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Ch 21 Decline Of Soveit Union
 

Ch 21 Decline Of Soveit Union

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    Ch 21 Decline Of Soveit Union Ch 21 Decline Of Soveit Union Presentation Transcript

    • DECLINE OF THE SOVIET UNION
      • LEONID BREZHNEV replaces Khrushchev in 1964
      • Breznev Doctrine says USSR can step in if communism is threatened in another communist state
      • Life under Breznev:
      • 1. Relaxed rule (art, lit)
      • 2. Those who speak
      • out ( DISSIDENTS )
      • punished .
      • 3.Big problems such as alcoholism, poor economy & hi infant mortality
      • 4. Also inefficient govt, weak farming system & lack of incentives
      • for workers.
      • 5. Communist ruling class corrupt & has hi living standards ( compared to everyone else )
      • . 1970s: US & USSR enter phase called DÉTENTE - relaxed tensions with improved relations. ( US gives grain)
      • 1979: Soviets invade Afghanistan to est a pro Soviet govt
      • Ends détente .
      • Side issues:
      • US embargo,
      • Olympic ban
    • RONALD REAGAN
      • Pres Ronald Reagan calls USSR the “ EVIL EMPIRE ”.
      • US begins to build up arms & gives military aid to Afghanistan
    • Mikhail Gorbechev
      • MIKHAIL GORBECHEV leader wants to, rethink Soviet policy by 1985.
      • Reformers call for PERESTROIKA - or restructuring.
    • PERESTROIKA
      • Eco was 1 st focus & he started a MARKET ECONOMY -
      • Based on supply & demand & resources controlled & owned by individuals who compete for profits
    • GORBY
      • 1988: Gorby allows people to be elected to a new parliament & organize poli parties
      • (Congress of People Deputies)
    • END OF THE USSR
      • Many problems:
      • 92 different nationalities, 112 languages, too multiethnic & big pop.
      • KGB, leaders, military don’t want to lose privileges, fear break up.
      • DON’T WRITE!!
      • Nationalist movement emerges w/ calls for independence in 1989-1990.
      • Georgia, Latvia,
      • Estonia, Moldavia, Lithuania,
      • Uzbekistan,
      • Azerbaijan
    • YELTSIN
      • . Aug 19, 1991, Commies try to arrest Gorby, but fail when
      • Boris Yelstin ( Russia pres ) & citizens stops it
      • The UKRAINE moved first for independence on Dec. 1, 1991, followed by others
    • GONE WITH THE WIND
      • DON’T WRITE!!!
      • By late 1991- USSR doesnt exist
      • Dec 25, 1991, Gorby resigns & turns it over to BORIS YELTSIN
      • too many social & eco problems.
      • Organized crime rises
    • YELTSIN
      • Yeltsin doesn’t want former satellite nations to join NATO & sends troops to Chechnya to keep it part of Russia .
    • VLADIMIR PUTIN
      • In 1999, Vladimir Putin replaced Yeltsin.
      • DON’T WRITE!!
      • He cont reforms of free sale of land, tax cuts & joins World Trade Org.
      • Cont. bombing of Chechnya
    • GROZNY
    • EASTERN EUROPE
      • Gorby said USSR would no longer interfere militarily with other nations.
      • Revolutions break out across E Europe
    • POLAND
      • 1980: Poland rebels
      • worker LECH WALESA organized a trade union called SOLIDARITY - gets support of workers & Catholic Church (POPE JOHN PAUL II
      • is Polish),
      • but is arrested .
    • POLAND
      • 1988 Poland agrees to free elections.
      • Walesa elected pres in 1990 .
      • Eco problems due to fast change to free market .
    • CZECHOSLOVAKIA
      • 1988-89 demonstrations
      • VACLAV HAVAL elected new pres.
      • 2 ethnic groups emerge
      • & 1993 split into
      • CZECH REPUBLIC
      • & SLOVAKIA
    • ROMANIA
      • NICOLAE CEAUSCAU - cruel dictator who murdered 1000s w/ secret police . )
      • Secret police
      • turn on Nic &
      • execute him
      • Christmas 1990 .
      • ERICH HONECKER head of Com Party in E. Germ who used secret police
      • Mass demonstrations occur .
      • Nov 9, 1989. Com govt opens border. 100,000 people cross west & people begin to tear down Berlin Wall.
    • GERMANY
      • Germany reunited on Oct. 3, 1990.
      • Many problems.
    • YUGOSLAVIA! DON’T WRITE
      • Communist nation under Josip Tito , ( but not a USSR satellite).
      • Tito dies 1980 & reps from all republics & provinces in Yugoslavia meet
    • YUGOSLAVIA
      • 1990: Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina & Macedonia ask for independence.
      • SLOBADON MILOSVIC (Serbia leader) says no.
      • Wants borders redrawn to create greater Serbian state b/c many people there were Serbs ( Slavic like in WWI )
    • YUGOSLAVIA
      • Don’t’ write!
      • June 1991: Slovenia & Croatia declare independence
      • Sept. 1991 Yugo army (mostly Serbs) begins attack on Croatia
      • 1992: Serbs hit Bosnia-Herzegovinia (Many Bosnians Muslims)
      • Serbs used ETHNIC CLEANSING - killing or forcibly removing ethnic groups from lands -
      • Don’t write!
      • By 1995, 250,000 dead
      • More killed later in Kososvo
    • YUGOSLAVIA
      • DON’T WRITE: 1995 NATO gets involved.
      • NATO attacks Serbs who sign treaty on Dec. 14.
      • Splits Bosnia into union of Serb Republic & Muslim-Croat federation .
    • YUGOSLAVIA
      • KOSOVO- an AUTONOMOUS (self governing) area in Yugo with mostly ethnic Albanians .
      • Milosevic takes away status & Kosovo Liberation Army forms against Serb rule.
    • YUGOSLAVIA IS GONE
      • Serb forces massacre ethnic Albanians
      • US & NATO step in again
      • 2000: Milosevic put on trial for war crimes. (died 2006)
      • 2002 Serbia & Montenegro form union