Passengers may wait aboard steamships for several hours in NY Harbor waiting to be processed at Ellis Island.
Immigration By Jackie White
Requirements for U.S. citizenship• Imagine that you are the president of the United States and you must determine whether or not there should be requirements to be or to become a U.S. citizen? If so, what should the requirements be? If none, explain why not. Be prepared to share your requirements with a partner and/or the class.
Citizenship Test• Take the U.S. citizenship test to find out if you have what it takes to become a U.S. citizen!
Brainstorm• What words, phrases, or images come to mind when you hear the word IMMIGRANT?
Immigration• What does immigration mean?• Entering a new country to settle permanently
Our Ethnic Ancestry• We are decedents of our ancestors or relatives from the past. Trace your family history to the country/countries your ancestors came from.• We will go around the room and record everyone’s ancestors country of origin on the Smartboard.
Ethnic Ancestry• Look closely at our class’s ethnic diversity. What questions does this raise for you?
Why Come to America?• Immigrants including our ancestors came to America for a wide variety of reasons. What might be some reasons your ancestors or relatives came to America?
Push/Pull Factors• Push Factors- conditions that push people out of their homeland.• Pull Factors- conditions that attract people to a new area.
Benito Vincenzo• Read the story of Benito Vincenzo. Identify at least one push factor and one pull factor from the reading.
Coreno, Italysmall village east ofNaples in southern Italy
• Sailing ship of the 1800’s took 1-3 months to cross the Atlantic OceanSteamship of 1901 took lessthen two weeks to cross theAtlantic Ocean
New York City in 1902Little Italy Tall buildings
“Birds of Passage”• Immigrants who came to the U.S. to work and returned to their native country to live
Create a list of Push/Pull Factors from the story
Document Analysis• Activity: In groups of 2-3 read 3-4 primary source documents and identify the factors for immigration for each document. Be prepared to share your research .
Examples of Push Factors• Increasing population• Land scarce in home country• Food scarcity• Political instability• Religious persecution• Revolutions• Poverty• Too few industrial jobs
Examples of Pull Factors• Promise of freedom (religious and political)• Hope for a new life• Industrial Jobs• Land-large amounts and cheap• “Streets paved with gold”• In search of American Dream- socio-economic mobility
European Immigrantso Prior to 1890, most o Beginning in the immigrants came from 1890s, increasing countries in western numbers came and northern Europe from southern ando England, Ireland, eastern Europe Germany and o Italy, Austria- Scandinavian Hungary and countries Russia
New Immigrants Old Immigrants/Native Born After (1890) Before (1889)1. Geographic region Southern & Eastern Europe Northern & Western Europe(what part ofcontinent):2. Countries of origin: Italy, Austria-Hungary, Britain, Scotland, Germany, & Russia, Ireland, China, Japan, Scandanavian countries Mexico, Caribbean/West Indies3. Religion: Catholic, Jewish, Buddhist Protestant4. Reasons for coming Escape religious persecution, Gold, God, Gloryto U.S.: pogroms, rising population-> scarcity of farmland->too few industrial jobs, gold rush
Journey to America• Getting Ready for your journey. Imagine you are leaving your country, family, and cultural traditions to come to the U.S. What things would you bring with you and why?
Journey to America A) What items do you take to remind you about your family & your nation?B) What items should you bring to practiceyour religion?C) What type of clothing will you bring?D) How much money?E) What are your hopes & dreams?
Journey to America• Activity: Read a primary source document on what the journey to America was like.• Write a diary entry or letter to a friend or family member in your native country in which you describe your journey to America.
Immigrants Journeyo Most immigrants traveled by steamship (approx. 1 week from Europe, and 3 weeks from China)o Many traveled in steerage, the cheapest accommodations in the lower deckso Immigrants were crowded together, unable to exercise or catch a breath of fresh air (disease spread and some immigrants died on route)
What might he be pointing at? What do you think they see?How might they have felt?
Ellis Island Immigration Processing Station-NY What might this be a picture of?
What are they inspecting for? Eye exam-inspecting fortrachoma a highly contagious eye
What might this room have been used for? What do you notice about this room?How might it have felt to be in the room?
Who Is Acceptable? You Decide• 1. 22 year old male college student who has taken part in protests against his government, but wants to attend college in the U.S. and a good job.• 2. Daughter of a minor party official in her native land.• 3. Musician/rock star who lost his hand in an accident.• 4. Pregnant woman from an underdeveloped nation who wants her baby to be born and raised in America.• 5. Medical doctor who speaks no English.• 6. Farmer and family who have always been poor for his ancestors, as he, worked marginal lands.• 7. Military officer who took part in an attempt overthrow of his country’s government.• 8. Nuclear physicist who helped third world country to build atomic weapons.
Legal Inspection at Ellis Islando A government inspector checked for criminal historyo Made sure the immigrant would be able to worko Also to see if they had some money (at least $25 after 1909)
Manifest• Activity:Divide into groups of 3-5. Each group analyze the passenger manifest. From the manifest the group must create a biography of one person’s life
What happens after immigrants arrive in America?
Difficulties Immigrants Face in AmericaLength of journey: 1-3 weeks on a steamshipConditions on ship: Crowded, unable to breath, steerage class, diseases spread, louse infested bunks, shared toiletsAt Immigration Inspected, pass a physical examination, governmentprocessing station: inspector to check documents and met legal requirements: never convicted of a felony (rape, murder, burglary) & show they had $25
Challenges of Immigration• Read poems about immigration.• You, Whoever You Are by Walt Whitman• You Have to Live in Somebody Else’s Country to Understand by Noy Chou
You, whoever you are!... By Walt Whitman• All you continentals of Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, indifferent of place!• All you on the numberless islands of the archipelagoes of the sea!• All you of centuries hence when you listen to me!• All you each and everywhere whom I specify not, but include just the same!• Health to you! good will to you all, from me and America sent!• Each of us is inevitable,• Each of us is limitless—each of us with his or her right upon the earth,• Each of us allowd the eternal purports of the earth,• Each of us here as divinely as any is here.
You Have to Live in Somebody Elses Country to Understand by Noy ChouWhat is it like to be an outsider?What is it like to sit in the class whereeveryone has blond hair and you have blackhair?What is it like when the teacher says,"Whoever wasnt born here raise your hand."And you are the only one.Then, when you raise your hand, everybodylooks at you and makes fun of you.
You have to live in somebody elses country to understand. What is it like when the teacher treats you like youve beenhere all your life?What is it like when the teacher speaks too fast and you are theonly one who cant understand what he or she is saving, andyou try to tell him or her to slow down.Then when you do, everybody says, "If you dont understand,go to a lower class or get lost."You have to live in somebody elses country to understand.What is it like when you are an opposite?When you wear the clothes of your country and they think youare crazy to wear these clothes and you think they are pretty.
• You have to live in somebody elses country to understand. What is it like when you are always a loser. What is it like when somebody bothers you when you do nothing to them? You tell them to stop but they tell you that they didnt do anything to you. Then, when they keep doing it until you cant stand it any longer, you go up to the teacher and tell him or her to tell them to stop bothering you. They say that they didnt do anything to bother you. Then the teacher asks the person sitting next to you. He says, "Yes, she didnt do anything to her" and you have no witness to turn to. So the teacher thinks you are a liar.
• You have to live in somebody elses country to understand. What is it like when you try to talk and you dont pronounce the words right? They dont understand you. They laugh at you but you dont know that they are laughing at you, and you start to laugh with them. They say, "Are you crazy, laughing at yourself? Go get lost, girl." You have to live in somebody elses country without a language to understand. What is it like when you walk in the street and everybody turns around to look at you and you dont know that they are looking at you. Then, when you find out, you want to hide your face but you dont know where to hide because they are everywhere. You have to live in somebody elses country to feel it.
Immigration Poem• Write a poem about being an immigrant in America at the turn of the century. Your poem should include reference to some of the challenges immigrants faced being a new comer to America.
Cliff Dwellers (1913) by George Bellows• In the early 1900s, urban areas were overcome with people leaving rural areas and with immigrants new to the country. The skyrocketing population created problems in housing, transportation, water, sanitation and safety. As problems in cities mounted, social reformers established programs to aid the poor and improve urban life.
Cliff Dwellers• Why do you think the painting is entitled Cliff Dwellers?• How does the artist create the impression of cliffs?• What aspects of city life are pictured here? (Use evidence from the painting to support your response)• What might be some of the problems of urbanization?
The Good Old Days, They Were Terrible!• Skim through “The Good Old Days, They Were Terrible!”• Identify a few problems associated with housing, sanitation, water, transportation, and safety of city life at the turn of the 19th century.
What wouldyou do if a firebroke out onthe fifth floorof thisbuilding?Do you thinkthe fire escapewas there in1900?
What do you notice about the side ofthis building?What might it have been like livinginside the building?
What do we call all of the houses that share an interior walllike this?What would happen if there was a fire in one of the homes?
What is this type ofhome called?How many people livedin this home?What might it have feltlike to live inside it?
What is this apicture of?How did it work?What would it belike to share thiswith everyone inyour tenementbuilding?What would it smelllike on a hotsummer day?Where did thewaste go?
New York Tenement Museum• http://www.tenement.org/Virtual- Tour/index_virtual.html
Challenges of Urbanization• Draw a picture or sketch of what life was like living in the cities in America at the turn of the century. Your drawing how should capture the problems associated with city living.
Personal Immigration Experience• Interview a family member or friend about their personal immigration experience with that of immigrants at the turn of the 19th century. See discussion question worksheet.
Immigration Political Cartoons• Elements of Political Cartoons• Symbols• Words• Message/meaningIdentify all of the symbolsused in this cartoon?What does each symbolmean?What is the message?