2 hypoxia n nutrient loading

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Long Island Sound-hypoxia and nutrient loading class notes

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2 hypoxia n nutrient loading

  1. 1. 2. Hypoxia & Nutrient Loading
  2. 2. Nutrients are usually limited <ul><li>This limits the amount of plant growth </li></ul><ul><li>In oceans, the limiting nutrient is usually Nitrogen (N) </li></ul><ul><li>Where does N come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it limiting in estuaries? Why? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Eutrophication <ul><li>Too much of a good thing! </li></ul><ul><li>Over fertilized plants (mostly plankton) in water cause an increase “aging” of the estuary </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>Excess Nutrients= </li></ul><ul><li>Increased phytoplankton growth  death  sink  decomposition </li></ul>
  4. 4. Problem <ul><li>During decomposition, dissolved Oxygen is used up during the death that comes after eutrophication, there’s way too much O 2 leaving the system-what happens when oxygen is lacking? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Result <ul><li>Extremely low O 2 dissolved in the water. </li></ul><ul><li>What is this known as. . . . ? </li></ul>
  6. 6. HYPOXIA!!!!
  7. 7. When is hypoxia a problem? <ul><li>March & August. . . Why? </li></ul><ul><li>During these months, more than usual, the thermocline prevents mixing of warm, less dense surface water with cooler, denser bottom water </li></ul><ul><li>The result. . . . Not enough O 2 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Solutions to Hypoxia <ul><li>Improve STP’s (each one treats > 40 million gallons/day!) </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments: </li></ul><ul><li>1 º – filtering & settling to remove solids </li></ul><ul><li>2 º – biologically remove organic nutrients, </li></ul><ul><li>required by law, grow bacteria to help decompose organics </li></ul><ul><li>3 º - a dvanced; chemically removes inorganic nutrients, very costly </li></ul>
  9. 10. Solutions to Hypoxia cont. <ul><li>2) Reduce runoff </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce chemicals getting into wetlands or out to estuaries, some companies put down </li></ul><ul><li>-Sheets/tarps </li></ul><ul><li>-Haybales </li></ul><ul><li>-Terracing </li></ul>
  10. 12. Solutions to Hypoxia cont. <ul><li>3) Reduce fertilizers on lawns/crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about what times of year fertilizers are usually applied! </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Solutions to Hypoxia cont. <ul><li>4) Reduce phosphates & other nutrients in products we use (i.e. soaps, which we did) </li></ul>Mmmm. . . so fun to swim in this!

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