PROBLEMS AFTER THE WAR
1.Germ  unhappy w/  treaty. *due to  reparations,  loss of land &  reduction in  military
2. League of Nations too weak- US did not join because we did not ratify harsh treaty.•LON used economic sanctions to stop...
3. Inflation- a rise in prices due to Germ printing moremoney
4. DAWES PLAN- US plan  set up to help Germ pay  back reparations &  loaned 200 million to  rebuild.•Created US investment.
5. DEPRESSION-period of loweco activity &risingunemployment
Depression caused by:1. Farm prices fall due to overproduction(some destroy crops to help prices)
2. US stock market booms in 20s, so investors pull money out of Germ to invest.3.Market crashes  & stock prices  drop
4. US investors w/draw   money from Germ &   Euro & banks   weakened.5. Production falls & unemployment rises.
•Economist John Maynard Keynes- said:Unemploymentcaused by lessdemand (whichcan be increasedby putting peopleto work build...
FDR•US-Franklin D Roosevelt wins 1932 election.• 15 mill out of work, 50% cut in production
•Created NEW DEAL- put people to work by funding public works. (building roads, post offices, airports).• Creates Social S...
RISE OF THE DICTATORS
STALIN & THE USSR
•             DON’T WRITE!!!•      By 1939, Fr & BR only big•      nations of Europe still       democratic•New form of di...
• TOTALITARIANISM - aims  to control all aspects of  citizen’s lives. (poli, eco,  social, culture & intellectual•Individu...
• DON’T WRITE!!!!!!!!!!• Famine hits in 1920-1922 &  industry falls 20%.• VI LENIN create NEW ECONOMIC  POLICY (called NEP...
•Communists create UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 1922 (USSR)
• Sickle-Unity of peasants• Hammer- workers• Red field: blood spilled by  workers in fight for freedom• Star-energy of sun...
• Lenin died in 1924 & a fight  for power begins in Politburo
•LEON TROTSKY, war commissar, wants to spread communist rev & industrialize rapidly
• Josef Stalin- former editor  of PRAVDA (Bolshevik  propaganda magazine) &  party general secretary  wants power.• In cha...
• Stalin gets control of  party.• Gets rid of old Bolsheviks,  & exiles Trotsky (who is  murdered in Mexico).
•Creates 5 YEAR PLANS- sets of eco goals for 5 year periods to go from agricultural nation to industrial (1 plan-was      ...
• Bigger labor  force in cities to  work in the  factories caused:• no housing.• Low wages.• Strict laws• Propaganda  stre...
•COLLECTIVIZATION-govt took over private farms & made peasants work for them. Wealthy kulaks were targeted• By 1934, 26 mi...
• Paranoid Stalin begins PURGES-  eliminating problem people to  keep power. (killed or sent to  Gulags (labor camps))
• Military officers,  party members,  citizens, union   officials &  diplomats were  killed, arrested     Nikoli Yezhov  o...
Communism
HITLER & GERMANY
Don’t write!• Born Aus 1889,  Austria, 4th of 6.  Older kids all died• Family issues• high school failure• Traveled to Vie...
• HITLER’S REPORT CARD• French      Unsatisfactory• Geography   Satisfactory• German      Adequate• Gymnastics   Excellent...
• After WWI,  joined  extreme  nationalist  group in  Munich called  German  Workers  Party in 1919.
• By 1921, controls &  renames party National  Socialist German  Workers Party (NSDAP)  or NAZI.   *55,000 people join   *...
• Storm public  meeting in 1923  w/ Gen  Luddendorf  (called BEER  HALL PUTSCH, meant to imitate Mussolini)          to de...
•Wrote Mein Kampf in  jail about “superior  nations” have right to  LEBENSRAUM- living  space thru expansion. *“Superior  ...
•*
• Realizes Nazi party needs  to get votes to get power,  not violent rev. Party  expands & appeals to  pride.• Biggest par...
• Don’t WRITE!• Nazi rise helped by  unemployment & eco  problems• Industry  leaders, aristocrats,  officers look to  Hitl...
• Pres.  Hindenburg  needs to get  support in 1933.• He makes Hitler  Chancellor in  1933, thinking  he could control  him
•Hitler sets up total Nazi control by Mar. 23, 1933
• Reichstag passes ENABLING  ACT- give govt power to  ignore constitution for  4 years to pass  laws to deal  w/ nations  ...
•Nazis purge Jews from  govt & set up  CONCENTRATION CAMPS, abolished trade unions & poli parties
• Hindenburg dies in 1934 &  Hitler rules. All officials  take oath of loyalty to  “Fuhrer”.• Wants to develop an  “Aryan ...
DON’T WRITE!!!!!!!         • Believed they           were           descendents of           Romans &           Greeks &  ...
• Heinrich Himmler  was head of The  SCHUTZSTAFFEN (SS), Hitler’s secret  police, bodyguards  who used arrests,  execution...
•Hitler used public works & grants to private construction firms to put people to work & rearmed military
• JOESPEH GOEBBELS,  Hitler’s propaganda  minister set up:  mass demonstrations,  parades, speeches,  controlled churches ...
• Nuremberg Laws were  racial laws that: excluded  Jews from citizenship;  wear yellow star & id card; Jews banned from pu...
•
• KRISTALLNACHT  - (night of  shattered glass)  Nov 9, 1939-  Nazi’s, kill 100,  destroy 7000  businesses &  synagogues• 3...
MUSSOLINI & ITALY
ITALY• 1920s: BENITO MUSSOLINI  created a new poli party.• Creates FASCISM which  glorifies state above the  individual, n...
1920- Italy has problems. Middle class fears communist takeover. Muss forms BLACK SHIRTS (armed fascists) who attack strik...
• 1922: Fascist threaten to march on Rome if not given power.• King VICTOR EMMANUAL III makes Muss Prime minister & Muss c...
• Steps to control:1.created secret  police (OVRA), who  arrest anyone.2. Banned & kills  opposition.3. Muss called Il  Du...
5.Took over media to spread  propaganda,  slogans.6. Created youth  groups. Focused on military  activities & values to cr...
•Muss gave money to Catholic Church & created Vatican City as independent state & made it religion of Italy• In return, Po...
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators
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Problems After WWI and Rise of the Dictators

  1. 1. PROBLEMS AFTER THE WAR
  2. 2. 1.Germ unhappy w/ treaty. *due to reparations, loss of land & reduction in military
  3. 3. 2. League of Nations too weak- US did not join because we did not ratify harsh treaty.•LON used economic sanctions to stop problems, not force
  4. 4. 3. Inflation- a rise in prices due to Germ printing moremoney
  5. 5. 4. DAWES PLAN- US plan set up to help Germ pay back reparations & loaned 200 million to rebuild.•Created US investment.
  6. 6. 5. DEPRESSION-period of loweco activity &risingunemployment
  7. 7. Depression caused by:1. Farm prices fall due to overproduction(some destroy crops to help prices)
  8. 8. 2. US stock market booms in 20s, so investors pull money out of Germ to invest.3.Market crashes & stock prices drop
  9. 9. 4. US investors w/draw money from Germ & Euro & banks weakened.5. Production falls & unemployment rises.
  10. 10. •Economist John Maynard Keynes- said:Unemploymentcaused by lessdemand (whichcan be increasedby putting peopleto work building public works)
  11. 11. FDR•US-Franklin D Roosevelt wins 1932 election.• 15 mill out of work, 50% cut in production
  12. 12. •Created NEW DEAL- put people to work by funding public works. (building roads, post offices, airports).• Creates Social Security Act, TVA, etc.
  13. 13. RISE OF THE DICTATORS
  14. 14. STALIN & THE USSR
  15. 15. • DON’T WRITE!!!• By 1939, Fr & BR only big• nations of Europe still democratic•New form of dictatorship develops
  16. 16. • TOTALITARIANISM - aims to control all aspects of citizen’s lives. (poli, eco, social, culture & intellectual•Individual will is subordinated to collective will of masses
  17. 17. • DON’T WRITE!!!!!!!!!!• Famine hits in 1920-1922 & industry falls 20%.• VI LENIN create NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (called NEP), a version of capitalism or socialism.• Peasants can sell produce & small businesses could be privately owned, butheavy industry & bankingowned by govt
  18. 18. •Communists create UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS 1922 (USSR)
  19. 19. • Sickle-Unity of peasants• Hammer- workers• Red field: blood spilled by workers in fight for freedom• Star-energy of sun and life
  20. 20. • Lenin died in 1924 & a fight for power begins in Politburo
  21. 21. •LEON TROTSKY, war commissar, wants to spread communist rev & industrialize rapidly
  22. 22. • Josef Stalin- former editor of PRAVDA (Bolshevik propaganda magazine) & party general secretary wants power.• In charge of appointing 1000s of officials, who support him.
  23. 23. • Stalin gets control of party.• Gets rid of old Bolsheviks, & exiles Trotsky (who is murdered in Mexico).
  24. 24. •Creates 5 YEAR PLANS- sets of eco goals for 5 year periods to go from agricultural nation to industrial (1 plan-was st produce more CAPITAL GOODS (goods used to produce other goods)
  25. 25. • Bigger labor force in cities to work in the factories caused:• no housing.• Low wages.• Strict laws• Propaganda stresses sacrifice to build nation
  26. 26. •COLLECTIVIZATION-govt took over private farms & made peasants work for them. Wealthy kulaks were targeted• By 1934, 26 mil farms taken.• Famine occurs, 10 mil die, resistors sent to labor camps & party control increases.
  27. 27. • Paranoid Stalin begins PURGES- eliminating problem people to keep power. (killed or sent to Gulags (labor camps))
  28. 28. • Military officers, party members, citizens, union officials & diplomats were killed, arrested Nikoli Yezhov or sent to labor camps . History was changed, rewritten to make Stalin hero
  29. 29. Communism
  30. 30. HITLER & GERMANY
  31. 31. Don’t write!• Born Aus 1889, Austria, 4th of 6. Older kids all died• Family issues• high school failure• Traveled to Vienna & rejected by art school.• avoided signing up for Austrian army due to mixed races. Fought in Bavarian regiment• Dev racist & nationalist ideas in Vienna & after war
  32. 32. • HITLER’S REPORT CARD• French Unsatisfactory• Geography Satisfactory• German Adequate• Gymnastics Excellent• History Satisfactory• Physics Adequate• Mathematics Unsatisfactory• Art Excellent• Chemistry Adequate• Geometry Adequate
  33. 33. • After WWI, joined extreme nationalist group in Munich called German Workers Party in 1919.
  34. 34. • By 1921, controls & renames party National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) or NAZI. *55,000 people join *Create party militia of 12,000 called Brown Shirts.
  35. 35. • Storm public meeting in 1923 w/ Gen Luddendorf (called BEER HALL PUTSCH, meant to imitate Mussolini) to demand new govt, it fails & Hitler arrested
  36. 36. •Wrote Mein Kampf in jail about “superior nations” have right to LEBENSRAUM- living space thru expansion. *“Superior individuals” should rule over the masses
  37. 37. •*
  38. 38. • Realizes Nazi party needs to get votes to get power, not violent rev. Party expands & appeals to pride.• Biggest party in REICHSTAG (parliament) by 1929.
  39. 39. • Don’t WRITE!• Nazi rise helped by unemployment & eco problems• Industry leaders, aristocrats, officers look to Hitler for leadership.
  40. 40. • Pres. Hindenburg needs to get support in 1933.• He makes Hitler Chancellor in 1933, thinking he could control him
  41. 41. •Hitler sets up total Nazi control by Mar. 23, 1933
  42. 42. • Reichstag passes ENABLING ACT- give govt power to ignore constitution for 4 years to pass laws to deal w/ nations problems & gave Hitler legal basis for actions
  43. 43. •Nazis purge Jews from govt & set up CONCENTRATION CAMPS, abolished trade unions & poli parties
  44. 44. • Hindenburg dies in 1934 & Hitler rules. All officials take oath of loyalty to “Fuhrer”.• Wants to develop an “Aryan nation” to rule Europe.• Says Germ had 2 empires & Hitler will create THIRD REICH or 3rd empire
  45. 45. DON’T WRITE!!!!!!! • Believed they were descendents of Romans & Greeks & Germs meant to create Roman- like empire.
  46. 46. • Heinrich Himmler was head of The SCHUTZSTAFFEN (SS), Hitler’s secret police, bodyguards who used arrests, executions & concentration camps for control & terror
  47. 47. •Hitler used public works & grants to private construction firms to put people to work & rearmed military
  48. 48. • JOESPEH GOEBBELS, Hitler’s propaganda minister set up: mass demonstrations, parades, speeches, controlled churches & schools, formed professional groups for occupations & NAZI youth group’s for kids
  49. 49. • Nuremberg Laws were racial laws that: excluded Jews from citizenship; wear yellow star & id card; Jews banned from public buildings, transportation & marriage to Germans; cannot own, manage or work in stores.
  50. 50.
  51. 51. • KRISTALLNACHT - (night of shattered glass) Nov 9, 1939- Nazi’s, kill 100, destroy 7000 businesses & synagogues• 30,000 men sent to camps
  52. 52. MUSSOLINI & ITALY
  53. 53. ITALY• 1920s: BENITO MUSSOLINI created a new poli party.• Creates FASCISM which glorifies state above the individual, nationalism, glory of Italy & needs a strong central govt led by dictator
  54. 54. 1920- Italy has problems. Middle class fears communist takeover. Muss forms BLACK SHIRTS (armed fascists) who attack strikes & communists making many happy
  55. 55. • 1922: Fascist threaten to march on Rome if not given power.• King VICTOR EMMANUAL III makes Muss Prime minister & Muss creates fascist dictatorship by making PM head of govt.
  56. 56. • Steps to control:1.created secret police (OVRA), who arrest anyone.2. Banned & kills opposition.3. Muss called Il Duce (the leader)4. Stresses Italian pride
  57. 57. 5.Took over media to spread propaganda, slogans.6. Created youth groups. Focused on military activities & values to create war lovers
  58. 58. •Muss gave money to Catholic Church & created Vatican City as independent state & made it religion of Italy• In return, Pope urged Italy to support Muss.
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