Introduction to biological oceanography notes
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Introduction to biological oceanography notes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to Biological Oceanography
  • 2. Diversity Definition: The degree of variation of life on earth Q: how did diversity of life on earth happen? A: Evolution!
  • 3. Evolution • Definition: Change over time • Occurs to species, NOT to individuals • 6 Points: – Overproduction – Competition – Genetic variation – Adaptation – Natural selection – Speciation
  • 4. Causes of Evolution 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Mutation Gene flow Genetic drift Natural selection Non-random mating
  • 5. Evidence of Evolution 1) Analogous structures 2) Embryology 3) Vestigial Organs 4) Fossils 5) Biochemical
  • 6. Overproduction • Too many individuals • Too many offspring • Too many gametes
  • 7. Competition • For food • For mates • For territory
  • 8. Genetic Variation • Genes • Traits • Individuals
  • 9. Adaptation • A trait with a current functional role in helping an animal better survive in its environment • Three types: – Behavioral – Physiological – Structural
  • 10. Natural Selection • Organisms better adapted to their environment get to reproduce and pass their genes on to their offspring
  • 11. Species A species is a group of animals capable of producing offspring with one another AND the offspring ALSO must be capable of reproducing too Mules aren’t a speciesthey can’t have babies!
  • 12. Speciation can happen through geographic isolation
  • 13. Classification • Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species • “King Phillip Came Over For Great Scallops” • We name organisms using their most specific classifications: Genus and Species • We use a Dichotomous Key to help identify organisms • The proper way to write a scientific name is to write the Genus name with a capital, the Species name in lower case, and italicize or underline them both – Morone saxatilis or Morone saxatilis – Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens
  • 14. How are organisms placed into Kingdoms? • Cell type & complexity • Ability to make food • Number of cells in their body