Mackenzie Terzian Anth 410 2/15/12 Cover Letter My anthropological scope delves specifically within cultural studies, gendered theory, and developmental practices. I separated my bibliography into categories in which I have done constant research and analysis. Specifically, my passion in anthropology is looking at gendered and queer constructs within developing countries. The articles and books that I have included have helped me shape my current lens in anthropology, and have familiarized me with many new terms and ideas surrounding queer theory and developing countries. After conducting 16 weeks of ethnographic research on community aspects in the life‐style sport of rock climbing, I started to truly understand the importance of fieldwork within communities. This time spent conducting research lead me to many ethnographic articles and blogs, which helped me better understand my place as a researcher, and my importance in the study of people and cultures. However, without the knowledge of theory and method, my ethnographic research would have not developed the rapport that it did. Understanding the work of previous theorist and researchers is essential in order to gravitate towards new discovers and understand the building blocks of research.
Within my library of academic articles, there is a constant theme and connection to globalization and development. By recognizing the background of developmental theory and economic approach to globalization, one can better comprehend the current use of Westernization within the developing world. These articles and books that fill my library provide me with knowledge of the environmental factors, stigmatization, and economic roles that go into shaping and labeling a group’s level of development. New to my library, is the theme of ‘gender’, specifically, identifying within the ‘queer’ community. I find this incredibly interesting, because like most things, there is not a one‐dimensional stage in which to view it. These articles have provided me with a brief understanding of ‘queer’ discrimination, stigmas, terminology, and genders. Lastly, I included a ‘regional’ section within my personal library. Last year I spent a semester researching Voodoo in Haiti, and fell in love with the historical and present state of Haiti. I believe that this section on the region of Haiti ties together with the rest of my library because I found Haiti to be looked down upon by many Western eyes. Haiti is believed to be an incredibly poor country, which, economically, it is. But the culture of Haitians and Voodoo is unbelievably rich and vital‐‐ this is often always overlooked. My research looked specifically and Westernized medical practices in Haiti, and how this development altered the use of Voodoo and the women who practiced it.
All of these articles, books, and blogs have given me so much direction in what I potentially want to do with my Anthropology B.A., and I am glad to say that I am narrowing down my field of inquiry and passion to a more suitable theme for myself. I am looking forward to becoming more aware of stigmatized gender roles in developing countries, as well as delving into the perceived reasons and analysis of why these roles exists, who created them, and what validity they hold.
Annotated Bibliography Ethnographic Research 1. Goldstein, D. (2003). Laughter out of Place: Race, Class, Violence, and Sexuality in a Rio Shantytown. Berkeley: University of California Press. Within this book, Goldstein addresses the use of laughter and humor as a form of reconstruction for manmade social and political stigmas. It explains her ethnographic research in Rio De Janero, and the problems, misconceptions, and coping mechanisms that she discovered during her fieldwork. 2. Ethnography Matters. (2011). Blog, http://ethnographymatters.net/ This blog represents the intricacies surrounding ethnographic research. It magnifies differing types of research and explains what it means to be an ethnographer today. Theory and Method 3. Carter, S. (2007). Justifying Knowledge, Justifying Method, Taking Action: Epistemologies, Methodologies, and Methods in Qualitative Research. Vol. 17, No. 10. The University of Sydney. This article clarifies the interconnection between epistemic choices, methods, and theory. Carter refers to these aforementioned themes as being the fundamental building blocks of research, Development and Globalization 4. Klitgaard, R. (1990). Tropical Gangsters. Basic Books Publishing. This book is the written record of Klitgaard’s travels to Equatorial Guinea, where he examines the pathway to structural development. Klitgaard takes an economic approach within this book in order to explain the intricacies of relieving bankruptcy within Africa. 5. Karim, L. (2011). Micofinance and its Discontents: Women in Debt in Bangladesh. University of Minnesota, MN. Karim’s book is explains the negative role of NGO’s in developing countries, such as Bangladesh. Taking note of the gender and family structures, Karim delves deep into the history and possible future of microfinance.
6. Moyo, D. (2009). Dead Aid: Why Aid is Not Working and How There is a Better Way for Africa. New York, NY. This book reminds the public that Africa is not a continent of wreckage, but rather a land of incredible growth. Moyo’s book explains the detrimental effects of development‐based aid, as well as many of the governmental fixtures that stand in the way of aid distribution within Africa. 7. Rapley, J. (2007). Understanding Development: Theory and Practice in the Third World. Third Edition. Boulder, CO. Rapley’s book covers several developmental theories and practices throughout history. Understanding Development examines the history of developmental practices such as structuralism, modernization, theory dependency, and neoclassical theory 8. Diamond, J. (1991). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. New York, NY. Diamond’s book references many geographical and environmental aspects that lead into our modern world. It delves into the advancement of agriculture, religion, disease, and the theories in which we draw analysis on human societies. Gender and Race 9. Doctor, F. Are You Muslim? Salaam: Queer Muslim Community. This article deals with the identity formation surrounding those within the Queer Muslim community. Community aspects and identity formations create a space for ‘queer’ Muslims to connect and share support. 10. Fausto‐Sterling, A. (1993). The Five Sexes, Why Male and Female Are Not Enough. The Sciences, pp. 20‐24. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. This article deals with the binary labeling of “male” and “female”. These categorized boxes are being challenged, and looked at constantly in order to drop these labels and incorporate members of the community who do not fit under “male” and “female” categories. 11. Lang, S. (1999). Lesbians, MenWomen and TwoSpirits: Homosexuality and Gender in Native American Cultures. Female Desires: Same‐Sex Relations and Transgendered Practices Across Cultures, pp. 91‐116. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Lang’s article references the presence of different gender roles in the Native American culture. It reveals the multi‐layered complexities between communities and across different cultures. 12. Katz, J. (1997). “Homosexual” and “Heterosexual”: Questioning the Terms. A Queer World: The Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader, pp. 177‐180. New York, NY: New York University Press. This article addresses the terms “homosexual” and “heterosexual”, and looks at the history and development of these terms. Katz also references the common use of the terms, as well as the differing regional use of them. 13. Wilchins, R. (1997). Imaginary Bodies, Imagining Minds. Read My Lips: Sexual Subversion and the End of Gender, pp. 141‐157. Ithaca, NY: Firebrand Books. 14. Creider, J., Crieder, C. (1997) Gender Inversions in Nandi Ritual. Antropos, Bd. 92, H 1/3, pp. 51‐58. Creider’s article talks about the initiation and ritual process for Nandi girls. It addresses the ritual process, analysis of the researchers, as well as the analysis by the Nandi women and girls themselves. 15. Whitley, B., Egisdottir, S. (2000). The Gender Belief System, Authoritarianism, Social Dominance, Orientation, and Heterosexuals’ Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men. Sex Roles, Vol. 42, No. 11/12. Ball State University, IN. Within Whitley’s article, the prejudices of lesbian and gay men is contrasted to the history of ‘homosexual’ acts in history. The entire gendered belief system is addressed, as well as the previous research done on identity formations surrounding these prejudices. It takes a stand of questioning ‘why do we have gender roles?’ and ‘why are these negative attitudes present?’ Regional 16. Tan, M. (2000). AIDS Medicine and Moral Panic in the Philippines. Framing the Sexual Subject. Pp. 143‐164. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press. This article addresses the AIDS epidemic and sexual representation and stigmas within the Philippine Islands. Tan’s ethnographic research looks at class ideologies and sexuality surrounding the stigma of HIV/AIDS. 17. Farmer, P. (2003) The Uses of Haiti. The Uses of Haiti tells about the current state of Haiti and the history of Haiti’s unfortunate colonization, and how the United States played a role in many of the
detrimental outcomes of the country. This book further recognizes the influences of the Western World on Haiti, and how Haitian cultural norms and religions (voodoo specifically) were altered by the presence of U.S physicians and medical practices. 18. Fournier, A. (2006). The Zombie Curse. This is Dr. Arthur Fournier’s memoir detailing his 25 year journey surrounding the AIDS epidemic in Haiti. Fournier details the stigmatization against Haitians, and the discrimination by the United states against Haitians who are “at risk” for AIDS. It highlights the stigmas related to the ‘infected’, dealing with physicians, and regarding the secrets and reversal of the zombie curse. 19. Hurston, Z. N. (2008) Tell My Horse: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica. This book details Zora Neale Hurston’s experience in Jamaica and Haiti. While in Haiti, Hurston participated in many voodoo ceremonies, and explains/explores the mysteries of Voodoo practices, rituals, and beliefs. 20. James, E. (2012). Witchcraft, Bureaucraft, and the Social Life of (US)Aid in Haiti. Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 27, Issue 1. This article focuses on the unintended consequences of humanitarian and development aid within Haiti. James draws similarities between witchcraft, bureaucracy, and secrecy within her explanation of engendered processes of healing, reconciliation and recognition. She also addressing how discourses and practices that are used within Western bureaucratic institutions often lead to violence within societies in which witchcraft is a dominant moral paradigm. 21. Kidder, T. (2004). Mountains Beyond Mountains. Mountains Beyond Mountains is a book written about Dr. Paul Farmer’s pursuit to cure diseases, specifically, the book focuses on diseases within Haiti, Peru, Cuba, and Russia. Kidder, who worked along side Farmer, talks about Farmer’s quest into the causes, treatments and cures of Tuberculosis and Multidrug‐resistant TB. Mountains Beyond Mountains brings an understanding of the medical practices that are used within Haiti to treat these diseases. 22. Niska, R.W. (2010). Ambulatory Medical Care in Rural Haiti. Journal Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. Vol. 21, num 1.
This article shows the ethnographic research of Dr. Niska and Dr. Sloand’s examination into Medical Care in Haiti. Their research consists of taking convenient samples and statistically graphing and sorting the ill into categories, then further examining their findings. The article is split up into background, methods, results, discussion and implications sections; all of which surround health services provided in rural Haiti. 23. Redfield, P. (2005). Doctors, Borders, and Life in Crisis. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Redfield’s article addresses the “biopolitics” that underline Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders). He examines the word and usage of ‘humanitarianism’, and takes an anthropological stance to describe political dynamics that emerge within MSF’s global form of medical humanitarianism as well as how MSF responds to lives in crisis. Redfield states that MSF embodies the moral insistence of a human right to health; however, MSF also represents a “technical apparatus designed to implement basic health care quickly”, meaning disregarding the social norms and beliefs.