Odour Management 101 Wef2008

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Odour Management 101

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Odour Management 101 Wef2008

  1. 1. Odour Management 101 Presented by: Anna H. Bokowa, M.Sc. ORTECH Environmental Mississauga, Ontario CANADA
  2. 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>Odour Sampling Issues </li></ul><ul><li>How the Odour is Measured </li></ul><ul><li>Point Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Dilution Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Area Sources -which Method to Use? </li></ul><ul><li>Fugitive Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to results using different Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Methods are not standardized except for odour evaluation standard in Europe, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>EN:13725:2003 “ Air Quality –Determination of Odour Concentration by Dynamic Olfactometry” is design more for evaluation of the already collected samples, not sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Australia and New Zealand Standard – similar to European </li></ul><ul><li>Draft Ontario Ministry of Environment Method-Source Sampling for Odours, version 2, 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>No specific method for odour sampling in US except ambient measurement and </li></ul><ul><li>A&WMA EE-6 Odor Committee – sub-committee called for development of draft odour sampling standard </li></ul>Odour Sampling Issues
  4. 4. <ul><li>Different odour sampling methods are used in different countries </li></ul><ul><li>However most of countries agree with dilution technique especially when sampling at hot or humid sources </li></ul><ul><li>Only in US it is a common practice to collect undiluted samples from these sources </li></ul><ul><li>How important is dilution technique at these sources? </li></ul>Odour Sampling Issues-con’t
  5. 5. <ul><li>How good are the analysis if the samples are not collected correctly? </li></ul><ul><li>How anyone can Install a very expensive odour control equipment without a proper assessment of the facility </li></ul><ul><li>Is it true well rounded annual condition established at facility when only one or two samples collected </li></ul><ul><li>The accuracy of the results is limited when the number of samples is limited </li></ul>Odour Sampling Issues (cont’d.)
  6. 6. <ul><li>Trend for municipal requests for proposal to specify analysis according to the European standard EN13725; 2003, but only one sample per source is defined just to reduce cost </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the bids in Ontario are based on the lowest cost not quality of work </li></ul><ul><li>Needs for proper odour assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Needs for proer sampling methodology used in assessment </li></ul>Odour Sampling Issues (cont’d.)
  7. 7. <ul><li>Proper sampling procedures especially for point sources when high in temperature and moisture content </li></ul><ul><li>Proper sampling for area sources </li></ul><ul><li>Number of samples per source </li></ul><ul><li>Proper sampling for ambient locations </li></ul>Odour Sampling Issues (cont’d.)
  8. 8. <ul><li>How good are the analysis if the samples are not collected correctly? </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of very expensive odour control equipment without a proper assessment of the facility? </li></ul><ul><li>Trend for municipal requests for proposal to specify analysis according to the European standard EN13725; 2003, but only one sample per source is defined </li></ul><ul><li>The accuracy of the results is limited when the number of samples is limited </li></ul>Odour Sampling Issues (cont’d.)
  9. 9. <ul><li>Different approaches for different sources </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point Sources- for example stacks, vents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area Sources-open piles, open tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fugitive Sources-windows, open doors, trucks </li></ul></ul>How the Odour Is Measured?
  10. 10. <ul><li>dilution technique </li></ul><ul><li>lung technique </li></ul><ul><li>flux chamber technique </li></ul><ul><li>wind tunnel technique </li></ul>Sample Collection Procedures
  11. 11. <ul><li>Tedlar bags used for collection of samples </li></ul><ul><li>Other materials approved by European standard </li></ul><ul><li>Residual odour from Tedlar, therefore a new bag must be cleaned before use </li></ul><ul><li>Purging of the bags before collection </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the volume of the sample </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling time </li></ul><ul><li>Number of samples per source </li></ul><ul><li>Performance (inlet/outlet) tests </li></ul>Collection of the Samples
  12. 12. <ul><li>Importance of collecting more than one sample per source </li></ul><ul><li>One sample per source- very common practice when issuing a request for proposal, even from municipalities when assessing odours at WWTP, rendering plants, </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of testing under different process conditions </li></ul>Number of Samples per Source
  13. 13. <ul><li>Odour sample diluted with nitrogen during sampling to prevent condensation, absorption and oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>diluted sample collected at the temperature of the source </li></ul><ul><li>pre-dilution test to calculate the optimum dilution level </li></ul><ul><li>triplicate samples at each of four dilution levels (MOE requirement) </li></ul>Dilution Sampling Technique Heated Sampler Probe Nitrogen Stack Tedlar Gas Bag
  14. 14. Dynamic Pre-dilution Sampling <ul><li>odor samples collected using dilution sampling apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>emission gases are diluted with nitrogen as the gases are extracted from the emission source </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen as a dilutant gas not air </li></ul>
  15. 15. Predilution Ratio Determination <ul><li>collection of three samples at four different dilutions and calculation of the optimum dilution ( the highest ODTV)- MOE requirement </li></ul><ul><li>analysis of the remaining two samples at the optimum dilution </li></ul><ul><li>the geometric mean of the three samples at the optimum dilution is used for the emission rate calculation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Is it time for Change in Procedure? <ul><li>Different times for different dilutions </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly changes in process with time </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally collect samples at different dilutions at the same time ( preferably two of three dilutions) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires installation of minimum of 2 samplers at the same time at one source/stack </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sampling at Point Sources
  18. 18. Why Dilution is so Important? <ul><li>To Prevent: </li></ul><ul><li>condensation </li></ul><ul><li>adsorption of odours </li></ul><ul><li>chemical reactions such as oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>upon sample collection and cooling to ambient temperature </li></ul>
  19. 19. Odor Sampler <ul><li>Based on the eductor </li></ul><ul><li>heated to the source temperature </li></ul><ul><li>range: 60 times to 8 times or </li></ul><ul><li>250 times to 60 times </li></ul><ul><li>calibrated with propane gas at different temperature settings </li></ul>
  20. 20. Lung Odour Sampler
  21. 21. <ul><li>used for cold, low moisture sources, low in odour sources, ambient samples </li></ul>Lung Technique Probe Pump Stack Tedlar Gas Bag
  22. 22. Ambient Sampling using Lung Technique
  23. 23. Results-Diluted Samples vs Undiluted *16X lower value 2,130 2130 1 3 2,075* 1,969 1969 1 2 2,130 2130 1 1 20,160 336 60 1 25,440 636 40 1 37,100 742 50 3 34,294 33,400 668 50 2 32,550 651 50 1 Source 1 Geometric Mean Net ODTV (ou) Net ODTV (ou) Raw ODTV (ou) Predilution Sample No. Sampling Location
  24. 24. Results-Diluted Samples vs Undiluted *13X lower value 128 128 1 3 124* 121 121 1 2 123 123 1 1 1,140 57 20 1 1,590 53 30 3 1,588 1,680 56 30 2 1,500 50 30 1 760 19 40 1 Source 2 Geometric Mean Net ODTV (ou) Net ODTV (ou) Raw ODTV (ou) Predilution Sample No. Sampling Location
  25. 25. used for sampling at open sources (e.g., lagoons, storage piles) Flux Chamber Technique
  26. 26. Flux Chamber Sampler
  27. 27. Area Source Sampling
  28. 28. used for sampling of area sources Wind Tunnel Technique
  29. 29. ODTV-Thickener Vessel-Wind Tunnel Method
  30. 30. ODTV-Thickener Vessel-Flux Chamber Method
  31. 31. Wind Tunnel vs Flux Chamber Sampling
  32. 32. <ul><li>European- 13725 ; 2003 “Air Quality- Determination of Odour Concentration by Dynamic Olfactometry” </li></ul><ul><li>Australian/New Zealand-AS/NZS 4323.3:2001-”Determination of Odour Concentration by Dynamic Olfactometry” </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM 679-2004; “Standard Practice for Determination of Odor and Taste Threshold by Forced-Choice Ascending Concentration Series Method of Limits”; needs to be updated </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM E544-2001; “Standard Practices for Referencing Superthreshold Odor Intensity”; needs to be withdrawn or replaced due to high exposure of n-butanol concentrations used for comparision ( 10 ppm to 20,000 ppm n-butanol in water) </li></ul><ul><li>Draft AWMA EE-6-”Guideliness for Odor Sampling and Measurement by Dynamic Dilution Olfactometry”; needs to be updated </li></ul>Standards for Odour Evaluation
  33. 33. <ul><li>emission rate (ou/s) - m 3 basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Odour detection threshold value (ou) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>x volumetric flowrate (m 3 /s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>dispersion modelling </li></ul><ul><li>predicted concentration (ou) at receptors </li></ul><ul><li>exceedance of the 1 ou guideline may result in the requirement for an odour emission reduction program </li></ul>Odour Calculations
  34. 34. <ul><li>Lung sampling followed by dynamic olfactometry evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Portable Olfactometer – Scentometer or Nasal Ranger for Ambient Odour Investigation </li></ul>Ambient Odour Sampling
  35. 35. <ul><li>upwind and downwind locations </li></ul><ul><li>a few locations chosen with the distance from the facility </li></ul><ul><li>minimum three samples per location </li></ul><ul><li>sampling time depends on duration of detectable odour </li></ul><ul><li>lung technique used for collection samples </li></ul>Ambient Odour Sampling (Lung)
  36. 36. Scentometer
  37. 37. Nasal Ranger
  38. 38. Portable Olfactometer
  39. 39. Ambient Levels Based on Ambient Sampling and Nasal Ranger Reading 2 9 Location 5 <2 8 Location 4 4 12 Location 3 7 12 Location 2 15 29 Location 1 Nasal Ranger Readings (DT) Ambient Level Based on Ambient Sampling (ou) Description
  40. 40. Conclusions <ul><li>Loss of odour up to sixteen times by: </li></ul><ul><li>not using proper sampling </li></ul><ul><li>not diluting a sample at the source with nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>not heating a sampler to the source temperature </li></ul><ul><li>not determining an optimum dilution </li></ul><ul><li>not preventing samples from direct sunlight contact </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Importance of the proper testing and analysis otherwise the loss of odour might be a significant and predicted off-site odours will be lower then the real ambient levels </li></ul><ul><li>All sources should be assess not only point sources </li></ul><ul><li>Caution should be used when some of the devices are used for ambient levels determinations </li></ul>Conclusion-con’t
  42. 42. Contact Information <ul><li>Anna H. Bokowa, M.Sc. </li></ul><ul><li>Manager, Odour Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>ORTECH Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>1-877-774-6560, Ext. 669 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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