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  1. 1. THE COLD WAR
  2. 2. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!Period of political tension starts after war over ideology (political ideas) called COLD WAR!! </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>TEHRAN CONFERENCE- Stalin, Roosevelt & Churchill (Big Three) met in Tehran in Nov 1943 to decide course of war. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Stalin & FDR want an US-Brit invasion of Germ thru France in spring 1944. </li></ul><ul><li>E. Europe would be freed by Soviets </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>YALTA CONFERENCE: FEB. 1945: FDR, Stalin, Churchill </li></ul><ul><li>met at </li></ul><ul><li>Yalta in </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Stalin wants pro-soviet govts along USSR border to act as protection (buffer). Soviets already </li></ul><ul><li>in E. Euro </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>FDR wants: SELF-DETERMINATION: each nation determines their govts. </li></ul><ul><li>Big 3 create & join UNITED NATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>First meeting set for San Francisco April 1945. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Unconditional surrender for Ger </li></ul><ul><li>Divide Germ into 4 zones (FR, GB, USSR & US). </li></ul><ul><li>Free elections in Poland </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>POTSDAM CONFERENCE - Germ, July 1945. FDR died & was replaced by Harry Truman . </li></ul><ul><li>Truman wants free elections in E. Euro. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin says no, </li></ul><ul><li>(wouldn’t be </li></ul><ul><li>pro-soviet ) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!! </li></ul><ul><li>Winston Churchill says an “ iron curtain ” has descended across the continent. </li></ul>
  12. 12. SUPERPOWERS <ul><li>US: </li></ul><ul><li>Fears growth of communism </li></ul><ul><li>Does not want to give up power or prestige </li></ul><ul><li>Wants E. Europe to determine own govts </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>USSR: </li></ul><ul><li>Want security(Fear west) </li></ul><ul><li>Want reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Want buffer states (pro-soviet E. Euro govts). </li></ul><ul><li>Kept armies </li></ul><ul><li>in Euro after </li></ul><ul><li>war. </li></ul>
  14. 14. HARRY TRUMAN
  15. 15. <ul><li>Truman fears communist growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Issues TRUMAN DOCTRINE: (1947) US will interfere in nations threatened by Communist growth (may give money, aid etc) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>GEN. GEORGE MARSHALL: creates Marshall Plan : </li></ul><ul><li>gave $$$ to rebuild stability in Euro (says communism grows where there are problems) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Soviets & E. European SATELLITE STATES (country that is eco & poli dependent on another nation), refuse to join (thought US was </li></ul><ul><li>buying off nations & Soviets </li></ul><ul><li>form own council of aid, but </li></ul><ul><li>fails due to lack of $$$) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>George Kennen of US sets POLICY OF CONTAINMENT : keep communism w/in existing boundaries & prevent its spread </li></ul>
  19. 19. GERMANY & BERLIN <ul><li>Allies divide Germ & Berlin into 4 zones (US, GB, FR, & USSR). </li></ul><ul><li>GB, US & FR create West Germ out of 3 sections. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Soviets oppose this & set up a BLOCKADE of Berlin to prevent all vehicles, food or supplies coming in. </li></ul><ul><li>US & GB fly in supplies for 15 months to avoid war . (200,000 flights) </li></ul><ul><li>USSR lifts blockade in 1948 </li></ul>
  21. 21.                                                           
  22. 22. <ul><li>2 new nations created: </li></ul><ul><li>West Germ est 1949 (democracy) </li></ul><ul><li>East Germany est by Soviets 1949 (communist ) </li></ul>
  23. 23. BERLIN
  24. 24. <ul><li>NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization : An alliance to provide support if any members are attacked was formed in 1949 . </li></ul>
  25. 25. NATO NATIONS <ul><li>Includes: US, Canada, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Denmark, Portugal, the Netherlands, GB, & Iceland (later Turkey & W. Germ ) </li></ul>
  26. 26. NATO NATIONS
  27. 27. <ul><li>WARSAW PACT signed in 1957 was a formal military alliance btw: USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czech, E. Germ, Poland, Hungary & Romania </li></ul>
  29. 29. MORE ALLIANCES <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!!! Other alliances formed to stop Communist. growth (SEATO & CENTO) </li></ul><ul><li>Now world set up in alliances like before WWI. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>US & USSR compete in ARMS RACE - build up of arms. </li></ul><ul><li>Security took form of DETERRENCE - Idea that more weapons would PREVENT war (could fire back at each other) </li></ul>
  31. 31. ARMS RACE <ul><li>USSR gets atomic bomb. </li></ul><ul><li>1952: US & USSR get Hydrogen bomb & icbm. </li></ul><ul><li>1957 Soviets launch SPUTNIK , 1st satellite. </li></ul><ul><li>USA fears Soviet technology </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>www.ifilm.com/video/2680496 </li></ul>
  33. 33. SPUTNIK 1957
  34. 34. DOMINO THEORY <ul><li>US believed in DOMINO THEORY - belief that if Communists take over S. Vietnam, then other countries will fall </li></ul><ul><li>like dominos. </li></ul>
  35. 36. VIETNAM WAR <ul><li>Don’t WRITE! </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam War not going well </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ increased #no of troops to keep Comm N Vietnam from taking control of S Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti war movement grows & public opinion of war is low. </li></ul>
  36. 38. VIETNAM <ul><li>DON’T WRITE! </li></ul><ul><li>Nixon elected in 1968 & agrees to pull troops out of NV in 1973. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2 years Vietnam forcibly reunited. </li></ul><ul><li>China & USSR disagree on ideology & no single leader of Communism emerges . </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>NIKITA KHRUSCHEV , ( 1961) builds a wall separating East & West Berlin to keep people from escaping E. Ger </li></ul><ul><li>(Cold War symbol) </li></ul>
  38. 40. NIKITA KHRUSCHEV <ul><li>DON’T WRITE!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Wall guarded by barb wire, machine guns, minefields floodlights, & dog patrols. </li></ul>
  39. 41. BERLIN WALL
  40. 42.                                                           
  41. 43.                                                           
  42. 45.                                                           
  43. 48. <ul><li>1959 Fidel Castro overthrows Cuban govt & turns to USSR for help. </li></ul><ul><li>sets up USSR </li></ul><ul><li>supported </li></ul><ul><li>dictatorship in </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>w/ in missile </li></ul><ul><li>range of US </li></ul>
  44. 49. <ul><li>JFK agrees w/ CIA to secret plan to arm Cuban exiles to invade Cuba to revolt against Castro </li></ul>
  45. 50. <ul><li>Most killed captured or when they land at the BAY OF PIGS . </li></ul>
  46. 51. <ul><li>Khrus sends arms & mili advisors to Cuba & builds nuke bases in Cuba in Oct 1962 </li></ul>
  47. 52. <ul><li>JFK sets up a blockade of Cuba (to stop Soviet ships from bringing in more missiles). USSR says they will </li></ul><ul><li>defend selves </li></ul><ul><li>& all prepare </li></ul><ul><li>for war </li></ul>
  48. 53. <ul><li>Secretly USSR agrees </li></ul><ul><li>to remove missiles & US will lift blockade & remove missile bases from Turkey </li></ul>
  49. 54. <ul><li>In USSR After WWII: People sacrifice focus on heavy industry & technology </li></ul><ul><li>Economic success: new power plants & factories open. </li></ul><ul><li>People get little housing & few consumer goods </li></ul>
  50. 55. STALIN DIES <ul><li>More purges & paranoia. until Stalin dies Mar 5th, 1953 </li></ul>
  51. 56. NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV <ul><li>KHRUSCHEV was Stalin’s successor. </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to undo Stalin’s damage, but made it clear satellites would not be independent </li></ul>
  52. 57. <ul><li>DE-STALINIZATION - gets rid of Stalin’s worst polices . </li></ul><ul><li>Loosens control of lit & focuses on consumer goods & agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Retires after missile crises. </li></ul>
  53. 58. EASTERN EUROPE <ul><li>Soviets take control of: E. Germ, Poland, Bulgaria Hungary, Czech & Romania btw 1945-48 . </li></ul>
  54. 59. <ul><li>Soviets used E. Euro for own benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>(buffer, cash, machinery, resources ). </li></ul>
  55. 60. <ul><li>Protests in Poland in 1956. </li></ul><ul><li>Polish Com Party adopts some reforms & could go socialist, but </li></ul><ul><li>must stay in </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact) </li></ul>
  56. 61. HUNGARY <ul><li>Hungary rebels, & IMRE NAGY declares Hungary free w/ free elections but Soviets crush revolt (1956) </li></ul>
  57. 62. CZECHOSLOVAKIA <ul><li>Czech gets new leader ‘67 </li></ul><ul><li>ALEXANDER DUBCEK elected & introduces reforms (freedom of speech, press, travel, & relaxes censorship </li></ul><ul><li>& foreign policy). </li></ul>
  58. 63. <ul><li>Wants to “Create socialism w/ human </li></ul><ul><li>face (democracy in CZ) </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms called “Prague Spring”- but Soviets invade in 1968 to stop reforms </li></ul>
  59. 64. <ul><li>Albania is Com, but independent of USSR </li></ul><ul><li>All Soviet satellites follow Stalin’s policies (purges, secret police ) </li></ul>
  60. 65. YUGOSLAVIA <ul><li>Josip Tito, leader of Communists promises an independent Yugoslavia. </li></ul><ul><li>Communist state not run by Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Broken up after his death. </li></ul>
  61. 66. Western Europe <ul><li>Euro recovers economically w/ 9.4 bil in aid from Marshall Plan </li></ul>
  62. 67. <ul><li>WEST GERMANY: Under Konrad Adenauer unemployment falls. </li></ul><ul><li>France: Charles De Gaulle wrote new constitution. Govt called Fifth Republic. Focused on nuclear arms & industry </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain: Declined. Set up a welfare state (govt provides for citizens) under Clement Atlee. </li></ul>
  63. 68. Changes in A New Society <ul><li>1 . Teachers, lawyers, Drs, managers middle class </li></ul><ul><li>2. Many move from rural to urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Increase in wages leads to spending. Creates Consumer society (preoccupied w/ buying goods) </li></ul>
  64. 69. <ul><li>New protest movements emerge. </li></ul><ul><li>Hippie Anti –war movement </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights </li></ul>
  65. 70. <ul><li>4 students killed at Kent State by Ohio National Guard in 1970 over Vietnam protests </li></ul>
  66. 71.                          
  67. 72. CIVIL RIGHTS OF THE 1960s <ul><li>1963 MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. leads March on Washington , using passive resistance. </li></ul>
  68. 73. <ul><li>Civil rights improve </li></ul><ul><li>LBJ passes Civil Rights Act of 1964 & Voting Rights Act of 1965 as well as 24 th Amendment </li></ul>
  69. 74. END OF THE 1960s <ul><li>1968 </li></ul><ul><li>MLK </li></ul><ul><li>is killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Riots </li></ul><ul><li>occur. </li></ul>
  70. 75. The 1950’s & 1960s <ul><li>PARANOIA!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Senator JOE MCCARTHY claims Com are in the US Govt & military. </li></ul><ul><li>Many are questioned & put on trial before he is discredited. </li></ul>
  71. 76. SENATOR MCCARTHY <ul><li> </li></ul>