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Dna structure and function (notes)


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  • 1. DNA Structure and Function Biology I Mr. Nettles
  • 2. Today’s Agenda – Wed. Oct. 9, 2011
    • Warm-up
    • Mini-Lesson
    • Summarization and Homework Questions
  • 3.
    • Enzymes are converted into products by the reactions they catalyze.
    • Enzymes lower the activation energy of reactions.
    • One enzyme can catalyze many different reactions.
    • An enzyme is used once and then destroyed by the cell.
    Which best describes how enzymes function in the body? Cellular Energy Warm-Up (Nov. 9)
  • 4.
    • move substances across the cell membrane without the use of ATP.
    • move from low concentration to high concentration by diffusion.
    • move small molecules through the cell membrane by osmosis.
    • move substances from a low concentration to high concentration through the use of energy.
    In active transport, carrier proteins Cellular Energy Warm-Up (Nov. 9)
  • 5.
    • absorb excess energy
    • release unused energy
    • increase the reaction rate
    • regulate product reactivity
    Which best describes the role of enzymes in a chemical reaction? Cellular Energy Warm-Up (Nov. 9)
  • 6. Today’s Objectives
    • I will identify the structure of DNA. (How it looks)
    • I will articulate the function of DNA. (What it does)
    • I will explore DNA replication. (How it is made)
  • 7. What is DNA?
    • DNA is a large molecule that directs the making of proteins in the cell.
      • The proteins made control all the activities and processes in the cell.
  • 8. Where is DNA located?
    • DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell.
  • 9. How does DNA look?
    • DNA forms a double helix.
      • It looks like a twisted braid.
    • DNA is a nucleic acid, so it’s made up of nucleotides .
  • 10. How is DNA made?
    • DNA is made through a process called DNA replication.
    • DNA copies itself during S phase of the cell cycle .
  • 11. Steps of DNA Replication
    • The two strands of DNA separate or “unzip ”.
    • Each “old strand” creates a “new strand” by base pairing .
    • The enzyme, DNA polymerase , checks for errors and repairs the new DNA molecule
  • 12. Nucleotides and Base Pairing
    • Nucleotides are made up of three parts:
      • a five – carbon sugar
      • a phosphate group
      • a nitrogenous base
    • DNA nucleotides can have one of four different nitrogenous bases : Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C).
    • Nitrogenous Base Pairing :
      • A pairs with T ( A pples grow on T rees).
      • C pairs with G ( C ars need G as).
  • 13. Video about Genetic Engineering