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  • 1. Biology I Mr. Nettles
  • 2. Agenda- Tuesday, August 23, 2011
    • Name that Guy – 15 min
    • Warm Up – 5 min
    • Daily Lesson – 30 min
    • Wrap Up – 5 min
  • 3. Today’s Objectives
    • I will identify the scientists who contributed to the cell theory.
    • I will define the words prokaryotic, eukaryotic, and organelle .
    • I will define and describe the primary organelles of eukaryotic cells.
    • I will articulate the function of each organelle.
  • 4. Name that Guy
  • 5. Procedure
    • Read a brief paragraph of each scientist and underline key information .
    • Form teams of two and discuss each scientist .
    • As a team, come up with a one sentence summary of what each scientist contributed to our understanding of cells.
    • Each team shares their summary of each scientist with the class.
    • Play “Name that Guy” (Quiz, Quiz, Trade style)
  • 6. Warm-Up
    • Define cell.
    • Which scientist came up with the name “ cell ” by studying a piece of dead cork?
    • Complete the statement: “All cells are produced by _____________.”
  • 7. What you need to know about ALL Cells
    • Tend to be microscopic
    • Have a few key structures:
      • are enclosed by a membrane .
      • are filled with cytoplasm .
    Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) cell membrane cytoplasm
  • 8.
    • Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane-bond organelles
      • “ Eu” means “true”
    Eukaryotic Cell nucleus cell membrane organelles
  • 9. Eukaryotic Cell
  • 10.
      • Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus .
      • Prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound organelles .
        • “ Pro” means “no”
    Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic nucleus cell membrane organelles cytoplasm
  • 11. What are organelles ?
    • Definition: Organelles are specialized structures that perform important cellular functions within eukaryotic cells
    • You have a body that has organs that do specific things so your whole body will work. An organelle is like an organ for the cell.
  • 12. Organelles found in ALL eukaryotic cells :
    • Nucleus
    • Nucleolus
    • Cytoplasm
    • Cell membrane
    • Ribosome
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Golgi apparatus
    • Mitochondria
    • Lysosomes
  • 13. **A little bit of help**
    • For each organelle (cell organ) I will give you its DEFINITION and its FUNCTION .
      • The DEFINITION is a short description of what it looks like, where it is found, and how we can recognize it.
        • Definition of an iPOD: a small technological device that comes in a variety of colors and contains songs that you can play.
      • The FUNCTION is what it does…it’s purpose.
        • Function of an iPOD: an iPOD is used to play music and is often used when someone is studying, exercising or other times. It is small so it can be carried around.
  • 14. Nucleus
    • DEFINITION :
      • Large organelle in the center of the cell that controls everything that happens in the cell… the “brain” of the cell
    • FUNCTION :
      • Stores all genetic material (DNA)
      • Involved in duplication of DNA during cellular division (MITOSIS)
  • 15. Nucleus
  • 16. Nucleolus
    • DEFINITION :
      • small, dense structure in the nucleus that creates rRNA.
    • FUNCTION :
      • Creates ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
          • rRNA is very important in making ribosomes
          • Ribosomes are involved in making proteins
  • 17. Nucleolus
  • 18. Cytoplasm
    • DEFINITION :
        • All material in the cell except for the nucleus.
        • A gooey fluid that fills the cell and acts as support
        • Made mostly of water
    • FUNCTION :
        • It supports the cell…kind of like bubble wrap or packing peanuts support and protect a package.
  • 19. Cytoplasm
  • 20. Cellular membrane
    • DEFINITION :
      • thin, flexible layer that surrounds the cell’s cytoplasm.
    • FUNCTION :
      • Controls what goes into and out of the cell
      • Protection
  • 21. Cellular membrane
  • 22. Ribosome
    • Definition :
      • A small, dense organelle made mostly from rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
      • Attached to endoplasmic reticulum or free floating in the cytoplasm
    • Function :
      • Makes proteins
  • 23. Ribosome
  • 24. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):
    • Definition :
        • A system of folded tube-like structures attached to the nucleus
    • Function :
        • Folds proteins
        • Transports proteins
        • Site of ribosomes
  • 25. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):
  • 26. Golgi Apparatus:
    • Definition :
      • A system of folded tube-like structures NOT attached to the nucleus
    • Function :
      • packages things that are made in the cell to be transported to another organelle or outside of the cell (i.e. enzymes, proteins, hormones)
  • 27. Golgi Apparatus
  • 28. Mitochondria
    • Definition :
      • A membrane-enclosed organelle with cristae (folds) inside.
    • Function :
      • Creates the ATP (chemical energy ) that most of the cell uses.
      • “Powerhouse of the cell”
  • 29. Mitochondria
  • 30. Lysosomes
    • Definition :
      • Small organelles within the cytoplasm that are filled with enzymes
    • Function :
      • Break down …
        • food into small particles that can be used by the rest of the cell
        • organelles that are no longer needed and other waste in the cell
  • 31.  
  • 32. Wrap-Up
    • What is known as the “powerhouse of the cell” and creates the cell’s chemical energy?
    • Define prokaryotic.
    • What is the purpose or function of cytoplasm?