Death socials

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Death socials

  1. 1. DeathBy: Julie
  2. 2. Ancient Mesopotamians• The Mesopotamians were not sure about what happened after death.• They believed that dead people could bless and curse their children and grand-children by bringing or not bringing them children.• They buried their dead with food, because they believed excessively skinnycorpses would haunt the living as scary ghosts. Archeologists have found Akkadiangraves filled with skeletons which have hands grasping cups beside their faces.• In Mesopotamia, people cared a lot about burying the dead properly and nicely,because if they didn’t take care of the dead well, the dead will transform intoghosts and haunt the living. The dead people could not rest in peace in theUnderworld, and if they didn’t get enough regular supplies of food, they wouldstarve. Almost everybody had a funeral; only criminals or women who hadabortions or died having a baby didn’t get one which is so unhappy.
  3. 3. Royal Mesopotamian Rulers• The rulers’ tombs were filled with rich and expensive objects made withprecious stones and gold to enter into the afterlife.• When a royal died, musicians, servants, family members, handmaidens,and oxen were killed and were buried as well.• When the Queen Pu-abi died, her tomb contained jewelry such as ten goldrings, necklace made of lapis lazuli, and a cape made out of gold, silver,carnelian beads, etc. Beside her, there was a four-foot gold drinking straw,wreaths, weapons, gold tweezers, pins, and diadems.• Ur royal tombs were filled with musical instruments and animals that pullcarts such as oxen. The tombs of Ashur were placed underneath a hugepalace and the dead bodies were put into sarcophagi made of stone. Thedead people were put into coffins made out of wood and they were givenclothing, games, weapons, treasures, food, and drink.
  4. 4. • The Sumerians used baskets made out of braided twigs which were put into brickcoffins for the dead. They arranged their dead in regular rows organized intostreets and lanes. Wealthy people were buried with their favorite objects made ofgold, silver, precious stones, etc. The ordinary people were buried with commonobjects made of stone, not precious metals or jewels.• In Ancient Mesopotamia, people feared the dead, because they thought that evilspirits could escape from the Underworld and cause big problems for the living asthey entered their bodies through their ears. Also, the dead could rise up andtorture the living if they didn’t give proper care and burial to the dead.Consequently, even dead enemies were buried properly so this won’t happen.Some babies were buried in cooking pots and placed underneath the floors ofhouses which I don’t know why.• The Mesopotamians had a very different understanding of death from theEgyptians. For them, death was scary, because they believed that people weremade from clay mixed with the blood of a god, which made them partly immortal.Therefore, the spirit of the dead person didn’t die after death; it didn’t move oninstead it suffered unhappy afterlife. The soul lived underground and ate only clayand dust with no healthy water to drink. The only nice thing was the food thattheir relatives left for them.
  5. 5. • The dead were largely feared in Ancient Mesopotamia. It was thought that distressed,murdered and evil spirits could escape the land of the death to cause havoc among theliving through entering the bodies of the living through their ears. Likewise, the deadcould rise up and torment the living if not given a proper burial, so even the bodies ofenemies were buried in a manner such as to prevent this from happening. Most wereburied in cemeteries, but the bodies of babies have been found under the floors ofhouses, often curiously buried in cooking pots.• The Mesopotamians, a civilization existing in and around modern day Iraq around thesame time as the time of Pharaohs of Egypt had a very different view of death. Forthem, death was something to be feared. In the Mesopotamian tradition, humans werecreated from clay mixed with the blood of a sacrificed god. Thus, being partly immortal,the spirit did not die after death but lingered on to suffer a dismal afterlife. Whileretaining all the needs and emotions of the living, after death the soul would live a darkand subterranean existence eating only dust and clay in a place deprived of drinkablewater. The only respite from this existence was the food and offerings of theirdescendants. This meant that the confiscation of an enemy’s body from the care of thefamily was a terrible punishment.
  6. 6. Tomb of Queen Pu-abi thatis filled with jewelries ,gold, etc..Incantation bowl from NippurBabylonian coffinFrom the royal gravesMesopotamian FuneralUruk plate
  7. 7. Ancient Egypt• Ancient Egyptians spent a lot of time thinking andpreparing for death and the afterlife. The pyramids areproof of how important death was to ancient Egypt.• They believed that it was crucial to preserve thephysical body. They developed an elaborate processcalled Mummification which involves usingchemicals, removing organs and then wrapping thebody in strips of linen cloth. A person’s khat was like adouble; it had to be fed and watered like a person. Itenjoyed smelling the incense and it gavecomfort, protection, and safety.
  8. 8. • There was also something called the ba whichwas pictured as a falcon bird with a human head.It could enter the body and it was responsible forthe body. It was like a soul. There were otherspiritual aspects of a dead such as ren, sekhem,and khu.• The Egyptians thought the heart was the mainpart of the human body and the heart was said tobe source of life and living. When they embalmedthe body, they left the heart in or took it out andreplaced it in the thorax.
  9. 9. • The Egyptians were very careful to provide the dead witheverything that they needed for the afterlife, because theyviewed as a continuation of life before death. The tombs ofregular people had some food, jewelry, favorite objects,and other things. The wealthy people put in artistic objectsmade out of gold and precious stones such as beautifulbowls and jugs.• In the pyramids, pictures were painted by the Egyptians toshow a happy life filled with blessings such as fertile fields,good crops, special events with musicians and happyfamilies.• Death was very important to the Egyptians who passed ontheir belief that a person faced judgment of their life afterdeath.
  10. 10. Picture painted by the EgyptiansMummyMummyPyramidsAnother picture painted by the Egyptians
  11. 11. Ancient Rome• The Romans had an interesting set of beliefs about death. When aperson died, his or her soul started on a journey to the River Styxon the way to the Underworld where the dead lived. If the deaddidn’t have a gold coin, Charon the Ferryman couldn’t allow him orher to go to the Underworld without permission. You had to pass athree-headed dog without getting eaten and having a safe journey.First, you had to have a trial with a judge named Dis Pater whodecided where you would end up going. The nextlevel, Minos, Rhadamanthos and Aeacus were the three judges andthey demanded and account of your life. The good and kind peoplewent to Elysian Fields, while others went to Fields of Asphodelwhere they lived as Shades. A third group who is very badindeed, went to Tartarus where it’s punishment and torture always.
  12. 12. • In the first stage, in the roman funeral, the body wasprepared usually by undertakers, who cleaned and dressedthe body. Next, they put pearls or beeswax in the deadperson’s nostrils to prevent evil spirits getting in the deadbody and controlling it. Then the undertaker made surethat the body had everything it needed for the after lifesuch as food, money, jewelry, clothes, and eating utensils.• The second stage of mourning was very short for poorpeople. The body was cremated the day after death, butrich people had a much longer mourning period. Theydisplayed the body on a marble slab and people came topay their respects. They would never let the dead body bealone, because that could cause anger and supporthaunting nightmares.
  13. 13. • After, there was a funeral procession which showed whatkind of life the person had. If you were wealthy, therewould be a giant colorful parade to take them to the placeof burial. There were dancers, mimes, and sometimes,hired mourners. For military service people, familymembers rode in chariots with horses and their armycolleagues went with the body. The people, who went tothe procession, often wore red or white robes to show thatthey were in mourning. For an important person, there wasa stop at the Forum where the oldest son gave a speechabout his father or mother.• There were two choices of disposal for dead bodies whichwere cremation or burial. If the person were cremated, thebody was placed on top of a funeral pyre.
  14. 14. TartarusFields of Asphodel Elysian Fields
  15. 15. Modern Canada• Most people have a funeral or memorial service to celebrate the life of the personwho died. People find out about the funeral by reading the obituary notice in thenewspaper or computer. The service is sometimes held in a church {Christian},{Synagogue}, {Jewish}, and other places of worship. It can also be held in a funeralparlour where the body is sometimes displayed for people to see and pay theirrespects. The body is put into a casket, plain or fancy, depending on how wealthythe family is, and placed in car big black car called a Hearse for transportation firstto the church and then to the cemetery where it is put in the ground. Prayers aresaid and then earth is put on top of the casket before workers bury it completely.Flowers and sometimes pictures are very important part of funeral rights inCanada. Flowers from the church service are often taken to the grave and leftthere to show the dead person respect. In most cemeteries, the graves arearranged neatly in rows and on the top of the each grave; there is a grave stonewith the dead person’s name and birth and death dates. A wealthy family may puta really big stone to honor the dead person, but most people have a simple stone.If the person prefers to be cremated, the ashes may be put into a small space inthe cemetery. Some people like to scatter the ashes and other people like to keepthe ashes at home to honor memory of the good times with that dead person.
  16. 16. • If a person served in the military, there is a specialceremony for him or her to show respect and honor theirservice. The casket may be covered with the flag. A highmilitary official may give a speech named a Eulogy and theyplay a sad song on the bugle called Taps. This person maybe buried in a special military cemetery. When a lot ofsoldiers died, their names may be inscribed on a giantstone called a War Memorial.• It is customary to send flowers and sympathy notes to thefamily of the dead person called the deceased. Today, manyfamilies ask people not to send flowers but give moneyinstead to the person’s favorite charity. For example, ifsomeone died who loved animals; his or her family wouldencourage donations to the SPCA.
  17. 17. Ceremonial Funeral Service forMargaret Thatcher Australian War Memorial, Canberra.CasketGrave
  18. 18. Vikings• They estimated that when a Viking dies, he or she will unite with the godsin afterlife.• Vikings who were men, were buried in a grave filled with various weaponsand tools, but women Vikings were buried in a grave which were filledwith jewellery and equipments.• The Vikings weren’t only buried in graves, they were buried in boats oreven ships. Few Vikings were buried in a ring made of stones which theshape turned out to be a boat.• People believe that Vikings went on a boat to travel to afterlife. If they hadno real boats, they had stones t go there which is very interesting.
  19. 19. • In the ancient Norse {Vikings} belief, there are two types ofsoul. It’s a ‘free soul’ or ‘dream soul that could just leave theVikings’ body during sleep, ecstasy, trance, andunconsciousness.• When a Viking died, on the tumulus, people traditionally putout beer and food. If the people took care of a dead Viking ,he or she will come back to keep the homestead and peoplesafe. People can bury the Viking or burn him or her to ashes.• When a Viking died and seven days passes by, people willcelebrate a funeral ale called sjaund. People paid respect andhonored the Viking as everyone else.
  20. 20. Girl VikingMen VikingsGraveWeapons & ToolsJewelry
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