What is Learning? How would you define learning?Technical definition: A relatively permanentchange in behavior or knowledge thatcomes as a result of practice or experience.
Four Types We Will Study• Classical Conditioning• Operant Conditioning• Social Learning• Cognitive Learning
Classical Conditioning• What is it?• Pairing a new stimulus with a natural stimulus to elicit a response.• Making unavoidable physical associations – Sweating, drooling, feeling fear, nausea
Huh? Examples• Feeling anticipation every time the WHS bell rings.• Feeling nauseous every time you go into your Math classroom• Your goldfish swimming to the top of the bowl every time he sees you
All these things do not naturally happen- they are the result of Classical Conditioning! Let’s take a look at our Vocabulary Sheet
Can we Classically Condition Our Pupils?• What naturally makes our pupils dilate?• What neutral stimulus can we introduce?
Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning• Russian Physiologist• Specialized in digestion• Experimented with dogs to see connection between salivation & digestion• “Discovered” classical conditioning through his work with dogs
Pavlov’s Experiment1. Pavlov gave his dog food = dog drooled Unconditioned Unconditioned Stimulus Response It’s natural, the drooling makes sense2. Rings bell + gives food = dog drools Neutral Unconditioned Unconditioned Stimulus Stimulus Response The bell doesn’t mean anything, it’s just a sound But he keeps ringing the bell and giving the food and eventually . . .3. Pavlov rings bell = dog drools Conditioned Conditioned Stimulus Response
Little Johnny Whenever Johnny gets yelled at he becomes anxious and feels nauseous. Mr. Jones is Johnny’s first grade teacher. He loves to yell atstudents. Now, whenever Johnny sees Mr. Jones or even hears his mother mention Mr. Jones’ name he feels anxious and nauseous.
What’s Going On Here?1. Getting yelled at = anxiety, nausea Unconditioned Unconditioned Stimulus Response2. Mr. Jones + yelling = anxiety, nausea Neutral Unconditioned Unconditioned Stimulus Stimulus Response3. Mr. Jones = anxiety, nausea Conditioned Conditioned Stimulus Response
Classical Conditioning “Rules”• NS must come BEFORE the UCS• NS and UCS must occur close in time- 5 second rule• It takes several pairings of NS & UCS• NS/CS must stand out
John Watson and Little Albert• Generalization- the conditioned response spreads to other similar stimuli• White rat to white bunny, fur coat, fizzy mask, white beard.
Mary Cover Jones- Counter Conditioning• Get rid of fears by making a new association• Associate dogs not with getting bit but with something pleasant• Make a new conditioning pattern
Taste Aversion/Garcia Effect• Become conditioned to avoid/dislike foods that have made us sick• Usually only takes 1 pairing• Can generalize to similar looking foods• Biological preparedness
Why Does Classical Conditioning Work?• Pavlov • Rescorla• Stimulus substitution • Cognitive Perspective• Because it occurs close • It’s more than time in time, the brain is • NS/CS has to provide tricked and the same info about what is places are activated about to happen• It’s all about time • It’s all about our association expectations