• DON’T WRITE!!!• By 1939, Fr & BR only big• nations of Europe still democratic•New form of dictatorship develops
• TOTALITARIANISM - aims to control all aspects of citizen’s lives. (poli, eco, social, culture & intellectual•Individual will is subordinated to collective will of masses
• DON’T WRITE!!!!!!!!!!• Famine hits in 1920-1922 & industry falls 20%.• VI LENIN create NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (called NEP), a version of capitalism or socialism.• Peasants can sell produce & small businesses could be privately owned, butheavy industry & bankingowned by govt
•Communists create UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 1922 (USSR)
• Sickle-Unity of peasants• Hammer- workers• Red field: blood spilled by workers in fight for freedom• Star-energy of sun and life
• Lenin died in 1924 & a fight for power begins in Politburo
•LEON TROTSKY, war commissar, wants to spread communist rev & industrialize rapidly
• Josef Stalin- former editor of PRAVDA (Bolshevik propaganda magazine) & party general secretary wants power.• In charge of appointing 1000s of officials, who support him.
• Stalin gets control of party.• Gets rid of old Bolsheviks, & exiles Trotsky (who is murdered in Mexico).
•Creates 5 YEAR PLANS- sets of eco goals for 5 year periods to go from agricultural nation to industrial (1 plan-was st produce more CAPITAL GOODS (goods used to produce other goods)
• Bigger labor force in cities to work in the factories caused:• no housing.• Low wages.• Strict laws• Propaganda stresses sacrifice to build nation
•COLLECTIVIZATION-govt took over private farms & made peasants work for them. Wealthy kulaks were targeted• By 1934, 26 mil farms taken.• Famine occurs, 10 mil die, resistors sent to labor camps & party control increases.
• Paranoid Stalin begins PURGES- eliminating problem people to keep power. (killed or sent to Gulags (labor camps))
• Military officers, party members, citizens, union officials & diplomats were killed, arrested Nikoli Yezhov or sent to labor camps . History was changed, rewritten to make Stalin hero
Don’t write!• Born Aus 1889, Austria, 4th of 6. Older kids all died• Family issues• high school failure• Traveled to Vienna & rejected by art school.• avoided signing up for Austrian army due to mixed races. Fought in Bavarian regiment• Dev racist & nationalist ideas in Vienna & after war
• HITLER’S REPORT CARD• French Unsatisfactory• Geography Satisfactory• German Adequate• Gymnastics Excellent• History Satisfactory• Physics Adequate• Mathematics Unsatisfactory• Art Excellent• Chemistry Adequate• Geometry Adequate
• After WWI, joined extreme nationalist group in Munich called German Workers Party in 1919.
• By 1921, controls & renames party National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) or NAZI. *55,000 people join *Create party militia of 12,000 called Brown Shirts.
• Storm public meeting in 1923 w/ Gen Luddendorf (called BEER HALL PUTSCH, meant to imitate Mussolini) to demand new govt, it fails & Hitler arrested
•Wrote Mein Kampf in jail about “superior nations” have right to LEBENSRAUM- living space thru expansion. *“Superior individuals” should rule over the masses
• Realizes Nazi party needs to get votes to get power, not violent rev. Party expands & appeals to pride.• Biggest party in REICHSTAG (parliament) by 1929.
• Don’t WRITE!• Nazi rise helped by unemployment & eco problems• Industry leaders, aristocrats, officers look to Hitler for leadership.
• Pres. Hindenburg needs to get support in 1933.• He makes Hitler Chancellor in 1933, thinking he could control him
•Hitler sets up total Nazi control by Mar. 23, 1933
• Reichstag passes ENABLING ACT- give govt power to ignore constitution for 4 years to pass laws to deal w/ nations problems & gave Hitler legal basis for actions
•Nazis purge Jews from govt & set up CONCENTRATION CAMPS, abolished trade unions & poli parties
• Hindenburg dies in 1934 & Hitler rules. All officials take oath of loyalty to “Fuhrer”.• Wants to develop an “Aryan nation” to rule Europe.• Says Germ had 2 empires & Hitler will create THIRD REICH or 3rd empire
DON’T WRITE!!!!!!! • Believed they were descendents of Romans & Greeks & Germs meant to create Roman- like empire.
• Heinrich Himmler was head of The SCHUTZSTAFFEN (SS), Hitler’s secret police, bodyguards who used arrests, executions & concentration camps for control & terror
•Hitler used public works & grants to private construction firms to put people to work & rearmed military
• JOESPEH GOEBBELS, Hitler’s propaganda minister set up: mass demonstrations, parades, speeches, controlled churches & schools, formed professional groups for occupations & NAZI youth group’s for kids
• Nuremberg Laws were racial laws that: excluded Jews from citizenship; wear yellow star & id card; Jews banned from public buildings, transportation & marriage to Germans; cannot own, manage or work in stores.