Islam: Origins and Expansion

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Islam: Origins and Expansion

  1. 1. Islam Unit 8: SOL Objectives WHI.8a-d
  2. 2. What is Islam? <ul><li>A monotheistic religion founded by Muhammad </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Beliefs of Islam <ul><li>One God : (Allah= Arabic world for God </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment Day </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of prophets, including Moses and Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad was the last prophet by God </li></ul>
  4. 4. Founding of Islam <ul><li>570 AD Muhammad born in Mecca (Makkah) </li></ul>The Prophet Muhammad
  5. 5. Founding of Islam <ul><li>610 AD Muhammad was told by a vision of the angel Gabriel that he would be a prophet so began preaching in Mecca </li></ul>
  6. 6. Muhammad receiving the message from Gabriel
  7. 7. Founding of Islam <ul><li>Islamic religion spread from Mecca to Medina along trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>622 AD: Muhammad fled to Medina (Madinah) because of threats to his life </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spread of Islam from Mecca to Medina 570 AD to 622 AD
  9. 9. Founding of Islam <ul><li>630 AD: Muhammad returned to Mecca and was accepted </li></ul><ul><li>632 AD: Muhammad died in Medina (Madinah) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Five Pillars <ul><li>As part of the Islam religion, all true Muslims must perform 5 duties: </li></ul>
  11. 11. Affirmation of Faith <ul><li>The duty to recite the creed: “There is nothing worthy of worship save Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Prayer <ul><li>The duty to pray to God five times each day </li></ul>Muslims must pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
  13. 13. Almsgiving <ul><li>The duty to give away alms and to help the needy </li></ul>Gabriel showing Muhammad the importance of alms giving
  14. 14. Fasting <ul><li>The duty to keep the fast of Ramadan </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pilgrimage <ul><li>The duty to visit Mecca at least once in a lifetime </li></ul>
  16. 16. Quran (Koran) <ul><li>Islamic Holy Book </li></ul>
  17. 17. Holy City <ul><li>Mecca (Birthplace of Muhammad) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Spread of Islamic Civilization
  19. 19. Islamic religion spread rapidly over great distances: Syria, Iraq, Jerusalem, Egypt, Persia, Spain, Asia Minor, Russia, and India
  20. 20. Why?? <ul><li>Quran instructed them to spread their faith. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Expansion <ul><li>635 AD: Muslim Conquest of Damascus, Syria </li></ul><ul><li>637 AD: Muslim Conquest of Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>638 AD: Muslim Conquest of Jerusalem </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>641 AD: Muslim conquest Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>649 AD: Muslim conquest of Persia </li></ul><ul><li>718 AD: Iberian Peninsula ( Spain and Portugal) mostly occupied by Muslims </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>732 AD: Battle of Tours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>** Muslims were defeated** and Islamic expansion into Europe stopped </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Tours is a city located in France.
  25. 28. 11 th Century <ul><li>Turks seize most of Asia Minor from Byzantine </li></ul>
  26. 29. 13 th Century <ul><li>Tatars conquer Russia, converted to Islam </li></ul>
  27. 30. 1453 <ul><li>Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks, End of Byzantine Empire </li></ul>
  28. 31. The Split in Islam
  29. 32. Split of Islam <ul><li>656 AD- two groups split over how the religious leaders should be chosen </li></ul>
  30. 33. SHIITE (Shi’a) <ul><li>Mostly in Iraq & Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Thought leader must be related to Muhammad through his daughter Fatima & Ali </li></ul>
  31. 34. The 12 Imams, believed to be descendants of Muhammad daughter Fatima and son-in-Law Ali and the infallible true leaders of Islam.
  32. 35. SUNNI <ul><li>Majority of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Leader should be any devout Muslim that the Muslims would accept </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Two groups fought each other; Sunni won & began the 1 st Muslim Empire: </li></ul>
  34. 37. Umayyad Empire (661- 750AD) <ul><li>Moved capital to Damascus, Syria (Centrally located) </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered to the Indus River, North Africa, & Spain </li></ul>
  35. 40. STOP!!! <ul><li>** MUSLIMS ARE STOPPED IN 732 AD AT THE BATTLE OF TOURS IN FRANCE*** </li></ul>
  36. 41. <ul><li>Official language= Arabic </li></ul>
  37. 42. Abbasids vs. Umayyad <ul><li>Abbasids defeated Umayyad in 750 AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built a new capital in Baghdad, Iraq </li></ul></ul>
  38. 43. The non-shaded region shows the Abbasid Caliphate
  39. 44. <ul><li>Beginning in 800 AD Islamic Empire began to break up and by 1000 AD only controlled area around Baghdad </li></ul>
  40. 45. <ul><li>Islamic Civilization preserved and extended ancient Greek, Persian, and Indian Learning </li></ul>
  41. 46. Cultural Contributions <ul><li>Architecture (ex: Dome of the Rock, mosques) </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaics </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic alphabet </li></ul>
  42. 47. Dome of the Rock
  43. 48. Mosque in Istanbul
  44. 50. Islamic Mosaics
  45. 51. Cultural Contributions and Achievements <ul><li>Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Translation of ancient texts into Arabic </li></ul>
  46. 52. Scientific contributions/Achievements <ul><li>Arabic numerals (adapted from India), including zero </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of geographic knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Algebra </li></ul>
  47. 53. Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), the father of modern surgery , performed surgeries under inhalant anesthesia , and invented the plaster and many surgical instruments
  48. 54. Medicine <ul><li>Al-Razi- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief physician at hospital in Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compiled a huge medical encyclopedia, explaining diseases so doctors could tell them apart. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 55. Medicine <ul><li>Ibn Sina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholar and doctor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote the textbook Canon of Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in Europe until 1650 </li></ul></ul>
  50. 56. Mathematics <ul><li>Al-Khwarizmi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compiled Arabic math book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed Algebra </li></ul></ul>
  51. 57. Geography <ul><li>Al-Idrisi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent people to countries to study geographic features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed more accurate maps </li></ul></ul>
  52. 58. Students in the ancient Islamic University

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