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    Cold war themes Cold war themes Presentation Transcript

    • Cold WarBy Jackie White
    • PreviewWhat comes to your mind when you think aboutcommunism?
    • Communism Reasoning Guide» Write A if you agree, D if you disagree, orN if you are neutral for each of thefollowing statements.» It is better to give then to receive.» A country’s success & growth aredetermined by how well the poorest ofthe poor, not the richest of the rich aredoing. If I work on a group project, Ibelieve that all students should receivethe same grade regardless of how muchwork they put into it.
    • Communism Reasoning Guide» Individual success can happen without groupsuccess.» On an athletic team, how the team performs ismore important than individual statistics.» There should be a national limit on how much andhow little someone can earn per year.» This country would be a better place if thegovernment owned and operated all the businessesand food supply.» The employees of a company are more importantto that company’s success than the owners of thecompany are.» Farmers are the most important workers in the world.» Money makes the world go round.
    • Chapter 26 Section 1“Origins of the Cold War”» Main Idea: The U.S. & the Soviet Unionemerged from WWII as two “superpowers”with vastly different political and economicsystems» Why It Matters: After World War II, differencesbetween the United States & the Soviet Unionled to a Cold War that lasted almost to the21st century.» Terms & Names: United Nations, satellitenation, containment, iron curtain, Cold war,Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Berlin airlift,North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    • Learning Objectives:» Explain the breakdown in relationsbetween the United States and theSoviet Union after World War II.» Summarize the steps taken by theU.S. to contain Soviet influence.
    • What will your Cold WarPolicy Be?» Imagine you are President HarryTruman in 1946. As the leader of acapitalist nation, you have watchedapprehensively as communism hasspread from the Soviet Union sincethe end of World War II.» Read the two advisors analyses of thesituation and decide how the USshould react to the communist threat.
    • What should the U.S. doabout the Soviet threat?» 1. Attack the Soviet Union. A military conflict isinevitable, and the U.S. should attack now while it hasthe power of the atomic bomb & the Soviets do not.» 2. Focus on U.S. efforts on rolling back Sovietexpansion. Use threats & possibly military action toliberate countries in eastern from communism.This willmake the Soviets less powerful.» 3. Halt the expansion of the Soviet Union. Don’tattack the Soviet Union or force it to give up territoriescurrently under its control, but use alliances,economic aid to western Europe, and militarydefense to prevent the Soviets from taking over newcountries.» 4. Negotiate with the Soviets. Military action isdangerous & unwarranted at this time.
    • Spread of Communism» Read Problem 1-The Spread ofCommunism» Will you give speeches about thethreat of communism?» Outcome: Truman used forcefullanguage several times when speakabout the Soviet Union. His mostnotable speech established what hasbeen called the Truman Doctrine
    • Truman Doctrine» Believed the world wasdivided into good countries(democracies) & evil ones(communist countries.)» Helped to bolster U.S.support for stopping thespread of communismthrough the policy ofcontainment.» Committed the U.S. tostopping the spread ofcommunism anywhere,although he probably onlyintended it to apply toEurope.
    • Iron Curtain» Read New York Times UpfrontMagazine article, “1946: The IronCurtain & the Cold War”» What is the “iron curtain”?» A metaphor used by British PrimeMinister Winston Churchill in 1946 todescribe the invisible barrier or divisionbetween Western Europeandemocratic countries and Communistcountries in Eastern Europe.
    • Economic Aid» Read Problem 2-Economic Aid» Will you give aid to western Europeancountries?» Outcome: U.S. adopted the EuropeanRecovery Plan or Marshall Plan» Gave $13 billion to European countriesover two years.» Was very popular & successful as aconstructive way to help Europeans andstop the spread of communism
    • Marshall Plan» The Marshall Plan PBS videoclip 1:40-4:00» http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pUt7L» Read the New York TimesUpfront article “Marshall’sPlan: Pay for Peace”
    • Military Alliance» Read Problem 3- Military Alliance» Will you form a military alliance withWestern European countries?» Outcome: Truman formed the NorthAtlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)» Free world united in a psychologicalbarrier for the Soviets» U.S. abandoned its isolationist tradition» The first time the US made a peacetimealliance
    • NATO» The original 12 membercountries pledgedmilitary support to oneanother in case anymember was attacked.» Which countries aremembers of the NATOalliance?» Belgium, Denmark,France, Great Britain,Iceland, Italy,Luxembourg, theNetherlands, Norway,Portugal, U.S. & Canada» Which region are thesecountries located?
    • Berlin Blockade» Read Problem 4-Berlin Blockade» How will you respond to the Berlin blockade?» Outcome: Accepting the blockade will allowthe Soviets control of West Berlin would havebeen a symbolic defeat that might haveemboldened the Soviets to impose moreblockades or cause future confrontations.» Sending in troops to forcibly end theblockade could have led to war withthousands or millions of casualties.» The U.S. flew food & supplies to keep the citygoing for 11 months. A victory for WestGermany, western Europe, & the U.S.
    • Berlin Airlift» http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=detQUU_jw7c
    • Exit Ticket» What should be the United Statespolicy toward Soviet influence?
    • Chapter 26 Section 2“the Cold War Heats Up”» Main Idea: After World War II, Chinabecame a communist nation and Koreawas split into a communist north &democratic south» Why It Matters Now: ongoing tensions withChina and North Korea continue toinvolve the United States.» Terms & Names: Chiang Kai-Shek, MaoZedong, Taiwan, 38th parallel, Korean War
    • Learning Objective» Understand how Communists cameto power in China & be able toidentify the leaders of the Nationalist& Communist parties in China.» Summarize the causes and effectsof the Korean War using the terms38thparallel, communism, NorthKorea, South Korea, & containment.
    • China» Read Problem 5-China» How will you respond to the possibility thatcommunists may win the civil war in China?
    • Outcome» Truman supportedChiang Kai-shek’snationalist forces bysending $3 billion in aid.His government wasinefficient & corrupt.» The Nationalists weremostly wealthy landowners who wereopposed to any reformsthat would helppeasants. (they taxedfarmers even during afamine in 1944.)Chiang Kai-shekNationalist Party
    • Outcome» Communist Partysupported land reform» Appealed to peasants(poor)» Taught peasants toread & improved foodproductionMao ZeDongCommunist Party
    • Communist Infiltration» Read Problem6-CommunistInfiltration» Will you support an anti-communistprogram in the U.S.?
    • Warm Up» Video on political prison camp 14 inNorth Korea and Shin Dong-hyukwho is believed to be the onlyperson to have ever escaped.» http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lr6Rw0ltFxc» What was it like inside the camp?
    • Decision Making Format» You will be confronted with a problem. Read theproblem. (2 min)» Individually decide what you would do. (2)» Find a partner & discuss the reasons for yourchoices. (3 min)» Share response on how to respond to problemwith the entire class & generate a list of possibleoptions. (5)» Discuss reasons for & against each option.» Vote as a whole class on an option. (2)» Read & discuss the outcomes.» Debrief: What surprised you? What did youlearn?
    • Korean Crisis» Read Problem 1-June1950» How will you react tothe invasion of SouthKorea by thecommunist NorthKoreans?
    • Outcome» Truman decided tosend Americantroops to stop theNorth Korean armyfrom taking over allof South Korea.» He believed the U.S.should take a strongstance against futureacts of aggression.
    • Inchon Landing» General DouglasMacArthur madea daring attackbehind enemylines landing U.S.ships at Inchonforcing the NorthKoreans to retreator be cut off andsurrounded.
    • Korean Crisis» Read Problem 2-September 1950» Will you grantMacArthur’s requestto invade NorthKorea?
    • OutcomeTruman grantedMacArthur’s request toinvade North Korea butAmerican troops werespread very thin, theChinese entered the waron the side of the NorthKoreans & attacked U.S.forces killing and woundingthousands of Americans &forcing the U.S. to retreatback to the middle of theKorean peninsula.
    • Korean Crisis» Read Problem 2-September 1950» Will you grantMacArthur’s requestto invade NorthKorea?
    • Korean Crisis» Read Problem3-June 1951» Will younegotiate withNorth Korea orwill you keepfighting?
    • Outcome» Fighting continued for 2 more years» Almost ½ of the casualties from thewar came during this period» Stalin wanted the U.S. & China tocontinue fighting so that neitherwould be a threat to Sovietsupremacy» In 1953, the two sides agreed to atruce line roughly the same place itexisted before the war started.
    • CasualtiesGroup CasualtiesAmerican soldiers 36,00-54,000South Korean soldiers 200,000South Korean civilians 500,000North Korean soldiers 350,000North Korean civilians 1 million
    • 38thParallel» Read New York Times Upfront article,“Korea and Then There Were Two”
    • Exit Ticket» Summarize the causes and effects of theKorean War using the terms 38thparallel,communism, North Korea, South Korea, &containment.
    • Chapter 26 Section 3“The Cold War at Home”» Main Idea: During the late 1940s and early1950s, fear of communism led to recklesscharges against innocent citizens.» Why It Matters Now: Americans todayremain vigilant about unfoundedaccusations.» Terms & Names: HUAC, Hollywood Ten,blacklist, Alger Hiss, Ethel & JuliusRosenberg, Joseph McCarthy,McCarthyism
    • Learning Objectives:Understand how the Cold War affected life in the UnitedStates and be able to provide specific examples ofhow life in America was disrupted by domestictension.
    • Interact with History» At the end of World War II, Americansbegin to be haunted by a new fear. TheSoviets have embraced a tightly controlledpolitical system called communism. Manybelieve it threatens the American way oflife. Throughout the nation, suspectedcommunists are called before a Housesubcommittee for questioning. Anyoneaccused of un-American activity facespublic humiliation and professional ruin.» What would you do when a friend or familymember is accused?
    • The Dot GameYou will receive a slip of paper. You are NOT to share your paper with any otherperson in the class. Take care to note whether your paper has a DOT or is BLANK.There are fewer “dots” than “non-dots” but you do not know the number for each.
    • The Dot GameYou will have 5 minutes to form as large a group of “non-dot” participants aspossible. The largest group of “non-dots” will win points. The whole group willlose if even one “dot” member is in the group.NON-DOT PEOPLE
    • The Dot GameDo NOT reveal that you have a dot. “Dot” members may win points individuallyby being able to bluff others that they do not have a dot.DOT PEOPLE
    • The Dot GameSince everyone in the class will deny being a “dot”, you must look for people who,by any indication, seem suspicious. If you suspect a person as having a dot, youshould say tell the teacher, “So-and-so is a dot!”
    • The Dot GameGO!
    • DebriefDots: How did it feel when you found out that you would be a dot?What was your strategy? Was it successful?
    • DebriefNon-Dots: How did you try to identify who the dots were?Were you ever accused of being a dot? How did that feel?
    • You Just Experienced JosephMcCarthy hearings in 1954
    • Let’s compare the game tohistory with a t-chart.•Students accused otherstudents of being a dot.•Once accused, a studentwas marked with a post-itnote.•The teacher played a role insome students beingaccused of being a dot.•There were actually fewdots.•Joseph McCarthy accusedothers of being communist.•Once accused, you werelabeled a communist.•Once accused, you had totry to prove or convincepeople that you were notdots.•Very few of the peopleaccused were actuallycommunists.
    • Warm-Up» What does it mean to be American?» What are some examples of thingsconsidered un-American?» Is being a member of the Communist Partya crime?» Do Americans with communist beliefs posea threat to the nation?» Why might people be reluctant or unwillingto admit their association with theCommunist Party?» Does being convicted of a crime mean theperson is guilty?
    • Interact with History» At the end of World War II, Americansbegin to be haunted by a new fear. TheSoviets have embraced a tightly controlledpolitical system called communism. Manybelieve it threatens the American way oflife. Throughout the nation, suspectedcommunists are called before a Housesubcommittee for questioning. Anyoneaccused of un-American activity facespublic humiliation and professional ruin.» What would you do when a friend or familymember is accused?
    • Communist Infiltration» Read Problem6- Communist Infiltration» Will you support an anti-communist programin the U.S.?» Outcome: House of Un-American Activities(a powerful Congressional Committee)concluded that numerous security risksexisted within the government.» Truman was pressured to take action againstpotential communist sympathizers sinceHUAC could cause trouble for him if he failedto take action.
    • Outcome» Truman expanded the loyalty programwhich investigated government employeesand fired those considered disloyal.» Increased Americans fear of communism &contributed to a red Scare in whichgovernment officials used unscrupulousmethods to search for communists ingovernment, entertainment industry,universities, & churches.» Americans suspected of communistaffiliation lost their jobs on the basis of littleto no evidence.
    • House of Un-AmericanActivities» Do Americans with communistbeliefs pose a threat to the nation?» What can individual citizens do toprotect the rights of all people?» Should citizens speak out to preservethe rights of others?
    • House of Un-American ActivitiesCommittee (HUAC)» http://www.youtube.co» A powerfulCongressionalCommittee thatinvestigatedCommunistinfluence in movieindustry
    • Hollywood TenTen “unfriendly” witnessesin the movie industrywho refused tocooperate with HUACinvestigation becausethey believed thehearing wereunconstitutional.They were sent to prisonfor refusing to answerquestions.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P3MlaFIzCw8&feature=related49 seconds
    • Blacklist» A list of people whowere condemned forhaving a communistbackground. Theywere blacklisted andtheir careers wereruined.1952 A TV Studio refused to pay an actress because shedidn’t sign a loyalty oath stating she wasn’t a communistand was blacklisted for 3 years.She was 6 months old & couldn’t write. She never gotpaid for her diaper commercial.
    • Alger Hiss» U.S. StateDepartmentofficial accused ofbeing aCommunist spyand imprisonedwas neverconvicted ofespionage
    • Edward Snowden» Former NationalSecurity Agency(NSA) computerexpert who leakedsensitive top secretdocuments aboutthe governmenttracking America’sphone records» http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505263_162-57588871/edward-snowden-u.s-tracking-down-what-he-knows-where-he-is/
    • Chapter 26 Section 3“The Cold War at Home”» Main Idea: During the late 1940s and early1950s, fear of communism led to recklesscharges against innocent citizens.» Why It Matters Now: Americans todayremain vigilant about unfoundedaccusations.» Terms & Names:HUAC, Hollywood Ten,blacklist, Alger Hiss, Ethel & JuliusRosenberg, Joseph McCarthy,McCarthyism
    • Learning Objectives:Understand how the Cold War affected life in the UnitedStates and be able to provide specific examples ofhow life in America was disrupted by domestictension.
    • Rosenberg Trial» What are thecharacteristicsof an effectivejuror?» Are youcapable ofbeing a goodjuror, why orwhy not?
    • Rosenberg Trial» You will hear the prosecution’s caseagainst the Rosenbergs first, and then thedefense will present its case.» Jurors are NOT allowed to talk about thiscase to anyone, especially to the otherjurors in this room until both cases haverested. Because of the high publicity of thistrial, you will be sequestered for theduration of the trial, which means you canNOT listen to the news, radio, watch TV,read newspapers/magazines, or use theinternet.
    • Rosenberg Trial» Read The Prosecution’s Evidence (pgs. 112-113)This is the prosecution’s case against theRosenbergs. Jurors are not allowed to askquestions or discuss this information.» After reading The Prosecution’s Evidence,complete the graphic organizer to show how thepeople are connected.» Read Evidence: Venona Cable (pgs. 114-115) &Look at Evidence: The Famous Sketches (pg. 116)This telegram was intercepted and decoded bythe U.S. The key on the second page translates thecode names into the names of the suspects. Thesketches were reproduced in size to allow all threeto fit on a page.
    • Rosenberg Trial» Read The DefenseEvidence (pg. 118)This information isthe defense thatwas used for theRosenbergs.» Jurors are notallowed to askquestions or discussthis information.
    • Jury Deliberation» Both sides have restedtheir case so jurors willfinally be given achance to talk aboutthe trial. You will begiven an opportunityto present youropinions on the case.» Write a shortpersuasive speechusing evidence tosupport your opinions.Fishbowl activity.»ONLY students in theinner circle may speak»Students on theoutside circle can tapsomeone in the innercircle out at anytime.»Use evidence from thecase to support youropinion as often aspossible.
    • Jury’s Verdict» Vote on whetheror not you thinkthe Rosenbergsare guilty beyonda reasonabledoubt of thecrime ofespionage whichthey are accused.
    • Ethel & Julius Rosenberghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YiDAekam15g» Minor members of theAmerican Communist Partyaccused of helping theSoviets build an atomicbomb» Found guilty of espionage &sentenced to death.» In 1997, informationconfirmed that Julius was aspy but did not hand oversecrets to build an atomicbomb.
    • Chapter 26 Section 3“The Cold War at Home”» Main Idea: During the late 1940s and early1950s, fear of communism led to recklesscharges against innocent citizens.» Why It Matters Now: Americans todayremain vigilant about unfoundedaccusations.» Terms & Names:HUAC, Hollywood Ten,blacklist, Alger Hiss, Ethel & JuliusRosenberg, Joseph McCarthy,McCarthyism
    • Allegory is a form of extended metaphor, in whichobjects, persons, and actions in a narrative, areequated with the meanings that lie outside thenarrative itself. The underlying meaning has moral,social, religious, or political significance, andcharacters are often personifications of abstract ideasas charity, greed, or envy.Thus an allegory is a storywith two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolicmeaning.What is an allegory?
    • Cold War in Third World Countries By the early 1960s, the termhad come to identify alarge bloc of countries fromAsia, Africa, and LatinAmerica. Charting a “third way”proved difficult, botheconomically andpolitically. Both the Sovietsand the Americans saw theThird World as“underdeveloped.” By the middle of the 1960s,as the euphoria ofdecolonization evaporatedand new states foundthemselves mired in debtand dependency, manyThird World nations fell intodictatorship andauthoritarian rule.In the 1950s, Frenchintellectuals coined theterm “Third World” todescribe the efforts ofcountries seeking a “thirdway” between Westerncapitalism and Sovietcommunism.
    • Warm Up» What are somedominant ColdWar themes ormessages thatyou mightanticipatefinding in thefilms?
    • The King and I (1956)» Musical» Englishwomen AnnaLeonowens is a tutorfor King Mongkut ofSiam’s (Thailand)wives and children.She educates themon westernmanners, fashion,customs, and ideals.How does the film illustrate American goals in Asia?(Getting to Know You 5 min)
    • The King and I» Competition for the heartsand minds of third worldcountries in Asia» Teacher spreadsAmerican culture, values,customs, ideas (Culturalimperialism)» Modernize/westernize Asiato combat spread ofcommunism» America is trying to “get toknow” culture of thirdworld countries
    • Invasion of the BodySnatchers (1956)» Science fiction» A small town inCalifornia’sinhabitants aretaken over by seepods from outerspace andtransformed intounfeelingautomatons.How does the film illustrate Cold War fears in the US?Pod Scene 4:12
    • Invasion of the BodySnatchers (1956)» Mass hysteria or fearof communistsinvasion, infiltration ofgovernment, trying todominate the world» Conversion into de-individualized,unfeeling automatonsimmune toattachments to familylove,» Powerful & It must bedestroyed
    • Dr. Strangelove (1964)» Satire» The accidentallaunching of nuclearwar and the resultingSoviet-Americancooperation to thwartits full eruption.» Indictment of theAmerican nuclearsystemhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JeedOjAbo4o
    • Dr. Strangelove (1964)» Declining value ofhuman life» threatenedextinction of allhuman life, virtualannihilation,mutually assureddestruction» Fear of retaliation,nuclear war
    • Chapter 26 Section 4“Two Nations Live on the Edge”» Main Idea: During the 1950’s, the United Statesand the Soviet Union came to the brink ofnuclear war.» Why it Matters Today: The Cold War continuedinto the following decades, affecting U.S.policies in Cuba, Central America, SoutheastAsia, and the Middle East.» Terms & Names: H-bomb, Dwight D. Eisenhower,John Foster Dulles, brinksmanship, CIA, WarsawPact, Eisenhower Doctrine, Nikita Krushev,Francis Gary Powers, U-2 Incident
    • How is the Hydrogen bombdifferent from the atomicbomb?» Scientists felt an evenmore destructive thermo-nuclear weapon could bedeveloped…they wereright.» November 1, 1952, U.S.develops first…SovietUnion succeeds in Aug ’53» 1 Million tons of TNT 67 times stronger than LittleBoy» U.S. exploded the first H-Bomb on Nov. 1, 1952» Soviets: Aug. 1953
    • Fear of Nuclear Attack
    • President Dwight D. Eisenhower» Campaign slogan: “We Like Ike”» Ike’s approach:“dynamicconservatism”» Conservative w/$» Liberal w/humanbeings
    • Brinksmanship» US Secretary of State» Staunchly anti-communist» Prevent spread ofcommunism by usingof all of its forceincluding nuclearweapons against anyaggressor nation.» Willingness to go to theedge of all out warJohn Foster Dulles
    • Nuclear Fall Out» Practiced air raid drills» Duck & Cover» Built underground fallout shelters inbackyards» Constant fear ofnuclear war for thenext 30 years» Video clip “Duck &Cover”
    • Central Intelligence Agency(CIA)» Used spies to gatherintelligence abroad.» Began to carry outcovert, or secret,operations to weakenor overthrowunfriendlygovernments to U.S
    • Warsaw Pact• Stalin dies in’53• West Germanywas allowed torearm andjoins NATO in’55.• Fearful, theSoviets formthe WarsawPact– Militaryalliance withseven E.Europeannations.
    • Which countries onthe map belonged toNATO?Which countries onthe map belonged tothe Warsaw Pact?Which countries onthe map did notbelong to eitherdefense alliance?How did the WarsawPact fulfill Stalin’sdesire to shield theSoviet Union from thewest?
    • Eisenhower Doctrine• Soviet Unionsupported Egypt inconflict overcontrol of SuezCanal.• Ike’s warning: U.S.would defend theMiddle Eastagainst an attackby any communistcountry.
    • The Hungarian Uprising• Hungary dominated bythe Soviet Union– Hungarians revolted b/cthey wanted Democracy• November, 1956: Soviettanks invaded thecountry and killed30,000 people tosuppress the uprising• U.S. / NATO did nothingas promised by TrumanDoctrine-Hungarianswere disappointed
    • Nikita Kruschev• Believedcommunism wouldtake over the world• Favored a peacefulcoexistence in whichtwo powers wouldcompeteeconomically andscientifically
    • U-2 Incident
    • Space Race• October 4, 1957:Soviets launchedSputnik– Triumph in Soviettechnology• January 31, 1958:First U.S. satellite
    • Who Primarily Caused theCold War?» Read the background information &the competing historicalinterpretations.» Then answer the questions on theworksheet.» Determine which country’s actionsyou believe are primarily responsiblefor causing the Cold War?