Diversity of fishes


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  • http://sps.k12.ar.us/massengale/fish_notes_bi.htm
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  • Diversity of fishes

    1. 1. 4. Diversity of Fishes Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Chordata 3 Classes: Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes
    2. 2. Vertebrates: <ul><li>Ex: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, & mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Have a notochord (slim, flexible rod) present in early stages - may be replaced by backbone in adults </li></ul><ul><li>Have a spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Respire through pharyngeal or gill pouches during early development </li></ul><ul><li>Have post-anal tail in early stages </li></ul><ul><li>Endoskeleton made of bone &/or cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior head with well developed brain & sensory organs (Cephalization) </li></ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system </li></ul>
    3. 3. Taxonomy: <ul><li>1. Class Agnatha: hagfish & lamprey-long, eel-like bodies without jaws or paired fins & cartilage skeletons </li></ul>
    4. 4. Agnatha (Jawless Fish): <ul><li>Hagfish& lampreys </li></ul><ul><li>Circular mouths that can’t close </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp teeth & strong, raspy tongue-tears hole in prey & sucks out blood & body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Eel-shaped body </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton made of cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>No paired fins </li></ul><ul><li>Gills – no operculum </li></ul><ul><li>Hagfish: burrow in mud; scavenge on dead & dying fish; have tentacles around their mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Lampreys: usually parasitic; great sense of smell to find prey; covered with a poisonous slime </li></ul>
    5. 5. Lamprey with Prey
    6. 6. 2. Class Chondrichthyes include sharks, rays, & skates also with cartilage skeletons , paired fins, & jaws
    7. 7. Characteristics of  the more advanced fishes:   <ul><li>Streamlined body & muscular tail for swimming (know the differences between tail shapes!) </li></ul><ul><li>Most - paired fins for maneuvering </li></ul><ul><li>Body covered with protective scales & mucus layer to reduce friction when swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Respire through gills </li></ul><ul><li>Most - lateral line system-sensory structures running down each side of the organism to detect changes in water temperature, pressure, current, etc. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Most w/ well-developed sense of sight & smell </li></ul><ul><li>Most can detect electrical currents </li></ul><ul><li>Ectotherms (body temperature close to outside temp.) </li></ul><ul><li>Two chambered heart (1 atrium/1ventrical) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Class Chondrichthyes <ul><li>Includes sharks, rays, & skates </li></ul><ul><li>Endoskeleton of cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Hinged jaws & paired fins </li></ul><ul><li>Placoid scales & tooth-like dermal spines on scales </li></ul><ul><li>Most Marine </li></ul><ul><li>Most Carnivorous </li></ul>
    10. 10. Sharks vs. Rays <ul><li>Sharks are torpedo shaped=“fusiform” </li></ul>Rays & skates have broad, flat bodies with wing-like fins and a tail
    11. 11. Shark Characteristics: <ul><li>Large, oily liver helps w/ buoyancy </li></ul><ul><li>Have countershading: protective coloration (darker top & lighter bottom) </li></ul><ul><li>Ventral mouth with 6-20 rows of sharp, replaceable teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Short, straight intestine with spiral valve to slow food movement </li></ul><ul><li>5-7 pairs of gills for gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys remove wastes & maintain water balance </li></ul><ul><li>Electroreceptors on head help find prey & navigate </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral line </li></ul><ul><li>Separate sexes - external fertilization </li></ul>
    12. 12. Ray & Skate Characteristics: <ul><li>Usually harmless to humans </li></ul><ul><li>Broad, wing-like pectoral fins used to glide through water </li></ul><ul><li>Flattened bodies with ventral mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Both eyes on top of head </li></ul><ul><li>Have countershading </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on fish & invertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Stingray with poison spine by tip of tail </li></ul><ul><li>Electric ray gives off strong, electric shock </li></ul><ul><li>Manta ray is largest </li></ul>
    13. 13. Traits of Bony Fish (Class Osteichthyes) <ul><li>Skeleton made of bone </li></ul><ul><li>Hinged jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Paired fins </li></ul><ul><li>Gills for gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral line </li></ul><ul><li>Body covered with scales & mucus coating </li></ul><ul><li>Includes lobe-finned, ray-finned, and lung fish </li></ul>
    14. 14. Ray-finned Fish: <ul><li>Fan-like fins supported by rays </li></ul><ul><li>Includes salmon, perch, catfish, tuna, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Have movable fins </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal fin (s) located on top-keep fish upright & used for defense </li></ul><ul><li>Caudal fin (tail) moves side to side to help steer </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoral fins (paired) on each side behind the operculum </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic fins (paired) on ventral surface near the head </li></ul><ul><li>Anal fin (single) behind anus </li></ul>
    15. 15. Ray-finned Fish (cont.): <ul><li>Swim bladder thin-walled sac in abdomen that creates buoyancy from diffusion of dissolved gas from blood </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys filter blood & help maintain water balance </li></ul><ul><li>Ectothermic - body temperature regulated by envt. </li></ul><ul><li>Keen sense of smell (nostrils) & have chemical receptors over the body </li></ul><ul><li>Can detect the earth's magnetic field as a guide to navigate oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Have separate sexes & external fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs hatch into fry </li></ul>
    16. 16. Body covered with round, overlapping cycloid or ctenoid scales & mucus Four sets of gills covered by bony operculum
    17. 17. External Anatomy of a Bony Fish
    18. 19. Guess What These Are:
    19. 20. Sites for Help on Vertebrates & Fish in Particular <ul><li>http://www.infovisual.info/02/033_en.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/chordate.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fishbase.org/home.htm </li></ul>