Session 3 2012 fmhs_paraphrasing and summarising
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Session 3 2012 fmhs_paraphrasing and summarising

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Session 3 2012 fmhs_paraphrasing and summarising Session 3 2012 fmhs_paraphrasing and summarising Presentation Transcript

  • FMHS Paraphrasing and summarising
  • Look at the following pairs of sentences and decide which sentence is correct or the most natural.
    • Bellamy (2006) claims that 72% of schoolchildren are caries-free.
    • Bellamy (2006) examines that 72% of schoolchildren are caries-free.
    • c) MacKay (2006) suggested that folate and vitamin B deficiencies may lead to elevated plasma homocysteine levels, which in turn may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and Alzheimer's.
    • d) MacKay (2006) indicated that folate and vitamin B deficiencies may lead to elevated plasma homocysteine levels, which in turn may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, and Alzheimer's.
    • e) Outpatient follow-up has established that the patient has adapted well both physically and psychologically (15).
    • f) Outpatient follow-up has advocated that the patient has adapted well both physically and psychologically (15).
    • g) Jacobs (2005a) questions the accuracy of the results of a study linking insulin resistance and periodontal disease.
    • h) Jacobs (2005a) observes the accuracy of the results of a study linking insulin resistance and periodontal disease.
    • i) Khosa (7) observed a random effect during one particular experimental run.
    • j) Khosa (7) implied a random effect during one particular experimental run.
  • 2. Fill the spaces in the sentences below with the correct reporting verbs:
    • This method was adapted from Gasc et al . (1991).
    • Montgomery (1999) reported a three step synthetic route to synthesise clarithromycin B oxime.
    • Use of toluene as an alternative solvent was suggested by Ray et al. (2001) to make the synthetic procedure more commercially viable.
    • Awan et al. (2000) pointed out the discrepancies in Commodari’s assignments of the NMR spectra.
  • 3. Fill the spaces in the sentences below with the correct reporting verbs:
    • Majer and co workers 2000 have shown that erythromycin enol ether induced in vitro resistance to erythromycin in a test strain of S. aureus.
    • The first systematic study of the kinetics of decomposition of erythromycin A in acidic conditions was reported by Atkins et al ., 1986.
    • In 1995, Alam et al . verified Cachet and co workers’ result and concluded that erythromycin A was in equilibrium via intramolecular dehydration with the enol ether.
    • In 2003, Khosla and Kao generated a polyketide library using a modular polyketide synthase gene cluster as a scaffold.
  • 4 . Fill the spaces in the sentences below with the correct reporting verbs:
    • Extensive work has been carried out to exploit the potential of PKS in synthesising novel erythromycin derivatives, using either a semi-synthetic methodology or genetic engineering (Leadley et al ., 2001; Staunton and Weissman; 2001).
    • It has been known for a long time that erythromycin inhibited protein synthesis when a certain number of amino acids (two to five residues) have been incorporated into the nascent polypeptide chain (Contreras and Vazquez, 1977; Arevalo et al. , 1988).
    • In 1999, Champney and Tober established that erythromycin has two effects in susceptible bacterial cells.
    • The high resolution X-ray crystallographic structure of the 50S ribosomal subunit of Deinococcus radiourans has been recently published (Schlunzen et al ., 2001).
  • 5. Fill the spaces in the sentences below with the correct reporting verbs:
    • Three general patterns for the acquisition of antibiotic resistance were proposed as early as 1963 by Taubman and co-workers.
    • In 1973, Wittman and coworkers observed that in the mutant strains the proteins L22 and L4 were altered.
    • Tripathi et al ., 1998 discovered a pentapeptide MRFFV, which confers a high level of resistance.
    • In 2001, Mordi tested a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms against erythromycin A, erythromycin B and clarithromycin untreated and pre-treated with acid to mimic the gastric conditions.
  • 6. Read the following short text and then decide which of the following best paraphrases the information given.
    • In the largest study to date on the effects of midday snoozing, researchers tracked 23,681 apparently healthy men and women, between the ages of 20 and 86, for more than six years. They discovered that those who took afternoon siestas of 30 minutes or more at least three times a week had a 37 percent lower risk of dying from heart disease than those who did not.
    • a) A recent study tracked a group of healthy volunteers, of both sexes, aged 20 to 86 for over six years. The results showed that taking a short sleep in the early afternoon is beneficial for the heart. In fact, that those who napped at least three times a week for 30 or more minutes reduced the risk of dying from heart disease by more than one third (14).
    • b) In the largest study to date on what the effects of having a midday snooze are, researchers tracked nearly 24,000 healthy people, between the ages of 20 and 86, for more than six years . It was discovered that those who took afternoon siestas of half an hour or more at least three times a week had almost a 40 percent lower risk of dying from heart disease than those who did not (14).
  • 7. Read the following short text and then decide which of the following best paraphrases the information given.
    • While an injured patient is engaged in a virtual-reality program, the spotlight of his or her attention is no longer focused on the wound and the pain, but drawn into the virtual world. Because less attention is available to process incoming pain signals, patients often experience dramatic drops in how much pain they feel, and spend much less time thinking about their pain during wound care.
    • a) Virtual reality programs have been used to help injured patients significantly reduce the amount of pain they feel. Because of these virtual-reality programs, the patient is no longer focused on the wound and the pain, but drawn into the virtual world. As a result the patients often experience hardly any pain and spend much less time thinking about their pain during wound care (Smith 2001).
    • b) Virtual reality programs have been used to help injured patients significantly reduce the amount of pain they feel. The programs draw the patients into a virtual world and hold their attention, which means they spend less time focusing on their pain and on the treatment they are receiving. As a result, incoming pain signals decrease (Smith 2001).
    • 8. Read the following longer text and then decide which of the following best summarises the information given.
    • People can experience dizziness in a number of different ways. One of these is vertigo, and the sufferer has the sensation of being in a spinning environment. This can be caused by an imbalance of eye to brain signals, inner ear problems or a more serious brain condition. Light-headedness is another type of dizziness and the sufferer may feel as if they are about to faint. This is often brought on by a decreased flow of blood to the brain. Dizziness may also be caused by a sense of imbalance when walking. This may be as a result of sensory impairment or problems of the cerebellum.
    • Contains most important and relevant information, and gives background.
    • .
  • 8. Read the following longer text and then decide which of the following best summarises the information given.
    • b) Dizziness can be a result of many things. The most common source of dizziness is vertigo. People tend to experience the world ‘rotating’ and it is caused by nystagmus eye movements. Alternatively, the person may have Meniere’s disease, or a tumour, or too much fluid in the inner ear. People can also be light headed and this may be a result of medication which decreases blood flow to the brain. Other people feel off-balance, possibly because they have nerve problems in their feet or brain disorders, and this also causes dizziness.
    • Incorrect. Uses specific medical terminology but does not summarise information well. Adds in a (possibly incorrect) piece of information about medication.
    • c) Dizziness can be a result of vertigo. Vertigo is what people experience when they are afraid of heights and it can be caused by becoming too anxious. However, this type of vertigo can also be called ‘light-headedness’. If a person is light-headed they may feel as if they are about to faint and so become more anxious and thus they become trapped in a spiral. The vertigo increases the anxiety which increase light-headedness which in turn further increases anxiety. Vertigo is therefore the most dangerous form of dizziness that most people experience.
    • Ignores most of the content of the original text and includes additional information.
  • 9. Read the following longer text and then decide which of the following best summarises the information given.
    • Cancer is generally not transmissible between people because the cells from one person are not compatible with cells from another person. Thus, the body’s immune system would prevent a cancer from passing from one person to another.
    • Over-summarised. Does not provide the reader with enough of the context of the original text.
  • 9. Read the following longer text and then decide which of the following best summarises the information given.
    • b) Transmission of acute leukaemia, lymphoma, melanoma and carcinoma from one human to another is possible, but it is quite rare. Also it is possible that tumours can be transferred from one person to another by solid-organ transplants. This happens in 0.04% of all solid-organ transplants. It is even possible for surgeons to develop tumours from patients that they are working on.
    • Omits some key information. Transmission is generally from mother to unborn child. Omits key information about why cancer is generally not transmissible.
  • 9. Read the following longer text and then decide which of the following best summarises the information given.
    • c) In certain circumstances transmission of tumour cells from one person to another is possible. The most common way in which this happens is when a pregnant woman with a tumour transmits the illness to the foetus. Another, much less common route of transmission is via organ or blood transplants. However, this only happens if a cancerous form is undetected in the donor. Generally, the bodies own immune system can distinguish between ‘self’ and ’non-self’ cells and it is believed that this results in tissue-graft rejection which is why cancer is generally not transmissible.
    • Contains the most important and relevant information from the original. Provides sufficient background knowledge.