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A first year group assignment for students in the course EDC1200 at the University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, Australia. This powerpoint presentation is our response to the question "How …

A first year group assignment for students in the course EDC1200 at the University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, Australia. This powerpoint presentation is our response to the question "How might education mediate difference and dominance?"

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  • Amy – Hey my name is Amy, and we are first year students from the University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, Australia. The subject is EDC1200, Self Education and Society Sky – Hi my name is Sky, our group is doing a Multimedia Presentation focusing on a teacher’s resource for Assignment Two.Michelle – And I’m Michelle, this PowerPoint presentation will provide a brief over view of people smuggling, along with teacher’s resources and learning outcomes for years 6-7.
  • Amy –We hope you found our first year course presentation enlightening and useful on the subject of People Smuggling, and that you are able to use these resources within your classroom. It is recommended that this subject is spread throughout a whole unit and explored thoroughly.Sky – The resources were constructed to support each learning ability using a variety of key learning areas. They can be adapted to suit the varying learning abilities and learning styles of the students within the class. Michelle – Through this presentation, our group has concluded that education can mediate difference and dominance by teaching students to exercise tolerance towards diversity, and to have compassion towards those who seek a better life for themselves and their loved ones. By increasing student awareness about the consequences of actions involving racism, discrimination and segregation, for example, students gain an acceptance of others’ culture and ethnicity through an appreciation of difference and a true perception of domination.
  • Transcript

    • 1. People Smuggling
      A Teacher’s Resource for Years 6-7
      By Amy McKay, Sky Robinson & Michelle Thompson
    • 2. Introduction
      Amy McKay
      Sky Robinson
      Michelle Thompson
    • 3. Table of Contents
      The Brief Overview
      Teacher Resources/Learning Outcomes
      Focus Question
      Definitions
      The History of People Smuggling
      The Process
      The Journey
      The Arrival/The Deaths
      People Smugglers’ Motives
      Arrivals by Sea and Air
      Detention Centres
      UNHCR Facts
      Politics
      Teaching Suggestions
      The Australian Curriculum
      Brainstorming Map
      Individual Brainstorming Map
      Newspaper Article
      PowerPoint
      Pamphlet
      Poster
      Graph
      Recommended Reading
      References
    • 4. “How might education mediate difference and dominance?”
      By teaching students that difference is just that – simply being different, and the world is an interesting place because of diversity
      It is crucial to understand that no single ethnic group or person is better or more superior than any other
      Tolerance is needed to stop racism from occurring
      Society often portrays difference as ‘less than’ by the hegemonic group, but difference does not mean deficit
    • 5. Definitions
      Asylum Seekers – Individuals who have sought international protection and whose claims for refugee status have not yet been determined
      ‘Boat People’ – A term used in the media and elsewhere to describe asylum seekers who arrive by boat or attempt to arrive by boat without authority to enter Australia
      Displaced Persons – People who flee their homes to escape conflict, violence, human rights abuses or other disasters (also known as forced migrants)
      Detainee – Someone who is detained or held prisoner, or in custody without trial
      Deficit – the amount by which a sum falls short
    • 6. Definitions Continued
      Diaspora– a dispersion, as of people of common national origin or beliefs
      Difference – differing in character; having unlike qualities; dissimilar; separate or distinct
      Diversity – the state or fact of being diverse; difference; unlikeness
      Dominance – rule; control; authority
      Hegemonic –leadership or predominant group
      Home – a place of one’s domestic affections; one’s native own country; where one has a sense of belonging
      Immigrate – to pass or to come into a new habitat or place; to come into a country in which one is not a native for the purpose of permanent residence
    • 7. Definitions Continued
      Internally Displaced Persons – People or groups of individuals who have been forced to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, violence, violation of human rights or disasters of any type, and who have not crossed an international border
      People smuggling/trafficking – Recruiting, transporting, transferring, harbouring or receiving persons for the purpose of exploitation; by using or threatening force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, or abuse of power against them
      Refugees – Those recognised in accordance with the UNHCR Statute; individuals granted complementary forms of protection; or those enjoying “temporary protection”
      Tolerance – the disposition to be patient and fair towards those whose opinions or practices differ from one’s own; the appreciation of diversity
      UNHCR– United Nations High Commission for Refugees (established in 1951 after the Vietnam War)
    • 8. The History of People Smuggling
      The First Wave
      The first boat arrived in Darwin in April 1976, carrying five Indochinese men
      Over the next five years, 2,059 Vietnamese boats arrived, with the last documented in August 1981
    • 9. The History of People Smuggling
      The Second Wave
      The arrival of twenty-seven Indochinese asylum seekers in November 1981
      During the following nine years, boats arrived at the rate of 300 per year – mostly from Cambodia, Vietnam and southern China
    • 10. The History of People Smuggling
      The Third Wave
      In 1999, asylum seekers (predominately from the Middle East), began to arrive – often in larger numbers than previously and usually with the assistance of ‘people smugglers’
    • 11. The Process
      • A basic, 18m wooden fishing boat is purchased.
      • 12. A fake passport is obtained for $13,000 in Iran, and a one-way ticket to Jakarta is bought.
      • 13. The asylum seekers are bundled into a black van, then driven to an isolated house in Bogorwhere they are left alone for up to 25 days (any mobiles are confiscated) and they are forced to hand over another $4,400 for the last leg of the trip.
    • The Process Continued
      • The people are taken on a four hour drive to a beach at Ujung Kenteng in West Java.
      • 14. They are then stripped of the passports and any kinds of ID.
      • 15. Wading knee deep in water to climb in one of four sail boats, after an hour they would transfer into the basic, 18m wooden fishing boat.
      • 16. Carrying anywhere up to 90 people (including children as young as one year old), without shelter or seats, the boat is usually off-loaded somewhere near Western Australia and Christmas Island.
    • The Journey
      During the trip, the simple fishermen are only equipped with a ruler, hand-scribbled co-ordinates and a cheap $199 GPS navigation system
      No life-jackets and little cover from weather
      20L of drinking water for the 49 hour journey to Christmas Island, Northern Kimberley or Western Australia coast
      They are fed noodles, which often makes them sick, due to the choppy seas and flimsy boat
    • 17. The Arrival
      The Deaths
      The voyage is very risky and fraught with danger – many people put their lives in the hands of simple fishermen in order to escape hardship in their homeland…
      16th April 2009: 5 people deceased.
      1st November 2009: 12 people deceased.
      15th December 2010: A boat sank on approach to Christmas Island – 30 bodies recovered and an unknown number drowned (approx. 18).
      17th January 2009: 2 men in an ‘esky’ (container used for storing fishing catch).
      29th April 2009: 4 people left on Deliverance Island – no boat.
      November 2009: 78 people on board the Oceanic Viking which was intercepted in Indonesian waters.
      On arrival in Australian waters, naval vessels meet asylum seekers and escort them to detention centres where they are processed.
    • 18. People Smugglers’ Motives
      According to one captain, he was given $8,500 to purchase the simple boat for the trip
      He was told he could keep the boat once completing the mission and returning – this is a huge incentive for a man of little means
      The greedy leaders of the people smuggling syndicate pocket almost $500,000 per trip
    • 19. Arrivals By Sea and Air
    • 20. Detention Centres
      • Upon arrival, detainees are examined physically and checked carefully to determine the validity of their claims for asylum.
      • 21. They are often held in detention centres for years, waiting to be processed. Many become emotionally unstable and/or violent.
      • 22. Christmas Island, an Australian Territory located 2600km north-west of Perth, Australia, is situated only 360km from its closest neighbour, Java. It is one of the first destinations of many asylum seekers.
      • 23. Many become frustrated at the long wait and start protests or riots such as the riots in the Darwin Detention Centre in August 2010, and Christmas Island on 18th March, 2011. Police were brought in to the Baxter Detention Centre riot near Port Augusta, South Australia, April 2003. Two detainees began protesting which led to fires that burnt down nine buildings in Villawood, Sydney on 20th April 2011.
    • UNHCR Facts
      • Only about 20 nations world wide currently participate in UNHCR resettlement programs and accept quotas of refugees on an annual basis - Australia is one.
      • 24. Each year the Australian Government allocates around 13,000 available places through the Department of Immigration’s Humanitarian Program.
      • 25. In 2008, Australia accepted the third largest number in the world (8,742); however, on average we are amongst the lowest annually.
      • 26. Globally, ‘people of concern’ who come under the UNHCR’s resettlement program, is a very small proportion of the total number of the world’s refugees.
    • UNHCR Facts Continued
      The burden of assisting the world’s asylum seekers mostly fell, and still falls, to some of the world’s poorest countries.
      For example, in 2000, when Australia received 3,000 ‘boat people’, Iran and Pakistan each hosted over 1,000,000 Afghan refugees.
    • 27. Politics
      Keating Government – In 1992, Keating introduced mandatory detention for unauthorised boat arrivals. In 1998, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) argued that mandatory detention was in breach of international human rights standards and called for children and other vulnerable persons to only be detained under exceptional reasons. The HREOC further found that children were at risk of mental harm, but the Howard Government rejected these findings claiming that releasing children sent the wrong message to people smugglers.
      Howard Government – Howard took a tough stance on asylum seekers and boat arrivals, which swept his party to victory in the Federal election and numbers decreased significantly (see resource #6 graph).
      Rudd Government – In November 2007, Rudd ended some policies put in place by the Howard Government and numbers increased significantly (see resource #6 graph).
      Gillard Government – The current government is starting to turn their attention back to the policies that deterred. In January 2011, the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed with Afghanistan and the UNHCR, returning failed Afghan asylum seekers. In June 2011, the agreement with Malaysia is proving controversial as Malaysia request the term ‘human rights’ be omitted from the agreement and children are returned unaccompanied.
    • 28. Teaching People Smuggling
      Issues surrounding people smuggling can be confronting for younger children, therefore it is recommended that the topic be taught to students in Years Six and Seven
      The teaching resources presented incorporate Key Learning Areas (KLAs) of Literacy, Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE), History, Geography, Information Communication and Technology (ICT), Numeracy and The Arts
      Multiple Intelligences, Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy and various learning styles are accounted for throughout all resources
      This theme is recommended to be covered thoroughly over a whole unit rather than a few lessons
    • 29. The Australian Curriculum
      As this presentation was produced in 2011, it is necessary to note that the Australian Curriculum is still in its formative stages and therefore some KLAs are not present
      ICT and cross-curriculum priorities are incorporated throughout and Australia’s engagement with Asia may easily be assimilated into the unit
      General capabilities in all KLAs are supported through the learning outcomes/resources and modifications can be made to allow for learning support students
      Students use a range of software, including word processing programs, which will allow them to confidently create, edit and publish written and multimodal texts (ACEYL1728)
      Topics covered include racism, human rights, diversity, Home, diaspora, refugees, asylum seekers, hegemonic groups, migration, risks etc. Be sure to keep all content basic and age appropriate
    • 30. Teaching Suggestions
      Students need a foundation and basic understanding of the terms that are central to this topic initially, therefore gradually introduce each term, clearly defining it
      Begin by asking if any students have relatives who live overseas or moved to this country from another, then ask if anyone knows what word is used to describe this. Expand by asking what were their reasons for deciding to immigrate. Incorporate a theme of difference into the discussion by comparing various ethnicities and cultures
      Ask for other reasons why people choose to leave their country or Home and discuss the validity of those reasons. Continue by developing students’ understanding of the processes required to immigrate to a country, explaining migratory groups (Austin, 2011). Then add, “Supposing a war or famine occurred in Australia – what would you do?” “What if it continued for years?” “Describe what changes would occur to your life.” “List ways you would earn money for food” and so on
    • 31. Teaching Suggestions Continued
      Following this, develop an understanding of the United Nations, discussing ‘Human Rights’ and what the term encompasses, expanding by including organisations such as World Vision, AusAID, Oxfam etc. Further develop what it is like for these people to be so desperate that they risk everything to take a chance at a new life. “What is so good about our country?” “Justify your reasons”
      Discuss ‘legal’ and ‘illegal’ then focus on dominance, introducing people smugglers, their power to threaten force, explaining that they are breaking the law – briefly detail the ‘anti-people smuggling’ bills released by the government (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010, 2011). Mention that people smugglers are considered a threat because many finance terrorists. Discuss their motives, asking students to make judgements through collating and analysing information – they then choose a stance (Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy). This becomes the basis for the learning outcomes that follow…
    • 32. Resource #1
      Brainstorming Map
    • 33. Resource #1 Brainstorming Map
      List the reasons people try to escape from their own country
      • War
      • 34. Famine
      • 35. Better way of life
      • 36. Peaceful
      • 37. This activity develops higher order thinking skills while focussing on many of the KLAs.
      • 38. Six Thinking Hats is well-suited to this activity (de Bono, 1992).
      • 39. A Brainstorming Map is a good way for students to process information learnt as it encourages divergent thinking .
      • 40. Ask open-ended questions about the specific aspects and content, checking for understanding.
      • 41. It is recommended that this be done as a group activity as students deconstruct information differently and it encourages varying points of view on the issue.
      • 42. Also, by initiallydoing the mapas a group, students participate in and contribute to discussions, clarifying and interrogating ideas, developing and supporting arguments, sharing and evaluating information, experiences and opinions (ACELY1709).
      People Smuggling
    • 43. Individual Brainstorming Map
      How can we stop people smuggling?
      What is it?
      • After doing a group brainstorming map, students then need to focus on ideas for their own map.
      • 44. Brainstorming Maps help students identify and explore ideas and viewpoints about events, issues and characters represented in texts drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1619).
      • 45. By reflecting on ideas and opinions about characters, settings and events in literary texts, identifying areas of agreement and difference with others and justify a point of view (ACELT1620).
      People Smuggling
      What are the individual costs?
      Why do people do it?
    • 46. Resource #2
      Newspaper Article
    • 47. Resource #2 Newspaper Article
      • Many of the KLAs previously mentioned are covered as students analyse and deconstruct newspaper articles while learning how to format their own article.
      • 48. This resource encourages higher order thinking skills while simultaneously building on comprehension and referencing skills.
      • 49. It also helps students articulate their message to the reader.
      • 50. Through Compare and Contrast techniques, the students grasp an understanding that different papers demonstrate different opinions, have different details and information, and are all formatted differently.
    • Resource #2 Newspaper Article
      • Students must research information from credible sources (not just newspapers), to write an article that covers the topic of difference and dominance in the People Smuggling trade.
      • 51. A newspaper article gives the students the ability to compare the text structures and language features of multimodal texts, explaining how they combine to influence the audiences (ACELY1724).
      • 52. Students plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, choosing and experimenting with text structures, language features, images and digital resources to purpose and audience (ACELY1714).
      • 53. Students will be able to investigate how vocabulary choices, including evaluative language, can express shades of meaning, feeling and opinions (ACELA1525).
    • Resource #3
      PowerPoint
    • 54. Resource #3 PowerPoint
      Students form small groups and collaborate to produce a PowerPoint presentation on dominance and difference regarding People Smuggling
      Students must research facts carefully and reference at the end of their presentation
      This combines ICT with Literacy, SOSE, History, Numeracy, The Arts and Geography while developing group skills such as teamwork and sharing responsibility
    • 55. Resource #4
      Pamphlet
    • 56. Resource #4 Pamphlet
      (Image courtesy of David Miller, 2006)
    • 57. Resource #4 Pamphlet
      The KLAs incorporated in this resource include Literacy, ICT, The Arts, SOSE, Geography and History
      This is an individual assignment demonstrating an understanding of the topic through research skills, artistic expression and literacy components
      Students design and present their own pamphlet signifying an understanding of difference and dominance in the People Smuggling trade
      Topics covered may include racism, human rights, diversity, Home, diaspora, refugees, asylum seekers, hegemonic groups, risks, riots etc.
      Pamphlets need to make an impact, therefore students need to understand how ideas can be expanded and sharpened through careful choice of verbs, elaborated tenses and a range of adverbs (ACELA1523) and understand the uses of commas to separate clauses (ACELA1521), as well as advertising features, in order to attract the viewer
    • 58. Resource #5
      Poster
    • 59. Resource #5Poster
      People Smugglers
      • Catering to students’ intrapersonal skills, the poster also may be easily modified for learning support students.
      • 60. Students collate information gathered from credible sources and create a poster depicting the journey, arrival and life of asylum seekers.
      • 61. The poster may incorporate opposing views or support only one - demonstrating evidence of understanding through The Arts, Literacy, social issues (SOSE), History, Geography, research skills and ICT.
      • 62. With a focus on difference and dominance, students comprehend deeper social issues.
      Dominance & Difference
    • 63. Resource #6
      Graph
    • 64. Resource #6Graph
      • Using Numeracy and data collection skills, students with mathematical/logical learning styles are suited to this resource. They plot their own graph using credible figures which are collected through ICT research and the internet.
      • 65. This resource also incorporates The Arts and Literacy and may be easily adapted for ‘at-risk’ students, whether gifted or learning support.
      • 66. Students can choose one of two topics:
      Immigration Detention (see image)
      Number of Arrivals
      or
      c) Any other options set by the teacher
      • By making a graph, students construct and compare a range of data displays including stem-and-leaf plots and dot plots (ACMSP170).
      • 67. To find the information for the graph, students identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS208).
    • Conclusion
      Michelle Thompson
      Sky Robinson
      Amy McKay
    • 68. Recommended Reading
      Exploring books with gifted children: Divergent thinking byN.Polette & M. Hamlin. Published 1980 by Libraries Unlimited,Littleton, Colorado.
      Six thinking hats for schools byE. De Bono. Published 1992 by Hawker Brownlow Education, Cheltenham, VIC.
      VARK: A guide to learning styles byN.D. Fleming & C. Mills (1992). Retrieved from
      http://www.vark-learn.com/english/page.asp?p=categories
    • 69. References
      Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., & Bloom, B. S. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of
      educational objectives. New York, USA: Longman Publishing Group.
      Asia [Image]. (2009). Slide 19. Retrieved from
      http://www.topnews.in/study-asia-needs-water-reform-cope-population-growth-2203074
      Asylum boats [Image]. (2009). Slide 33. Retrieved from
      http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/dead-missing-in-refugee-boat-explosion/story-e6freuy9-1225699364428
      Asylum seekers [Image]. (2011). Slides 11, 13. Retrieved from
      http://www.watoday.com.au/national/where-angels-fear-20100706-zxrq.html
      Asylum seekers Christmas Island [Image]. (2011). Slide 14. Retrieved from
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      Asylum seekers tragedy Christmas Island [Image]. (2011). Slide 37. Retrieved from http://asci.org.au/demo/?tag=asci-update
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    • 70. References Continued
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      http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/1494196/new-darwin-detention-centre-announced
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      Boat People [Image]. (2011). Slide 1. Retrieved from
      http://www.southasiatimes.com.au/news/deportation-of-afghan-asylum-seekers-from-australia/
      Boat People [Image]. (2011). Slide 12. Retrieved from
      http://www.smh.com.au/world/javas-big-cities-become-popular-launch-points-for-human-traffic-20090417-aa7z.html
      Boat People [Image]. (2011). Slide 17. Retrieved from
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    • 71. References Continued
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    • 72. References Continued
      Detainee riots [Image]. (2011). Slides 17, 37. Retrieved from
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      Maiden, S., & Viellaris, R. (2011, May 8). Slide 30. Gillard brokers a Malaysian solution. Sunday Mail, p. 3.
      Miller, D. (2006). Refugees. South Melbourne, VIC: Time Warner Group Australia.
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    • 73. References Continued
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