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Ch 10

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Transcript

  • 1. SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
  • 2. SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
    • DON’T WRITE!
    • new ways of thinking
    • Telescope, microscope invented
    • Printing press spread
    • ideas
    • Math studied
  • 3. CHANGES IN THE UNIVERSE
    • PTOLEMY (200 AD) created GEOCENTRIC MODEL or Earth centered universe
    • Earth surrounded by crystal rotating spheres w/ heavenly bodies stuck in them. ( 10 th was Prime mover w/ God & stars beyond 10th sphere)
  • 4. Ptolemy’s view
  • 5.
    • Nicholas Copernicus (mid 1500’s Poland ) said universe is HELIOCENTRIC - sun centered.
    • Sun center of universe & planets revolve around sun
    • Moon revolves around earth, earth rotates on axis & revolves around sun each year
  • 6. Copernicus’s View
  • 7.
    • Johannes Kepler said sun at center, but orbits were ellipses, not circles .
  • 8.
    • Galileo Galilei - w/ telescope discovered sunspots, moon mtns & planets were solid, ( not orbs of light)
  • 9.
    • Put on trial by pope
    • Ideas against Church teachings .
  • 10.
    • Isaac Newton - defined laws of motion, including law of gravity . (1600s)
  • 11.
    • Rene Descartes: Fr philosopher who said “I think, therefore I am”
    • Doubt material world, trust your mind.
    • Use reason
    • Mind & matter are separate.
    • Father of
    • rationalism .
  • 12.
    • FRANCIS BACON developed SCIENTIFIC METHOD: a procedure for analyzing & collecting evidence.
  • 13.
    • Bacon said use inductive reasoning (go from particular idea to general).
    • Use observations, experiments to
    • prove a hypothesis
    • to lead to correct principles .
  • 14. THE ENLIGHTENMENT
  • 15.
    • The Enlightenment
    • PHILOSOPHES were Fr intellectuals.
    • Reason, law,
    • hope, progress,
    • themes of
    • enlightenment
  • 16.
    • Said you should apply rational criticism, study society, look at facts & use scientific
    • method to
    • make society
    • better .
  • 17.
    • John Locke , (big influence) s aid all humans born w/ TABULA RASA or a blank slate.
    • All knowledge comes from experience .
    • All people have natural rights
    • Change environment,
    • people change, so
    • new society is created
  • 18.
    • Baron Montesquieu: used scientific method to study govt to find natural laws that govern social & political relationships .
  • 19.
    • Said there should be executive, legislative & judicial branches .
    • Also separation
    • of powers &
    • checks
    • & balances .
  • 20.
    • VOLTAIRE - Middle class Parisian writer.
    • Taught religious toleration
    • Believed in freedom of thought
    • “ All men are brothers”
    • “ I do not agree with what you
    • have to say, but I'll
    • defend to the death
    • your right to say it”
  • 21.
    • Jean Jacque Rousseau : people create laws to protect property,but become slaves of govt
    • Wrote Social Contract 1762: said entire society agrees to be governed
    • by general will,
    • but lose
    • individual liberty .
  • 22.
    • Don’t Write!!!!! MAN IS BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE HE IS IN CHAINS
    • Free people, remember this maxim: we may acquire liberty, but it is never recovered if it is once lost
  • 23.
    • ECONOMICS -Said if people pursue own eco self interest, all society benefits.
  • 24.
    • ADAM SMITH (father of capitalism) govt should protect society from invasion & create public works
    • Govt should not interfere by imposing regulations.
    • Called LAISSEZ-FAIRE - let them alone
  • 25. AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • 26.
    • DON’T WRITE!!!! Colonies set up for profit, took natural resources & turned them into manufactured goods & sold back to colonies & nations.
  • 27.
    • DON’T WRITE! Ruled America from 3000 miles away
    • England has a constitutional monarchy
  • 28.
    • Britain needs $$$$ & passes Stamp Act Tax, taxing all paper goods
    • Colonists angry, but have no say in govt
    • 1st Continental Congress meets to plan action
  • 29.
    • Revolution starts!
    • & Congress meets after start of
    • rev on
    • 4/16/1776
    • (Concord/Lexington )
  • 30.
    • Congress organized govt & est Continental Army led by George Washington
  • 31.
    • Thomas Jefferson writes Declaration of Independence
    • Adopted July 4, 1776
  • 32.
    • declared equality & rights of the people, reasons for rebellion & independence from GB
    • France 1 st to recognize US
  • 33.
    • War ends w/ Treaty of Paris in 1783, giving US control of land E of the Mississippi.
  • 34.
    • Articles of Confederation , 1st constitution, kept each state independent.
    • Very weak govt.
    • (no power to tax, etc)
    • Meeting called to
    • fix Articles.
  • 35.
    • May 25, 1787, 55 delegates met in Philly for Constitutional Convention .
    • Articles tossed out & framers write new constitution .
  • 36.
    • New Constitution has executive, legislative & judicial branch
    • Separation of powers divide power btw branches.
    • Checks & balances allows each branch to check & balance each other (Montesquieu)
  • 37.
    • James Madison wrote Bill of Rights (10 Amendments) gave basic rights of people (speech, press, religion).
    • States would not
    • ratify Constitution
    • w/o it.
    • Seen as proof of Enlightenment
  • 38.
    • Enlightened Absolutism: rulers who used enlightenment ideas,
    • but kept royal
    • power.
  • 39.
    • Prussia: Frederick II or The Great : Voltaire lived w/ him, abolished torture, granted limited free speech, press & religious toleration.
    • Kept serfdom
                                         
  • 40.
    • AUSTRIA: JOSEPH II: abolished serfdom, no death penalty, equality for all before law, religious toleration.
    • Failed. Upset many. Nobles, serfs
    • unhappy
  • 41.
    • RUSSIA: CATHERINE THE GREAT :
    • Planned w/ Diderot,
    • set up enlightenment program, did not follow thru
    • Favored nobility
    • Expanded serfdom