REASONS FOR WAR1. MILITARISM or aggressive preparation for war grows.• Mili leaders develop war plans & stock supplies.• Refuse to change plans for anything & were basis for all decisions.• Drafted men. Armies
REASONS FOR WAR2.Europe divided into many alliances & the big 2 were: a. Triple Alliance – Italy, Austria-Hungary & Germany b. Triple Entente- France, Great Britain & Russia
REASONS FOR WAR3. Imperialismled to competitionfor colonies to get controlof resources.Germ had little while Br & Fr had a lot
• 4. NATIONALISM:desire for own nation grows.•many ethnic groups want freedom from the states in which they live.
•1914: Serbia wants to create Slavic state, but Aus-Hun against it
•June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to A-H throne & wife Sophia visited Sarajevo, Bosnia.
•BLACK HAND (Serbian terrorist group who want Bosnia free),try to kill Franz.• Tried a bomb & failed.•GAVRILLO PRINCEP shoots both
DON’T WRITE!!!!•Aus-Hun doesn’t know if Serb govt involved• Want to attack.•Afraid of Russia•Turn to Germ for help.
Germ EmperorKaiserWilhelm IIgives “BLANKCHECK”,promising fullsupport ofAus-Hun, evenif Rus getsinvolved
WAR BEGINS!!!• Serbs turn down AUS- Hun demands•A-H declares war on Serbs July 28th, 1914
WAR BEGINS!!! • Czar Nicholas II of Rus orders partial MOBILIZATION (assembling troops & supplies & making them ready for war).
WAR BEGINS•Russia’s war plans say to fight Germ & Aus-Hun, Czar Nicholas must mobilize against both.•Czar orders full mobilization on July 29th, 1914.
WAR BEGINS!!!•Ger sees mobilization as act of war & declares war on Russia.
•German Gen Alfred Von Schlieffen plan calls for a 2 front war & makes Germ invade Belgium to attack France to get Russia (written in 1894)(think aboutalliances)
•Ger declared war on France on Aug. 3 , 1914 rd
DON’T WRITE•Germ told Belgium (neutral) to let troops pass through
•Aug. 4th, 1914, Great Brit declares war on Germ for violating Belgium’s neutrality.• GB part of alliance w/ Fr & Rus(Triple Entente)
1. Franz Ferdinand (next leader of Aus-Hun) assassinated by Serb terrorists the Black Hand 6/28/142. Aus-Hun gets Blank Check from Germany 7/5/143. Aus-Hun declares war on Serb 7/28/144. Russia Mobilizes army on 7/ 29 – 31/14 against both Aus-Hun & Germ
5. Germans see mobilization as act of war. Declares war on Russia6. German Schlieffen plan makes Germ invade Belgium & France to get Russia7. Germany declares war on France 8/3/148. Great Britain declares war on Germany 8/4/14
WAR BEGINS•Govt spreads PROPAGANDA- ideas used to influence public opinion for or against a cause-• helped to create hatred & support for causes.• Most believe war will end in 2 weeks or less
• Western Front-Mostly in Fr• Schlieffen Plan says go thru Belgium to circle Paris, trapping Fr.• Ger stopped at 1st Battle of Marne (Sept. 6-10, 1914).• Fr troops sent in taxis to front line in red uniforms.
• http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=lJXAcl8D51Y (failure of the Schlieffen plan
WESTERN FRONT• Both sides dig trenches• New technology• (Poison gas, tank, plane, mortars, machine gun, zeppelin)• Little movement• Many deaths• Bad conditions
•Eastern Front (other side of Germany)- Very mobile, w/ huge losses of life. 1. Rus is beaten in E. Germ & suffers major losses2.Aus-Hun defeated by Rus
3.Italy joins Triple Entente (now called the ALLIES w/ GB, FR, RUS) in 19154.Germ pushes Russians back into Russia w/ heavy losses(Russia out of war)5. Bulgaria joins w/ Germ & Aus-Hun. (now Central Powers)6.Serbs destroyed in Sept ’15*Ottoman Empire joins CP
• US neutral• GB blockades Germ w/ navy• Germ uses unrestricted submarine warfare (will shoot down any ship)
•May 7, 1915 Germ sinks LUSITANIA, a BR passenger liner, killing 1000 (128 Americans)•Germ stops subs, afraid USA will join war.
• Jan. 1917, ADMIRAL HOLTZENDORF talks KAISER into using unrestricted sub warfare & blockades again to break stalemate
•HOLTZENDORF promises Kaiser Wilhelm II that Brits will starve before US acts• “I give your majesty my word as an officer, not one American will land on the continent”
• April 1917 US enters war over unrestricted sub warfare & Zimmerman telegram!
•Became TOTAL WAR-complete mobilization of resources & people.•Women take over jobs in factories
•Euros went to PLANNED ECONOMIES- systems run by govt agencies that expanded powers to meet needs such as: drafts,regulate import/exports, ration food,control prices, wages &rent control
•Don’t write!•1918 better for Allies w/ arrival of US troops
•Germ GENERAL ERICH VON LUDENDORFF gambles & planned 1 big offensive on Western Front
•Get w/in 50 miles of Paris, but stopped at 2 Battle of Marne nd
GERMANY LOSES•Germ forced back by US troops•Sept 29, 1918, Gen. Ludendorff says war is lost.•Allies won’t make peace w/ Germ imperial govt
• Kaiser William II gives up & flees.• AUS-Hun fell apart & new nations emerge*Freidrich Ebert, new temp leader announces Armistice is signed Nov, 11,
END OF THE WAR •Jan 1919, 27 ALLIED nations meet to make final settlement
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCEProblems at PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE (1919) due to secret treaties & own selfish interests• Russia can’t come• Germ not invited• Run by BIG 3- US, FR & GB.• Big battle btw them
WOODROW WILSON• WOODROW WILSON-US pres- presented 14 Points to Congress to take to meeting. He said they should:
14 Pointsa.reach peace openly & reduce weaponsb. Create a “general association of nations” to guarantee independence. (League of Nations)c.Must create democracies & self-determination (right of each people to have own nation).
• DAVID LLOYD GEORGE – Brit Prime minister wants Germ to be punished & pay for crimesGEORGES CLEMENCEAU – premier of France says Fr suffered most, needs security. Wants fines, land, and no weapons
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE• Jan. 25, 1919. League of Nations created (US DOES NOT JOIN due to Versailles).
• Demands Germ: 1.be stripped of weapons 2. pay REPARATIONS- damages to pay for war 3. create a buffer area btw FR & Germ called Rhineland.
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE• Jan. 25, 1919. League of Nations created (US DOES NOT JOIN due to Versailles).• Compromises made.
• TREATY OF VERSAILLES- signed w/ Germ. Most important. 5 others signed• Germ unhappy w/ Article 231, which is War Guilt Clause, stating Germ admits guilt for war.
MUST DO THE FOLLOWING:1.pay reparations2. reduce army to 100,0003. get rid of air force & reduce navy4. return Alsace & Loraine,5. Sections of E. Germ given to create Poland.6.Germ along Rhineland now a DMZ, (no weapons)
• Map of Europe redrawn due to Treaty.a.Aus-Hun, Serbia & Ottoman Empire goneb. Rus (USSR) & Germ smaller
c. Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Lithuania, Czechoslovaka Austria, Hungary & Yugoslavia created
d. Br take Iran & Palestine. Called a MANDATE when nation officially governed by another nation, but not owned by them
• The financial cost of the war amounted to almost $38 billion for Germany• Britain spent $35 billion,• France $24 billion,• Russia $22 billion,• USA $22 billion• Austria-Hungary $20 billion.• In total the war cost the Allies $125 billion• the Central Powers $60 billion
WORLD WAR I CASUALTIES: AMERICAN• Battle deaths: 53,402• Other deaths in service: 63,114• Non-mortal wounded: 204,002• Living vets as of 2000: 2,416