • 56. • Map of Europe redrawn due to Treaty.a.Aus-Hun, Serbia & Ottoman Empire goneb. Rus (USSR) & Germ smaller
  • 57. c. Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Lithuania, Czechoslovaka Austria, Hungary & Yugoslavia created
  • 58. d. Br take Iran & Palestine. Called a MANDATE when nation officially governed by another nation, but not owned by them
  • 59. • The financial cost of the war amounted to almost $38 billion for Germany• Britain spent $35 billion,• France $24 billion,• Russia $22 billion,• USA $22 billion• Austria-Hungary $20 billion.• In total the war cost the Allies $125 billion• the Central Powers $60 billion
  • 60. WORLD WAR I CASUALTIES: AMERICAN• Battle deaths: 53,402• Other deaths in service: 63,114• Non-mortal wounded: 204,002• Living vets as of 2000: 2,416