•Conditions worsen & socialism grows (idea govt should take control of means of production) & Trade unions dev to fight to raise wages, & improve conditions
REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
CONGRESS OF VIENNA
• GB, AUS, PRU, RUS meet Sept 1814 for peace settlement at CONGRESS OF VIENNA• Led by Klemens Von Metternich
•Principle of Legitimacy- restore monarchies to power•Divide territories so that so no one too strong•GB, Rus, Pru Aus, Fr meet to keep peace
• adopt PRINCIPLE of INTERVENTION- right to send in armies if rev occurs. But Britain refused
• New ideas:• LIBRALISM-idea people should be free from govt restraint (freedom of speech, separation of church & state, want a constitutional monarchy)
•NATIONALISM- a uniquecultural identity of a peoplebased on a commonlanguage, religion, history.Often leads people to wantown nation. Startsrevolutions, upsets balanceof power
• GERMANY was 38 states (German Confederation)• Rulers promise new constitutions & meet as Frankfort assembly to write one. Draft it, but can’t enforce.• ITALY: 9 states, some owned by Austria.• Revolts break out to create unified Italy w/ liberal constitutions, but Austrians stop it.
SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
•DON’T WRITE!!!• Second Industrial Rev lasted from 1870s into 1900s.• 1st rev focused on railroads, iron, coal, and cloth. 2nd focused on:
1. Iron replaced by steel- light, strong2. electricity- heat & light, factories could run 24 hrs3. chemicals & oil
NEW 1. telephone inINVENTIONS 1876- Alexander Graham Bell 2. Radio- Guglielmo Marconi 3. Plane- Wright brothers 4. Internal combustion engine- Daimler
OTHER CHANGES •Wages increased & prices drop due to cheaper transportation & factories
• Italy, Aus- Hungary, SP, Port & Rus still agricultural, not industrial.
Top- wealthy 5% of pop own 30-40% of money• Middle Class- Drs, lawyers, civil servants• Lower-middle class- shopkeepers• Lower class- sales people, secretaries.• Working class- 80% of pop (servants, farmers)
GROCERY STORE late 1800s
1. Women- new jobs open up. Create jobs as clerks, secretaries, typists2. Women work until marriage in working class families.3. Feminism grows.4. Can divorce, own property, go to college
FUN!!!! • People had time & $$$$ for leisure • Pro sports (Reds 1869) • Amusement parks & dance halls open
CONEY ISLAND’S 1st COASTER
CONEY ISLAND RIDES
•State financed schools set up for boys & girls to:•train labor for factories•Increase literacy•Create patriotism
ORGANIZING THE WORKING CLASS•Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels upset by factory conditions & blame industrial capitalism.•Wrote in Communist Manifesto that:
COMMUNIST MANIFESTOa.history is a class struggle b. Oppressors or Bourgeoisie are middle class who own means of production (land, $$$) & control govt
COMMUNIST MANIFESTOc. Oppressed or Proletariat are working class & depend on oppressord. Huge struggle will occur w/ violent revolution
KARL MARX e. Proletariat will overthrow bourgeoisie & form dictatorship to organize production.
KARL MARXf . Creates no social or economic classes or differences .