T H E  C O L D  W A R
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T H E C O L D W A R

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T H E  C O L D  W A R T H E C O L D W A R Presentation Transcript

  • THE COLD WAR
    • DON’T WRITE!Period of political tension starts after war over ideology (political ideas) called COLD WAR!!
    • TEHRAN CONFERENCE- Stalin, Roosevelt & Churchill (Big Three) met in Tehran in Nov 1943 to decide course of war.
    • Stalin & FDR want an US-Brit invasion of Germ thru France in spring 1944.
    • E. Europe would be freed by Soviets
    • YALTA CONFERENCE: FEB. 1945: FDR, Stalin, Churchill
    • met at
    • Yalta in
    • Russia
    • Stalin wants pro-soviet govts along USSR border to act as protection (buffer). Soviets already
    • in E. Euro
    • FDR wants: SELF-DETERMINATION: each nation determines their govts.
    • Big 3 create & join UNITED NATIONS.
    • First meeting set for San Francisco April 1945.
    • Unconditional surrender for Ger
    • Divide Germ into 4 zones (FR, GB, USSR & US).
    • Free elections in Poland
    • POTSDAM CONFERENCE - Germ, July 1945. FDR died & was replaced by Harry Truman .
    • Truman wants free elections in E. Euro.
    • Stalin says no,
    • (wouldn’t be
    • pro-soviet )
    • DON’T WRITE!!
    • Winston Churchill says an “ iron curtain ” has descended across the continent.
  • CONFRONTATION OF SUPERPOWERS
  • SUPERPOWERS
    • US:
    • Fears growth of communism
    • Does not want to give up power or prestige
    • Wants E. Europe to determine own govts
    • USSR:
    • Want security(Fear west)
    • Want reparations
    • Want buffer states (pro-soviet E. Euro govts).
    • Kept armies
    • in Euro after
    • war.
  • HARRY TRUMAN
    • Truman fears communist growth.
    • Issues TRUMAN DOCTRINE: (1947) US will interfere in nations threatened by Communist growth (may give money, aid etc)
    • GEN. GEORGE MARSHALL: creates Marshall Plan :
    • gave $$$ to rebuild stability in Euro (says communism grows where there are problems)
    • Soviets & E. European SATELLITE STATES (country that is eco & poli dependent on another nation), refuse to join (thought US was
    • buying off nations & Soviets
    • form own council of aid, but
    • fails due to lack of $$$)
    • George Kennen of US sets POLICY OF CONTAINMENT : keep communism w/in existing boundaries & prevent its spread
  • GERMANY & BERLIN
    • Allies divide Germ & Berlin into 4 zones (US, GB, FR, & USSR).
    • GB, US & FR create West Germ out of 3 sections.
    • Soviets oppose this & set up a BLOCKADE of Berlin to prevent all vehicles, food or supplies coming in.
    • US & GB fly in supplies for 15 months to avoid war . (200,000 flights)
    • USSR lifts blockade in 1948
  •                                                           
    • 2 new nations created:
    • West Germ est 1949 (democracy)
    • East Germany est by Soviets 1949 (communist )
  • BERLIN
    • NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization : An alliance to provide support if any members are attacked was formed in 1949 .
  • NATO NATIONS
    • Includes: US, Canada, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Denmark, Portugal, the Netherlands, GB, & Iceland (later Turkey & W. Germ )
  • NATO NATIONS
    • WARSAW PACT signed in 1957 was a formal military alliance btw: USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, E. Germ, Poland, Hungary & Romania
  • WARSAW PACT NATO NATIONS
  • MORE ALLIANCES
    • DON’T WRITE!!! Other alliances formed to stop Communist. growth (SEATO & CENTO)
    • Now world set up in alliances like before WWI.
    • US & USSR compete in ARMS RACE - build up of arms.
    • Security took form of DETERRENCE - Idea that more weapons would PREVENT war (could fire back at each other)
  • ARMS RACE
    • USSR gets atomic bomb.
    • 1952: US & USSR get Hydrogen bomb & icbm.
    • 1957 Soviets launch SPUTNIK , 1st satellite.
    • USA fears Soviet technology
    • www.ifilm.com/video/2680496
  • SPUTNIK 1957
  • DOMINO THEORY
    • US believed in DOMINO THEORY - belief that if Communists take over S. Vietnam, then other countries will fall
    • like dominos.
  •  
  • VIETNAM WAR
    • Don’t WRITE!
    • Vietnam War not going well
    • LBJ increased #no of troops to keep Comm N Vietnam from taking control of S Vietnam.
    • Anti war movement grows & public opinion of war is low.
  •  
  • VIETNAM
    • DON’T WRITE!
    • Nixon elected in 1968 & agrees to pull troops out of NV in 1973.
    • In 2 years Vietnam forcibly reunited.
    • China & USSR disagree on ideology & no single leader of Communism emerges .
    • NIKITA KHRUSCHEV , ( 1961) builds a wall separating East & West Berlin to keep people from escaping E. Ger
    • (Cold War symbol)
  • NIKITA KHRUSCHEV
    • DON’T WRITE!!!
    • Wall guarded by barb wire, machine guns, minefields floodlights, & dog patrols.
  • BERLIN WALL
  •                                                           
  •                                                           
  •  
  •                                                           
  •  
  •  
    • 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows Cuban govt & turns to USSR for help.
    • sets up USSR
    • supported
    • dictatorship in
    • Cuba
    • w/ in missile
    • range of US
    • JFK agrees w/ CIA to secret plan to arm Cuban exiles to invade Cuba to revolt against Castro
    • Most killed captured or when they land at the BAY OF PIGS .
    • Khrus sends arms & mili advisors to Cuba & builds nuke bases in Cuba in Oct 1962
    • JFK sets up a blockade of Cuba (to stop Soviet ships from bringing in more missiles). USSR says they will
    • defend selves
    • & all prepare
    • for war
    • Secretly USSR agrees
    • to remove missiles & US will lift blockade & remove missile bases from Turkey
    • In USSR After WWII: People sacrifice focus on heavy industry & technology
    • Economic success: new power plants & factories open.
    • People get little housing & few consumer goods
  • STALIN DIES
    • More purges & paranoia. until Stalin dies Mar 5th, 1953
  • NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV
    • KHRUSCHEV was Stalin’s successor.
    • Tried to undo Stalin’s damage, but made it clear satellites would not be independent
    • DE-STALINIZATION - gets rid of Stalin’s worst polices .
    • Loosens control of lit & focuses on consumer goods & agriculture
    • Retires after missile crises.
  • EASTERN EUROPE
    • Soviets take control of: E. Germ, Poland, Bulgaria Hungary, Czech & Romania btw 1945-48 .
    • Soviets used E. Euro for own benefit.
    • (buffer, cash, machinery, resources ).
    • Protests in Poland in 1956.
    • Polish Com Party adopts some reforms & could go socialist, but
    • must stay in
    • Warsaw Pact)
  • HUNGARY
    • Hungary rebels, & IMRE NAGY declares Hungary free w/ free elections but Soviets crush revolt (1956)
  • CZECHOSLOVAKIA
    • Czech gets new leader ‘67
    • ALEXANDER DUBCEK elected & introduces reforms (freedom of speech, press, travel, & relaxes censorship
    • & foreign policy).
    • Wants to “Create socialism w/ human
    • face (democracy in CZ)
    • Reforms called “Prague Spring”- but Soviets invade in 1968 to stop reforms
    • Albania is Com, but independent of USSR
    • All Soviet satellites follow Stalin’s policies (purges, secret police )
  • YUGOSLAVIA
    • Josip Tito, leader of Communists promises an independent Yugoslavia.
    • Communist state not run by Russia.
    • Broken up after his death.
  • Western Europe
    • Euro recovers economically w/ 9.4 bil in aid from Marshall Plan
    • WEST GERMANY: Under Konrad Adenauer unemployment falls.
    • France: Charles De Gaulle wrote new constitution. Govt called Fifth Republic. Focused on nuclear arms & industry
    • Great Britain: Declined. Set up a welfare state (govt provides for citizens) under Clement Atlee.
  • Changes in A New Society
    • 1 . Teachers, lawyers, Drs, managers middle class
    • 2. Many move from rural to urban areas.
    • 3. Increase in wages leads to spending. Creates Consumer society (preoccupied w/ buying goods)
    • New protest movements emerge.
    • Hippie Anti –war movement
    • Civil rights
    • 4 students killed at Kent State by Ohio National Guard in 1970 over Vietnam protests
  •                          
  • CIVIL RIGHTS OF THE 1960s
    • 1963 MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. leads March on Washington , using passive resistance.
    • Civil rights improve
    • LBJ passes Civil Rights Act of 1964 & Voting Rights Act of 1965 as well as 24 th Amendment
  • END OF THE 1960s
    • 1968
    • MLK
    • is killed.
    • Riots
    • occur.
  • The 1950’s & 1960s
    • PARANOIA!!!
    • Senator JOE MCCARTHY claims Com are in the US Govt & military.
    • Many are questioned & put on trial before he is discredited.
  • SENATOR MCCARTHY