Industrial revolution
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Industrial revolution






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Industrial revolution Industrial revolution Presentation Transcript

  • Why did it begin in Great Britain?1.Farming (more land new crops, better food)2.Britain had many workers (pop)
  • 3. British had money or CAPITAL to invest.4. ENTREPRENEURS: businessmen who want new opportunities to make money. View slide
  • 5. natural resources such as coal, iron, & water for power & shipping.6. Colonies create markets to sell goods View slide
  • 1. 1765: . James Hargreaves-invented spinning jenny-makes thread. Cottonindustry grows!!
  • Other inventions: 2. 1775: James Watt- improved steam engine- run machines, faster transportation
  • 2. Edmund Cartwright- water powered loom-weaves cloth, powered by rivers next to factories
  • COAL & IRON 3. Henry Cort invents PUDDLING- process to burn away impurities in iron to make hi quality iron
  • 4. 1804: Robert Trevithick 1 steam locomotive st•Creates new jobs, mkts & lowers costs of shipping. Trains go up to 50 mph, build 100s miles of track
  • 5. Robert Fulton credited w/ Clermont , 1 steamboat st
  • • INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM- an eco system based on industrial production & new classes developed as a result
  • • Factories built.• Owners have shifts to run machines constantly.• Employees work assembly lines, repeating same task.• Fined & beaten for being late
  • • Many workers had been farmers & many were women or kids (young as 5) who worked 12-16 hr days, for little pay
  • Social Changes New social classes developed: 1. Middle Class were managers, store owners, market planners 2. Industrial Working Class- were factory workers.
  • 1. Worked 12- 16 hr days, 6 days a weeks2. Little pay.3. Dangerous, loud & dirty conditions
  • • Society changed:• Most factory laborers were farmers ( 2/3 were women & kids)• Many moved to the cities• Working class & middle class developed
  • • Women paid ½ & were 50% of factory laborers.• Many also work out of home (called a COTTAGE INDUSTRY) doing cleaning, laundry, etc
  • NORTH AMERICADon’t write:Btw 1800-1860 pop grew!• canals & RRs link US• 50% of people live on farms in US, but many moving to the North to work in cities
  • How did population change? Urbanization (city growth) factors include:*Pop doubles in Europe. (266 mil)* Less wars & diseases, & better food led to growth.* people come to city to work in factories
  • EUROPE BY 1815
  • •Living conditions poor in cities•Cheap, crowded, dirty apartments•Rats & trash spread disease,•sewage & poor sanitation
  • •Conditions worsen & socialism grows (idea govt should take control of means of production) & Trade unions dev to fight to raise wages, & improve conditions
  • • GB, AUS, PRU, RUS meet Sept 1814 for peace settlement at CONGRESS OF VIENNA• Led by Klemens Von Metternich
  • •Principle of Legitimacy- restore monarchies to power•Divide territories so that so no one too strong•GB, Rus, Pru Aus, Fr meet to keep peace
  • • adopt PRINCIPLE of INTERVENTION- right to send in armies if rev occurs. But Britain refused
  • • New ideas:• LIBRALISM-idea people should be free from govt restraint (freedom of speech, separation of church & state, want a constitutional monarchy)
  • •NATIONALISM- a uniquecultural identity of a peoplebased on a commonlanguage, religion, history.Often leads people to wantown nation. Startsrevolutions, upsets balanceof power
  • • GERMANY was 38 states (German Confederation)• Rulers promise new constitutions & meet as Frankfort assembly to write one. Draft it, but can’t enforce.• ITALY: 9 states, some owned by Austria.• Revolts break out to create unified Italy w/ liberal constitutions, but Austrians stop it.
  • •DON’T WRITE!!!• Second Industrial Rev lasted from 1870s into 1900s.• 1st rev focused on railroads, iron, coal, and cloth. 2nd focused on:
  • 1. Iron replaced by steel- light, strong2. electricity- heat & light, factories could run 24 hrs3. chemicals & oil
  • NEW 1. telephone inINVENTIONS 1876- Alexander Graham Bell 2. Radio- Guglielmo Marconi 3. Plane- Wright brothers 4. Internal combustion engine- Daimler
  • OTHER CHANGES •Wages increased & prices drop due to cheaper transportation & factories
  • • Italy, Aus- Hungary, SP, Port & Rus still agricultural, not industrial.
  • Top- wealthy 5% of pop own 30-40% of money• Middle Class- Drs, lawyers, civil servants• Lower-middle class- shopkeepers• Lower class- sales people, secretaries.• Working class- 80% of pop (servants, farmers)
  • GROCERY STORE late 1800s
  • 1. Women- new jobs open up. Create jobs as clerks, secretaries, typists2. Women work until marriage in working class families.3. Feminism grows.4. Can divorce, own property, go to college
  • FUN!!!! • People had time & $$$$ for leisure • Pro sports (Reds 1869) • Amusement parks & dance halls open
  • •State financed schools set up for boys & girls to:•train labor for factories•Increase literacy•Create patriotism
  • ORGANIZING THE WORKING CLASS•Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels upset by factory conditions & blame industrial capitalism.•Wrote in Communist Manifesto that:
  • COMMUNIST MANIFESTOa.history is a class struggle b. Oppressors or Bourgeoisie are middle class who own means of production (land, $$$) & control govt
  • COMMUNIST MANIFESTOc. Oppressed or Proletariat are working class & depend on oppressord. Huge struggle will occur w/ violent revolution
  • KARL MARX e. Proletariat will overthrow bourgeoisie & form dictatorship to organize production.
  • KARL MARXf . Creates no social or economic classes or differences .