Industrial Revolution U.S. History II By Jackie White
BellworkDescribe what you think is the American Dream is?
Biography/Creative WritingCarefully look at the photograph on the next slide.Write a 1-2 paragraph biography describing the person that you think lived here.Include the following: location occupation cost of living time period number of people who lived together amount of living space
20 QuestionsCarefully look at the photograph on the next slide.Your task is to figure out, who lived here?Create one question for me to answer to help you solve the mystery.
Andrew Carnegie’s birthplaceLocation: Dunfermline, ScotlandOccupation: weaverRent: $20/yearTime: 1835-1848Living area: 330 square feetFamily of 4
http://www.carnegieclub.co.uk/ Skibo CastleLocation: Dornoch, ScotlandOccupation: Steel magnateCost: $10,000,000 in 1900$100,000,000 in 2000Time: 1897-1919Living area: 22,000 acres (34 square miles) 60,000 square feetFamily of 3
Questions• Why do you think Andrew Carnegies family decided to move to the U.S.?• Do you think that Carnegies birthplace home in Dunfermline was characteristic of someone in a low, middle, or upper class? And Why.• Did Andrew Carnegie achieve the American Dream?• Who could be considered the Andrew Carnegie of today?
Was Carnegie a Hero?Does rising from “rags” to “riches” make a person a hero?Do Americans make heroes out of people who make it from poverty? (Abe Lincoln, Babe Ruth, Ronald Reagan)Can acquiring great wealth hurt a person’s chance of being a hero?Do Americans sometimes resent people with lots of money?Can a person born rich be a hero? (George Washington, John Kennedy)
Characteristics of a HeroDirections: On your worksheet is a list of eight personal traits or characteristics.Task one: Next to each trait, name a person you regard as a hero who has that trait.Task two: List 3 traits from the list that you believe a person must have to be a hero.
Anticipation GuideBefore reading the background information predict whether or not each of the following statements is true or false.Write T for True & F for false on the line provided.
Background EssayRead was Andrew Carnegie a Hero? Background EssayModel Think-A-LoudComplete the two sided or dialectic journal.On the left side record key people, ideas, events, or facts from the reading.On the right hand side record your thoughts, comments, questions, or connections to what you read.
Document AnalysisAnalyze documents 3-10Answer the guided questions for each document.Categorize the documents.Identify components of a 5 paragraph essay.Compare 2 essay models.Complete the DBQ Essay Outline
Steelhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMURmbHcGOo&America The Story of Us07 Cities video clip Carnegiesteel 11:42-17:14
The Expansion of IndustryMAIN IDEA: At the end of the 19th century, natural resources, creative inventions, and growing demand for goods fueled an industrial boom.WHY IT MATTERS NOW: Technological developments paved the way for continued growth of American industry and eventually a world power.Terms & Names: Edwin L. Drake, Thomas Alva Edison, Christopher Sholes, Alexander Graham Bell, natural resource, uses for steel & electricity, impact of industrial revolution on society.
Learning ObjectiveDefine and provide examples of natural resources.Identify several factors that contributed to the Industrial Revolution.Match the inventor to their invention or innovation and.Explain how the Industrial Revolution impacted society.
How did the Pittsburgh Steelers get their name?(Why do you think they arecalled the Steelers?What are some characteristics ofsteel?)
Mining and Industry in the United States, 1850-1900What symbol indicates a major industrial city?How many major industrial cities were there between 1850-1900?List 3 major industrial cities.What generalization can you make about the location of these cities?What might be a possible reason for the creation of most of the cities?Which city appears to be surrounded almost entirely by steel mills?What is steel made out of?
Mining and Industry in the United States, 1850- 1900
Natural ResourcesDefinition of word 3 examples ofUse in a semtence Picture
Natural ResourcesDefinition of word: 3 examples ofNaturally occurring Coalmaterials that can be used Ironby man as factors of Oilproduction such as land,minerals, water Water landUse in a sentence Picture
Oilhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9oMI8G-TdIAmerica The Story of Us 08 Boom video clip oil first 10 minutes
Causes of Industrial Revolution Abundance of natural resources Explosion of Industrial new inventions RevolutionGrowing population to work aslabor force and consumersGovernment Support for business
Uses for Steel:1. Railroads2. Farm tools3. Cans4. Bridges5. skyscrapers
Uses for ElectricityThink of your typical morning routine.Write a list of all the things you do before coming to school.Which items on your list required the use of electricity?Record on your notes several uses for electrcity
Inventor Invention ImpactEdwin L. Drake Turns iron (natural resource) into steel Light bulb & power plants to generate electricityChristopherSholes Telephone
Impact of American Revolution on American LifeHow do all these inventions & innovations impact society?More women began to work.Work that was previously done at home was now made in factories .Industrialization led to long hours and dangerous working conditions.Works was done faster leading to more leisure time.Industrial Revolution led to an improved standard of living and modern life.
Ticket to LeaveWhich invention or development in this time period had the greatest impact on society and why?
The Age of the Railroads Main Idea: Why It Matters Terms & Names: Now:The growth & Railroads made Transcontinentalconsolidation of the expansion of railroadrailroads industry across George M.benefited the the United States Pullmannation, but also possible . Standardizedled to time zonescorruption andrequiredgovernmentregulations.
Learning ObjectivesIdentify and be able to explain the positive and negative effects of the growth of the railroad on America.
What dangers might railroad workers encounter?
How might the railroad impact the environment?
Standardized Time Zones
“The Modern Colossus of Rail Roads”
Main Idea: Why It Matters Now: Vocabulary:The expansion of The business strategy of Dividendindustry led to the growth consolidation and the Investmentof big business and the labor union strategies of Labor unionformation of labor collective bargaining andunions. striking are still used ShrewdWhat are some examples today. Mogulof “big business” today? TycoonWho owned and Manufacturedoperated businesses Laissez-fairebefore big businesses Vertical integrationwere created? Horizontal integrationWhy were labor unions Monopolynecessary? Social Darwinism
Warm Up ActivityLocate 3 objects on you (clothing, personal items, etc.)Record where the items were made on your note sheetShare your response with the classWhat trends or patterns do you notice?Why might that be?How might that impact the U.S. economy?
Brainstorm Examples of Government Regulations of BusinessesMinimum wageEnd to child laborWorkmen’s compensationVacation payHoliday payHealth insuranceSafety regulationsLimitations on work dayOvertime payMaternity leaveSick days
Andrew Carnegie•Successful due tobusiness managementpractices: Making better products more cheaply New machinery and techniques (new accounting systems to track cost) Offering stock in the company to talented employees
Horizontal IntegrationHorizontal integration Companies that produce similar products merge together.Example:
Social DarwinismTheory of “natural selection” based on Charles Darwin’s survival of the fittest.Success or failure in business is governed by natural laws.Good businesses survive, bad businesses will go out of business (die off)Used to justify laissez-faire (allow to do)Discouraged government regulation or control over market or businesses
Examples of Government Regulations of BusinessMinimum wage Maternity LeaveEnd to child labor sick daysWorkmen’s compensationVacation payHoliday payHealth insuranceSafety regulationsLimitations on work dayOvertime pay
Government Attempts to Regulate BusinessSherman Antitrust Act Government believed growing corporations stifled competition Made it illegal to form a trust that interferes with free trade between Example: Microsoft monopoly states or other over computer industry unfairly countries crushed competition Difficult to prosecute
Working ConditionsWorking ConditionsLength of workday:# of days work/week:Safety:Benefits:
Working Conditions LENGTH OF WORKDAY: Most employers demanded 12-hours a day (or more) # OF DAYS/WEEK: 6-day work week (steel mills demanded 7-day work week) PAY: Low wages – to survive, most families needed all members to work, including children ($0.27 for a 14-hour day); women earned about half of men’s pay ($267 vs. $498) BENEFITS: No vacation, sick leave, workers’ or unemployment compensation SAFETY: Dirty and poorly ventilated factories Often faulty/dangerous equipment causing work-related accidents (In 1882, approx. 675 laborers killed)
Child Labor Women and children often worked in sweatshops (workshops in tenement): required few skills and paid lowest wages Children were often preferred: viewed as more manageable, cheaper, and less likely to strike Worked in mines, glass factories, textiles, agriculture, etc.
Fight to End Child Laborhttp://www.history.com/topics/child-labor/videos#the-fi
Rise of Labor Unions
Great Strike of 1877In the economic slump that followed the Panic of 1873, railroad managers cut wages, increased workloads, and laid off workers. Such actions drove workers to strike and riot. The general railway strike of 1877 was the result of the organization of a series of strikes by unionized railroad workers to protest wage cuts. These protests involved violence, which spread from Pennsylvania and West Virginia to the Midwest, Texas, and California, and rioters even attacked railroad property, derailing trains and burning rail yards. State militia companies had to be organized in order to break up these picket lines
Haymarket AffairThis was known as the Haymarket Riot for it took place near Haymarket Square near downtown Chicago. About hundred thousand workers turned out including anarchists and radicals who believed in using violence. Later, police shot and killed two unionists and wounded several others which launched a chain of rallies and more violence. During a protest against police brutality, a bomb exploded as a police company neared, killing seven and injuring sixty-seven. Mass arrests were then made, and this event later drew attention to labors growing discontent and heightened fear of radicalism.
The Homestead StrikeThe AFL and the labor movement suffered a series of setbacks in the early 1890s when labor violence stirred public fears once again. In July 1892, AFL- affiliated Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steelworkers refused to accept pay cuts and went on to strike in Homestead, Pennsylvania in what was known as the Homestead Strike. Henry C. Frick, president of the Carnegie Steel Company closed the plant and later tried to protect the plant by hiring three hundred guards. Attacks and violence followed and the strikers gave in after five months. By this time, public opinion had turned against the union after a young anarchist attempted to assassinate Frick.
The Pullman Strike In 1894, workers of at the Pullman Palace Car Company walked out in protest over exploitative policies at the company town near Chicago. Although the paternalistic George Pullman provided everything for the twelve thousand residents of the so-called model town named after him, he would not negotiate with workers. When hard times began in 1893, Pullman tried to protect profits by cutting wages. Workers sent a committee to Pullman to protest his policies but Pullman reacted by firing three of them. Enraged workers called a strike, also known as the Pullman Strike, and Pullman retaliated by closing his factory. This union was led by Eugene V. Debs, voted to aid the strikers by refusing to handle any Pullman cars attached to any trains. However, soon the strike ended when President Grover Cleveland ordered federal troops to crush the protests and Debs was sent to prison for defying the court injunction.