Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration (An Introduction)

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Agenda – Monday Oct. 24, 2011 Warm-Up (Metabolism, ATP, Thermodynamics): Lesson (Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration): Wrap-Up (Lesson Review/EOC questions): Any Remaining Class Time is devoted to A-PLUS ONLY!! (No leaving class; No sleeping!!)
  • 3. Today’s Objectives
    • I will compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration
    • I will define and classify two types of metabolism: photosynthesis and cellular respiration
  • 4. Warm-Up
    • Define metabolism and name two important types of metabolism.
  • 5. Metabolism – all of the chemical reactions in a cell Cellular Energy
    • Photosynthesis — light energy from the Sun is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell
    • Cellular respiration — organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell
    Chapter 8
  • 6. Warm-Up
    • Which law of thermodynamics describes how energy is c onserved (not created or destroyed)?
  • 7. Laws of Thermodynamics
    • First law — energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
      • Derived from the law of conservation of energy .
    Cellular Energy
    • Second law — energy cannot be converted without the loss of usable energy.
      • Example: When consumers convert chemical energy into kinetic energy, some energy is loss as heat to the environment but NOT destroyed.
    Chapter 8
  • 8. Warm-Up
    • What is ATP and how is used to create energy?
  • 9. ATP: The Unit of Cellular Energy
    • ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
      • has usable energy stored in the phosphate tail
      • releases energy when the bond between the second and third phosphate groups is broken
    Cellular Energy Chapter 8
  • 10.
    • Photosynthesis = process by which producers use the energy of the sun to make food
    • Stores energy in chemical bonds
      • sunlight (radiant energy) is converted to chemical energy
    • Occurs in the chloroplasts
    Cellular Energy Photosynthesis Chapter 8
  • 11.
    • Carbon dioxide and water are the reactants
    • Glucose and oxygen are the products
    Cellular Energy Photosynthesis Chapter 8 The Chemical Reaction
    • Carbon Dioxide + Water  Glucose + Oxygen
  • 12. Two Phases of Photosynthesis
    • Light-Dependent Reactions
    Cellular Energy
    • Light-Independent Reactions or Dark Reactions
    Photosynthesis Chapter 8
  • 13. Light Dependent Reactions
    • Chlorophyll is the green pigment in plants
    Cellular Energy Photosynthesis Chapter 8
    • What happens:
      • Cholorophyll absorbs light energy from the sun
      • Light energy energizes or excites electrons in chlorophyll
      • Enzymes transfer the energized (excited) electrons to ATP
  • 14. Light Independent Reactions
    • These are also called the Dark Reactions
    Cellular Energy Photosynthesis Chapter 8
    • What happens:
      • ATP from the light-dependent reactions is used to convert water and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen
  • 15. Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy Chapter 8
    • Cellular Respiration = process by which consumers obtain energy from the chemical bonds in food
    • Chemical bonds (found in organic molecules like sugar) are broken down to release energy (ATP)
      • Chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy and heat
    • Occurs in the mitochondria
  • 16. The Chemical Reaction Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy Chapter 8
    • The reverse of photosynthesis
    • Glucose and oxygen are the reactants
    • Carbon Dioxide and Water are the products
    • Glucose + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
  • 17. Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Cellular Energy Chapter 8 Process Reactants Products Energy Involved Photosynthesis carbon dioxide, water glucose, oxygen input of radiant energy (sunlight) Cellular Respiration glucose, oxygen carbon dioxide, water release of chemical energy (ATP)
  • 18. Wrap-Up
  • 19.
    • photosynthesis
    • cellular respiration
    • homeostasis
    • fermentation
    In which metabolic process are molecules broken down to produce carbon dioxide and water? Cellular Energy Wrap-Up (Oct. 24) Chapter 8
  • 20.
    • chloroplasts
    • Golgi apparatus
    • mitochondria
    • vacuoles
    Where in the plant cell does photosynthesis take place? Cellular Energy Wrap-Up (Oct. 24) Chapter 8
  • 21.
    • to make ATP
    • to process H 2 O
    • to store glucose
    • to deliver oxygen
    What is the overall purpose of cellular respiration? Cellular Energy Wrap-Up (Oct. 24) Chapter 8
  • 22. Which metabolic process is photosynthesis? Cellular Energy Wrap-Up (Oct. 24) Chapter 8 A B
  • 23.
    • glucose
    • oxygen
    • chlorophyll
    • carbon
    Photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy. What form of chemical energy is used in cellular respiration? Cellular Energy Wrap-Up (Oct. 24) Chapter 8