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Ch 10
 

Ch 10

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    Ch 10 Ch 10 Presentation Transcript

    • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
    • SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
      • DON’T WRITE!
      • new ways of thinking
      • Telescope, microscope invented
      • Printing press spread
      • ideas
      • Math studied
    • CHANGES IN THE UNIVERSE
      • PTOLEMY (200 AD) created GEOCENTRIC MODEL or Earth centered universe
      • Earth surrounded by crystal rotating spheres w/ heavenly bodies stuck in them. ( 10 th was Prime mover w/ God & stars beyond 10th sphere)
    • Ptolemy’s view
      • Nicholas Copernicus (mid 1500’s Poland ) said universe is HELIOCENTRIC - sun centered.
      • Sun center of universe & planets revolve around sun
      • Moon revolves around earth, earth rotates on axis & revolves around sun each year
    • Copernicus’s View
      • Johannes Kepler said sun at center, but orbits were ellipses, not circles .
      • Galileo Galilei - w/ telescope discovered sunspots, moon mtns & planets were solid, ( not orbs of light)
      • Put on trial by pope
      • Ideas against Church teachings .
      • Isaac Newton - defined laws of motion, including law of gravity . (1600s)
      • Rene Descartes: Fr philosopher who said “I think, therefore I am”
      • Doubt material world, trust your mind.
      • Use reason
      • Mind & matter are separate.
      • Father of
      • rationalism .
      • FRANCIS BACON developed SCIENTIFIC METHOD: a procedure for analyzing & collecting evidence.
      • Bacon said use inductive reasoning (go from particular idea to general).
      • Use observations, experiments to
      • prove a hypothesis
      • to lead to correct principles .
    • THE ENLIGHTENMENT
      • The Enlightenment
      • PHILOSOPHES were Fr intellectuals.
      • Reason, law,
      • hope, progress,
      • themes of
      • enlightenment
      • Said you should apply rational criticism, study society, look at facts & use scientific
      • method to
      • make society
      • better .
      • John Locke , (big influence) s aid all humans born w/ TABULA RASA or a blank slate.
      • All knowledge comes from experience .
      • All people have natural rights
      • Change environment,
      • people change, so
      • new society is created
      • Baron Montesquieu: used scientific method to study govt to find natural laws that govern social & political relationships .
      • Said there should be executive, legislative & judicial branches .
      • Also separation
      • of powers &
      • checks
      • & balances .
      • VOLTAIRE - Middle class Parisian writer.
      • Taught religious toleration
      • Believed in freedom of thought
      • “ All men are brothers”
      • “ I do not agree with what you
      • have to say, but I'll
      • defend to the death
      • your right to say it”
      • Jean Jacque Rousseau : people create laws to protect property,but become slaves of govt
      • Wrote Social Contract 1762: said entire society agrees to be governed
      • by general will,
      • but lose
      • individual liberty .
      • Don’t Write!!!!! MAN IS BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE HE IS IN CHAINS
      • Free people, remember this maxim: we may acquire liberty, but it is never recovered if it is once lost
      • ECONOMICS -Said if people pursue own eco self interest, all society benefits.
      • ADAM SMITH (father of capitalism) govt should protect society from invasion & create public works
      • Govt should not interfere by imposing regulations.
      • Called LAISSEZ-FAIRE - let them alone
    • AMERICAN REVOLUTION
      • DON’T WRITE!!!! Colonies set up for profit, took natural resources & turned them into manufactured goods & sold back to colonies & nations.
      • DON’T WRITE! Ruled America from 3000 miles away
      • England has a constitutional monarchy
      • Britain needs $$$$ & passes Stamp Act Tax, taxing all paper goods
      • Colonists angry, but have no say in govt
      • 1st Continental Congress meets to plan action
      • Revolution starts!
      • & Congress meets after start of
      • rev on
      • 4/16/1776
      • (Concord/Lexington )
      • Congress organized govt & est Continental Army led by George Washington
      • Thomas Jefferson writes Declaration of Independence
      • Adopted July 4, 1776
      • declared equality & rights of the people, reasons for rebellion & independence from GB
      • France 1 st to recognize US
      • War ends w/ Treaty of Paris in 1783, giving US control of land E of the Mississippi.
      • Articles of Confederation , 1st constitution, kept each state independent.
      • Very weak govt.
      • (no power to tax, etc)
      • Meeting called to
      • fix Articles.
      • May 25, 1787, 55 delegates met in Philly for Constitutional Convention .
      • Articles tossed out & framers write new constitution .
      • New Constitution has executive, legislative & judicial branch
      • Separation of powers divide power btw branches.
      • Checks & balances allows each branch to check & balance each other (Montesquieu)
      • James Madison wrote Bill of Rights (10 Amendments) gave basic rights of people (speech, press, religion).
      • States would not
      • ratify Constitution
      • w/o it.
      • Seen as proof of Enlightenment
      • Enlightened Absolutism: rulers who used enlightenment ideas,
      • but kept royal
      • power.
      • Prussia: Frederick II or The Great : Voltaire lived w/ him, abolished torture, granted limited free speech, press & religious toleration.
      • Kept serfdom
                                           
      • AUSTRIA: JOSEPH II: abolished serfdom, no death penalty, equality for all before law, religious toleration.
      • Failed. Upset many. Nobles, serfs
      • unhappy
      • RUSSIA: CATHERINE THE GREAT :
      • Planned w/ Diderot,
      • set up enlightenment program, did not follow thru
      • Favored nobility
      • Expanded serfdom