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Islam Unit 8: SOL Objectives WHI.8a-d
What is Islam? <ul><li>A monotheistic religion founded by Muhammad </li></ul>
Basic Beliefs of Islam <ul><li>One God : (Allah= Arabic world for God </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment Day </li></ul><ul><li>Acc...
Founding of Islam <ul><li>570 AD  Muhammad born in Mecca  (Makkah) </li></ul>The Prophet Muhammad
Founding of Islam <ul><li>610 AD Muhammad was told by a vision of the angel Gabriel that he would be a prophet so began pr...
Muhammad receiving the message from Gabriel
Founding of Islam <ul><li>Islamic religion spread from Mecca to Medina along trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>622 AD: Muhamm...
Spread of Islam from Mecca to Medina 570 AD to 622 AD
Founding of Islam <ul><li>630 AD: Muhammad returned to Mecca and was accepted  </li></ul><ul><li>632 AD:  Muhammad died in...
Five Pillars <ul><li>As part of the Islam religion, all true Muslims must perform 5 duties: </li></ul>
Affirmation of Faith <ul><li>The duty to recite the creed: “There is nothing worthy of worship save Allah, and Muhammad is...
Prayer <ul><li>The duty to pray to God five times each day </li></ul>Muslims must pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
Almsgiving <ul><li>The duty to give away alms and to help the needy </li></ul>Gabriel showing Muhammad the importance of a...
Fasting <ul><li>The duty to keep the fast of Ramadan </li></ul>
Pilgrimage <ul><li>The duty to visit Mecca at least once in a lifetime </li></ul>
Quran (Koran) <ul><li>Islamic Holy Book </li></ul>
Holy City <ul><li>Mecca (Birthplace of Muhammad) </li></ul>
Spread of Islamic Civilization
Islamic religion spread rapidly over great distances: Syria, Iraq, Jerusalem, Egypt, Persia, Spain, Asia Minor, Russia, an...
Why?? <ul><li>Quran instructed them to spread their faith. </li></ul>
 
Expansion <ul><li>635 AD: Muslim Conquest of  Damascus, Syria </li></ul><ul><li>637 AD: Muslim Conquest of  Iraq </li></ul...
<ul><li>641 AD: Muslim conquest Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>649 AD: Muslim conquest of Persia </li></ul><ul><li>718 AD: Iberia...
<ul><li>732 AD:  Battle of Tours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>** Muslims were defeated**  and Islamic expansion into Europe  stop...
Tours is a city located in France.
 
 
11 th  Century <ul><li>Turks seize most of  Asia Minor  from Byzantine </li></ul>
13 th  Century <ul><li>Tatars conquer  Russia,  converted to Islam </li></ul>
1453 <ul><li>Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks, End of Byzantine Empire </li></ul>
The Split in Islam
Split of Islam <ul><li>656 AD- two groups split over how the religious leaders should be chosen </li></ul>
SHIITE (Shi’a) <ul><li>Mostly in Iraq & Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Thought leader must be related to Muhammad through his daug...
The 12 Imams, believed to be descendants of Muhammad daughter Fatima and son-in-Law Ali and the infallible true leaders of...
SUNNI <ul><li>Majority of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Leader should be any devout Muslim that the Muslims would accept </li>...
<ul><li>Two groups fought each other; Sunni won & began the 1 st  Muslim Empire: </li></ul>
Umayyad Empire (661- 750AD) <ul><li>Moved capital to Damascus, Syria (Centrally located) </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered to th...
 
 
STOP!!! <ul><li>** MUSLIMS ARE STOPPED IN 732 AD AT THE BATTLE OF TOURS IN FRANCE*** </li></ul>
<ul><li>Official language= Arabic </li></ul>
Abbasids vs. Umayyad <ul><li>Abbasids defeated Umayyad in 750 AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built a new capital in Baghdad, Ira...
The non-shaded region shows the Abbasid Caliphate
<ul><li>Beginning in 800 AD Islamic Empire began to break up and by 1000 AD only controlled area around Baghdad </li></ul>
<ul><li>Islamic Civilization preserved and extended ancient Greek, Persian, and Indian Learning </li></ul>
Cultural Contributions <ul><li>Architecture (ex: Dome of the Rock, mosques) </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaics </li></ul><ul><li>Ar...
Dome of the Rock
Mosque in Istanbul
 
Islamic Mosaics
Cultural Contributions and Achievements <ul><li>Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Translation of ancient texts into Arabic </...
Scientific contributions/Achievements <ul><li>Arabic numerals (adapted from India), including zero </li></ul><ul><li>Medic...
Abu al-Qasim  (Abulcasis), the father of modern  surgery , performed surgeries under  inhalant   anesthesia , and invented...
Medicine <ul><li>Al-Razi- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief physician at hospital in Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compiled...
Medicine <ul><li>Ibn Sina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholar and doctor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote the textbook  Canon of...
Mathematics <ul><li>Al-Khwarizmi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compiled Arabic math book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed Alge...
Geography <ul><li>Al-Idrisi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent people to countries to study geographic features </li></ul></ul><ul...
Students in the ancient Islamic University
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Islam: Origins and Expansion

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  • romve that foto...thats fake
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  • remove the fake photo
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  • brother,
    please remove that fake photo of the Prophet Muhammed(PUH).
    there is not available any of His photo yet now.
    Please, don't try to make misconceptions on His History.
    Islam not founded by Him. Islam is religion of God. and the Prophet Muhammed(PUH) is His messenger. And He preached Islam.
    Try to study about Him from reliable and true sources.
    Allah bless you....
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  • what you mention is not enough. You should have spoken about the righteous caliphs.
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Transcript of "Islam: Origins and Expansion"

  1. 1. Islam Unit 8: SOL Objectives WHI.8a-d
  2. 2. What is Islam? <ul><li>A monotheistic religion founded by Muhammad </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Beliefs of Islam <ul><li>One God : (Allah= Arabic world for God </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment Day </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of prophets, including Moses and Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad was the last prophet by God </li></ul>
  4. 4. Founding of Islam <ul><li>570 AD Muhammad born in Mecca (Makkah) </li></ul>The Prophet Muhammad
  5. 5. Founding of Islam <ul><li>610 AD Muhammad was told by a vision of the angel Gabriel that he would be a prophet so began preaching in Mecca </li></ul>
  6. 6. Muhammad receiving the message from Gabriel
  7. 7. Founding of Islam <ul><li>Islamic religion spread from Mecca to Medina along trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>622 AD: Muhammad fled to Medina (Madinah) because of threats to his life </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spread of Islam from Mecca to Medina 570 AD to 622 AD
  9. 9. Founding of Islam <ul><li>630 AD: Muhammad returned to Mecca and was accepted </li></ul><ul><li>632 AD: Muhammad died in Medina (Madinah) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Five Pillars <ul><li>As part of the Islam religion, all true Muslims must perform 5 duties: </li></ul>
  11. 11. Affirmation of Faith <ul><li>The duty to recite the creed: “There is nothing worthy of worship save Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Prayer <ul><li>The duty to pray to God five times each day </li></ul>Muslims must pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
  13. 13. Almsgiving <ul><li>The duty to give away alms and to help the needy </li></ul>Gabriel showing Muhammad the importance of alms giving
  14. 14. Fasting <ul><li>The duty to keep the fast of Ramadan </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pilgrimage <ul><li>The duty to visit Mecca at least once in a lifetime </li></ul>
  16. 16. Quran (Koran) <ul><li>Islamic Holy Book </li></ul>
  17. 17. Holy City <ul><li>Mecca (Birthplace of Muhammad) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Spread of Islamic Civilization
  19. 19. Islamic religion spread rapidly over great distances: Syria, Iraq, Jerusalem, Egypt, Persia, Spain, Asia Minor, Russia, and India
  20. 20. Why?? <ul><li>Quran instructed them to spread their faith. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Expansion <ul><li>635 AD: Muslim Conquest of Damascus, Syria </li></ul><ul><li>637 AD: Muslim Conquest of Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>638 AD: Muslim Conquest of Jerusalem </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>641 AD: Muslim conquest Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>649 AD: Muslim conquest of Persia </li></ul><ul><li>718 AD: Iberian Peninsula ( Spain and Portugal) mostly occupied by Muslims </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>732 AD: Battle of Tours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>** Muslims were defeated** and Islamic expansion into Europe stopped </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Tours is a city located in France.
  25. 28. 11 th Century <ul><li>Turks seize most of Asia Minor from Byzantine </li></ul>
  26. 29. 13 th Century <ul><li>Tatars conquer Russia, converted to Islam </li></ul>
  27. 30. 1453 <ul><li>Fall of Constantinople to Ottoman Turks, End of Byzantine Empire </li></ul>
  28. 31. The Split in Islam
  29. 32. Split of Islam <ul><li>656 AD- two groups split over how the religious leaders should be chosen </li></ul>
  30. 33. SHIITE (Shi’a) <ul><li>Mostly in Iraq & Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Thought leader must be related to Muhammad through his daughter Fatima & Ali </li></ul>
  31. 34. The 12 Imams, believed to be descendants of Muhammad daughter Fatima and son-in-Law Ali and the infallible true leaders of Islam.
  32. 35. SUNNI <ul><li>Majority of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Leader should be any devout Muslim that the Muslims would accept </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Two groups fought each other; Sunni won & began the 1 st Muslim Empire: </li></ul>
  34. 37. Umayyad Empire (661- 750AD) <ul><li>Moved capital to Damascus, Syria (Centrally located) </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered to the Indus River, North Africa, & Spain </li></ul>
  35. 40. STOP!!! <ul><li>** MUSLIMS ARE STOPPED IN 732 AD AT THE BATTLE OF TOURS IN FRANCE*** </li></ul>
  36. 41. <ul><li>Official language= Arabic </li></ul>
  37. 42. Abbasids vs. Umayyad <ul><li>Abbasids defeated Umayyad in 750 AD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built a new capital in Baghdad, Iraq </li></ul></ul>
  38. 43. The non-shaded region shows the Abbasid Caliphate
  39. 44. <ul><li>Beginning in 800 AD Islamic Empire began to break up and by 1000 AD only controlled area around Baghdad </li></ul>
  40. 45. <ul><li>Islamic Civilization preserved and extended ancient Greek, Persian, and Indian Learning </li></ul>
  41. 46. Cultural Contributions <ul><li>Architecture (ex: Dome of the Rock, mosques) </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaics </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic alphabet </li></ul>
  42. 47. Dome of the Rock
  43. 48. Mosque in Istanbul
  44. 50. Islamic Mosaics
  45. 51. Cultural Contributions and Achievements <ul><li>Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Translation of ancient texts into Arabic </li></ul>
  46. 52. Scientific contributions/Achievements <ul><li>Arabic numerals (adapted from India), including zero </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of geographic knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Algebra </li></ul>
  47. 53. Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), the father of modern surgery , performed surgeries under inhalant anesthesia , and invented the plaster and many surgical instruments
  48. 54. Medicine <ul><li>Al-Razi- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief physician at hospital in Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compiled a huge medical encyclopedia, explaining diseases so doctors could tell them apart. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 55. Medicine <ul><li>Ibn Sina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholar and doctor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote the textbook Canon of Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in Europe until 1650 </li></ul></ul>
  50. 56. Mathematics <ul><li>Al-Khwarizmi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compiled Arabic math book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed Algebra </li></ul></ul>
  51. 57. Geography <ul><li>Al-Idrisi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent people to countries to study geographic features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed more accurate maps </li></ul></ul>
  52. 58. Students in the ancient Islamic University
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