Cell reproduction (part 2)

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  • 1. Mr. Nettles Biology I: Cell Growth and Reproduction (Part 2)
  • 2. Today’s Objectives
    • I will define: chromosomes , sister chromatids , and centromere.
    • I will explore the stages of the cell cycle.
    • I will explore the phases of mitosis.
  • 3. Agenda – Thurs., Sept. 22, 2011
    • Warm-Up
    • Presentations (Homework from last night)
    • Lesson
    • Wrap-Up
  • 4. Warm-Up
    • Mitosis is a form of ________________ reproduction.
    • Eukaryotes reproduce by _________________.
    • Prokaryotes reproduce by ________________.
  • 5. Research: The Cell Cycle
    • Choose one of the following stages of the cell cycle: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, M phase, or Cytokinesis.
    • Use the internet to research information about the stage that you have chosen.
    • Write four interesting things about what you read:
        • What is it? (The definition)
        • What happens?
        • How long does it happen?
        • What’s used? (What special cell parts or organelles are involved)
  • 6. The Cell Cycle
    • A process by which cells:
      • Grow
      • make copies of chromosomes
      • divide into new daughter cells
    copyright cmassengale
  • 7. The Cell Cycle
    • Has three parts:
      • Interphase
      • Mitosis
      • Cytokinesis
    copyright cmassengale
  • 8. Interphase
    • G1 Phase = “gap 1” phase
          • First growth stage
          • Cell gets bigger
          • Cell prepares to copy its DNA
  • 9. Interphase
  • 10. The set of 46 human chromosomes
  • 11. Sister Chromatids = the two identical parts on a chromosome Centromere = the middle part that holds the sister chromatids together
  • 12. Interphase
    • G2 Phase = “gap 2” phase
          • Second growth stage
          • Organelles needed for Mitosis are formed
            • Centrioles and Spindle Fibers
  • 13. Interphase Summary
    • G1 : cell growth
    • S phase : DNA is
    • copied
    • G2 : cell prepares
    • for division
  • 14. M Phase (Mitosis)
    • One division of the cell nucleus to produce two new daughter cells
    • Has four phases (PMAT):
        • P rophase
        • M etaphase
        • A naphase
        • T elophase
  • 15. 1. PROPHASE
    • Chromosomes appear
    • Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell
    • Chromosomes attach to the spindle
    • Nucleolus and nuclear membrane breaks down
  • 16. 2. METAPHASE
    • Chromosomes line up at the center or (middle)
  • 17. 3. ANAPHASE
    • Centromeres split
    • Sister chromatids separate to form individual chromosomes
    • Anaphase ends when the movement of chromosomes stops
  • 18. 4. TELOPHASE
    • Chromosomes uncoil into chromatin
    • Nuclear membrane reforms
    • Spindle breaks apart
  • 19. 5. CYTOKINESIS
    • The cytoplasm of the cell divides
    • Forms two daughter cells that are exactly like the parent cell (each have one complete set of chromosomes)
  • 20. Wrap-Up
    • Which part of interphase involves copying DNA ?
    • Which stage of Mitosis involves chromosomes lining up at the middle ?
    • What are chromosomes made up of?