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Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
Wind Industry and Gear Boxes
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Wind Industry and Gear Boxes

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Wind Industry and Gear Boxes

Wind Industry and Gear Boxes

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  • 1. Wind Industry and Gear Boxes Uwe Roeper Hamilton Dinner November 17, 2009
  • 2. ORTECH Power
    • 40 staff
    • Engineers & Consultants
      • Technical Due Diligence / IE
      • Wind resources assessment
      • Plans & Permits
      • Financial Analysis
      • Operations Support
  • 3. Wind Energy in Canada (2008) Source: CanWEA
    • 526 MW added in 2008
    • = 2 nd highest year
    • Capacity end 2008: 2,372 MW
    • = Electricity for over 600,000 homes
    • = 1% of Canada’s total demand
  • 4. Wind Growth in Canada (MW) Source: CanWEA
  • 5. Wind in Canada (2009 & beyond)
    • Current installed capacity (May 2009) – 2,550 MW
    • Project a total of 650 MW to be installed this year (2 nd best year ever), pushing Canada over the 3,000 MW mark
    • An additional 5,000 MW of projects are either contracted or under construction
    • Provincial government targets, if fully achieved, would result in 12,000 MW of installed capacity in Canada by 2015
    Source: CanWEA
  • 6. Gear Boxes – The Weak Link
    • What is the role of gear boxes in wind turbines?
    • Why are they getting so much attention from the wind community?
    • How does this relate back to lubrication engineering?
    Source: CanWEA
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. Design Issues
    • Gear boxes need to light weight but handle large stresses:
      • Typical size 2500 HP / 90 m Rotor
      • Variable speeds & loads
      • Torsion from uneven wind loads
    • Approaching practical design limits of available materials.
    • Constant push for cheaper cost per unit energy.
  • 13. How are things working out?
    • Underperformance has been a key topic at AWEA and CanWEA over past 2 years.
      • Typical underperformance of 10% based on major investigations of existing farms:
        • 59 facilities / 243 years = 11% below P50
        • 41 facilities / 113 years = 90% of P50
        • Range 80% to 105%
    • Financial significance on affected projects is high.
      • Senior Lenders: reduced DSCR, increased risk
      • Equity: very large reduction in cash flow
  • 14.  
  • 15. IRR=11% IRR=6% IRR= -(1)% MW=100, P=$89/MWh, L=70%, I=7%, CF=34.1%, CapEx=2.4,OpEx=16%, Term=20, TV=0
  • 16. Potential Causes
    • Over prediction of:
      • Wind
      • Efficiency
      • Mechanical Availability
        • (including due to gear boxes)
  • 17. 1. Understand Wind related factors
  • 18. 2. Unterstand efficiency factors Wind Speed, m/s Power Output, kW 10-min averages Yaw mis-alignment correct rotor plane positive negative wind speed vector g F top view +
  • 19. 3. Understand mechanical factors
  • 20. Example
  • 21. Understand Parts Life Cycles
    • While unscheduled minor maintenance is expected to remain fairly constant, major repair will occur in intervals and increase in cost with age.
    • Outages will generally increase along with major repairs.
  • 22. Manage Life Cycle Cost
    • 20-year life cycle costs for repair and outages can vary from under $0.4 mill/WTG (pro-active mtc.) to over $1 mill/WTG (reactive mtc.). High mechanical loads (turbulence, ice, defects) can further increase cost (up to $2 mill/WTG in extreme cases).
  • 23. Prevention Strategies?
    • Early detection
    • Preventative maintenance
  • 24. For gear boxes early detection is key  Most wind farms have an inadequate preventative maintenance program, parts inventory and supply chain.
  • 25. Use Condition Monitoring  AFTER BEFORE
  • 26. Utilize Inspection Tools
  • 27. Other Prevention Strategies?
    • Improve design.
    • Manage mechanical loads.
    • Improve … lubrication?
  • 28. Wind & Gear Boxes
    • Rapid growth in wind is creating engineering challenges for mechanical design and life cycle expectations.
    • Gear box failures are central to the life cycle economics of wind farms.
    • More can be done to improve life expectancy on this key component.

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