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FMHS Semester 2 Academic writing Textual flow and other important matters
References 1 <ul><li>Begleiter, ML, Training for Genetic Counsellors.  Nature Review Genetics  (2002) 3: 557-61.  </li></u...
References 2 <ul><li>British Medical Association (eds),  Human Genetics: Choice and Responsibility  (Oxford University Pre...
References 3 <ul><li>Skirton H, Kerzin-Storrar L, Genetic Counsellors: a registration system to assure competence to pract...
Textual flow:  new  information ,  old information <ul><li>A. By looking at an individual’s family history, a clinician ca...
General  to  specific <ul><li>A. By looking at an individual’s family history, a clinician can tell if the person is likel...
Less successful text <ul><li>B.  By looking at an individual’s family history, a clinician can tell if the person is likel...
Textual flow  Exercise1 <ul><li>At first sight, there may seem to be little in common between genetics and counselling. (1...
Textual flow  Exercise1 <ul><li>Individual genetic (4) __________  clients will often have questions and concerns about a ...
FMHS: Textual flow <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Counselling </li></ul><ul><li>This </li></ul><ul><li>counselling </l...
Textual flow:  cohesive devices <ul><li>B. Lasers have found widespread application in medicine.  For example , they play ...
Less successful text <ul><li>A. Lasers have found widespread application in medicine. Lasers play an important role in the...
Common errors <ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Therefore, a study was commissioned on the  affect  of low dietary intake of...
Common errors <ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Procedures that use even fewer and smaller incisions than laparoscopy are be...
Common errors <ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>a) There should be no significant risk to the health and safety of any individu...
Common errors <ul><li>4. </li></ul><ul><li>a) The work of several researchers in New Zealand, including Danson (2005), Van...
Common errors <ul><li>5. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Further investigation is usually needed to identify the specific location of...
Common errors <ul><li>6. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Structurally, tooth enamel  comprises  of millions of enamel rods or prisms....
Common errors <ul><li>7. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Each of the results  correspond  to a single cycle per patient. </li></ul><u...
Common errors <ul><li>8. </li></ul><ul><li>a) The finding that such behaviour change is sustained for many years, confirme...
Common errors <ul><li>9. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Preclinical studies indicated that 94%-99% of the drug passed completely thr...
Common errors <ul><li>10. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Modern pregnancy tests still operate on the same  principal : testing for h...
Common errors <ul><li>11. </li></ul><ul><li>a) After considering the remote benefit and the possible surgical risks,  the ...
Common errors <ul><li>12. </li></ul><ul><li>a)  Every discussion and consultation by MRI staff about a patient is conducte...
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Week 1 Flow And Error 10

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Transcript of "Week 1 Flow And Error 10"

  1. 1. FMHS Semester 2 Academic writing Textual flow and other important matters
  2. 2. References 1 <ul><li>Begleiter, ML, Training for Genetic Counsellors. Nature Review Genetics (2002) 3: 557-61. </li></ul><ul><li>Saharr M.A., et al, Educating Genetic Counsellors in Australia: Developing an International perspective.  Journal of Genetic Counselling (2005) 14: 283-294  </li></ul><ul><li>Baker, Schuette, Uhlmann (eds) A Guide to Genetic Counseling. (Wiley-Liss, New York, 1998) </li></ul>
  3. 3. References 2 <ul><li>British Medical Association (eds), Human Genetics: Choice and Responsibility (Oxford University Press, 1998).   </li></ul><ul><li>Harper, Practical Genetic Counselling (Butterworth-Heinemann, 5th edition 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Kingston, ABC of Clinical Genetics, (BMJ Publishing Group, London, 2002). </li></ul>
  4. 4. References 3 <ul><li>Skirton H, Kerzin-Storrar L, Genetic Counsellors: a registration system to assure competence to practise in the United Kingdom.  Community Genetics 6: 182-3. </li></ul><ul><li>Weil, Psychosocial Genetic Counseling (Oxford University Press, New York, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>World Health Organization. Guidelines on ethical issues in medical genetics and the provision of genetics services. Geneva: WHO, 1995. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Textual flow: new information , old information <ul><li>A. By looking at an individual’s family history, a clinician can tell if the person is likely to have a gene mutation that may contribute to disease . A disease might run in their family if a blood relative developed the disease at a young age, if several family members have the disease or if the condition is rare. Certain diseases may be also be associated with people from particular ethnic groups. If one family member already has the disease, that person should be tested first. This helps show which genes, if any, are associated with the disease. </li></ul>
  6. 6. General to specific <ul><li>A. By looking at an individual’s family history, a clinician can tell if the person is likely to have a gene mutation that may contribute to disease. A disease might run in their family if a blood relative developed the disease at a young age, if several family members have the disease or if the condition is rare. Certain diseases may be also be associated with people from particular ethnic groups. If one family member already has the disease, that person should be tested first. This helps show which genes, if any, are associated with the disease. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Less successful text <ul><li>B. By looking at an individual’s family history, a clinician can tell if the person is likely to have a gene mutation that may contribute to disease. If a blood relative developed the disease at a young age, if several family members have the disease or if the condition is rare, a disease might run in their family. People from certain ethnic groups may also be more likely to develop certain diseases. First it is important to test any family members who already have the disease. If any genes are associated with the disease, they can be shown by this method. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Textual flow Exercise1 <ul><li>At first sight, there may seem to be little in common between genetics and counselling. (1) __________ is a highly technical science. (2) __________, on the other hand, is often regarded as an exercise in communication, intuition and emotional support. (3) __________ very contrast serves to explain the importance of genetic counselling. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Textual flow Exercise1 <ul><li>Individual genetic (4) __________ clients will often have questions and concerns about a genetic illness that could be important for themselves or their families. (5) __________ may not only require information that is technically correct, but also some assistance to understand the information provided and to appreciate its relevance to their own circumstances, choices and feelings. </li></ul>
  10. 10. FMHS: Textual flow <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Counselling </li></ul><ul><li>This </li></ul><ul><li>counselling </li></ul><ul><li>They </li></ul>
  11. 11. Textual flow: cohesive devices <ul><li>B. Lasers have found widespread application in medicine. For example , they play an important role in the treatment of eye disease and the prevention of blindness. The eye is ideally suited for laser surgery because most of the eye tissue is transparent. Because of this transparency, the frequency and focus of the laser beam can be adjusted according to the absorption of the tissue so that the beam &quot;cuts&quot; inside the eye with minimal damage to the surrounding tissue-even the tissue between the laser and the incision. Lasers are also more effective than other methods in treating some causes of blindness. However, the interaction between laser light and eye tissue is not fully understood. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Less successful text <ul><li>A. Lasers have found widespread application in medicine. Lasers play an important role in the treatment of eye disease and the prevention of blindness. The eye is ideally suited for laser surgery. Most of the eye tissue is transparent. The frequency and focus of the laser beam can be adjusted according to the absorption of the tissue. The beam &quot;cuts&quot; inside the eye with minimal damage to the surrounding tissue-even the tissue between the laser and the incision. Lasers are effective in treating some causes of blindness. Other treatments are not. The interaction between laser light and eye tissue is not fully understood. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Common errors <ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Therefore, a study was commissioned on the affect of low dietary intake of calcium. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Therefore, a study was commissioned on the effect of low dietary intake of calcium. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Common errors <ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Procedures that use even fewer and smaller incisions than laparoscopy are being developed. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Procedures that use even less and smaller incisions than laparoscopy are being developed. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Common errors <ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>a) There should be no significant risk to the health and safety of any individual when normal good laboratory practise in handling chemicals is observed. </li></ul><ul><li>b) There should be no significant risk to the health and safety of any individual when normal good laboratory practice in handling chemicals is observed. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Common errors <ul><li>4. </li></ul><ul><li>a) The work of several researchers in New Zealand, including Danson (2005), Van Holpsen (2005) and Hewitt et al . (2006), has shown that statins reduce the activity of these molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>b) The work of several researchers in New Zealand, including Danson (2005), Van Holpsen (2005) and Hewitt et al . (2006), have shown that statins reduce the activity of these molecules. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Common errors <ul><li>5. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Further investigation is usually needed to identify the specific location of the tumour, such as a brain scan . </li></ul><ul><li>b) Further investigation, such as a brain scan, is usually needed to identify the specific location of the tumour. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Common errors <ul><li>6. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Structurally, tooth enamel comprises of millions of enamel rods or prisms. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Structurally, tooth enamel is composed of millions of enamel rods or prisms. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Common errors <ul><li>7. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Each of the results correspond to a single cycle per patient. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Each of the results corresponds to a single cycle per patient. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Common errors <ul><li>8. </li></ul><ul><li>a) The finding that such behaviour change is sustained for many years, confirmed by parallel studies in five other countries, have important implications for the cost-effectiveness of behaviour change interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>b) The finding that such behaviour change is sustained for many years, confirmed by parallel studies in five other countries, has important implications for the cost-effectiveness of behaviour change interventions. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Common errors <ul><li>9. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Preclinical studies indicated that 94%-99% of the drug passed completely through the intestinal tract. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Preclinical studies indicated that 94%-99% of the drug past completely through the intestinal tract. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Common errors <ul><li>10. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Modern pregnancy tests still operate on the same principal : testing for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). </li></ul><ul><li>b) Modern pregnancy tests still operate on the same principle: testing for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). </li></ul>
  23. 23. Common errors <ul><li>11. </li></ul><ul><li>a) After considering the remote benefit and the possible surgical risks, the patient decided to have no more surgical intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>b) After considering the remote benefit and the possible surgical risks, surgical intervention was discounted by the patient. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Common errors <ul><li>12. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Every discussion and consultation by MRI staff about a patient is conducted in a discreet and confidential manner. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Every discussion and consultation by MRI staff about a patient is conducted in a discrete and confidential manner. </li></ul>
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