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The Great
Depression
By Jackie White
U.S. History II
Chapter 22 Section 1
“The Nation’ Sick Economy”
 Key Question: What caused the Great
Depression?
 Chapter Objective: Stu...
Chapter 22 Section 1
“The Nations Sick Economy”
 Learning Objective: Be able to summarize several
causes of the Great Dep...
Warm Up:
 What would you do if you
lost your entire life’s
savings and couldn’t find a
job?
 How might you feel if you
c...
Beginning of Economic
Problems
 What did American companies do during World War
I?
 As European countries rebuilt in the...
Industry
 Some industries suffered from declining demand for
goods after WWI
 Some industries lost business to foreign c...
What types of industries would be
affected by a decline in building new
houses?
 Loggers (cut
down trees)
 Construction
...
Major Industries
What areas of the US will be most affected by the decrease in
coal production?
Agriculture
 http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_detail.cfm?aid
 http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_detail....
Agriculture
 After WWI, demand for
farm products fell
drastically
 Farm overproduction lead
to a surplus of crops,
which...
Consumer Spending
 What are some examples of
things that people spend money
on?
 Complete consumer spending
worksheet
 ...
Distribution of Wealth
 What percentage of
Americans made more
than $10,000 annually?
 What percentage made
less than $1...
Distribution of Wealth
 Nearly half of American
families earned the
minimum amount needed
for a decent standard of
living...
What is the NYSE?
NYSE- New York Stock
Exchange place to buy and
sell stock since 1792
Stock Market
 What is stock?
 Stock- a share of a company that
entitles you to profits made by the
Stock Market
 What does a stockbroker do?
 Stockbrokers-take orders from
customers to buy and sell shares of
stocks in m...
 Dow Jones Industrial Average-
barometer of stock market health
based on the stock prices of the 30
largest firms trading...
Stock Market
Why do people invest money into the stock
market?
 Speculation- buying stock in hopes of
making a quick prof...
Black Tuesday
 On October 29, 1929 the bottom fell out of the
market and the nation lost confidence
 Shareholders franti...
Stock Market
 Many investors engaged in buying on
margin, paying a small percentage of
the stocks price as a down payment...
What was the DOW
average in 1927?
What was the DOW
average in July of
1929?
What happened to
the DOW average
between 1927-...
What does the
cartoonist suggest
will happen to
individuals
because of the
crash?
How does the
cartoonist convey
a sense...
Causes of the Great Depression
Key industries barely made a profit cut hours or laid
off workers
 Agricultural decline po...
Chapter 22 Section 2
“Hardship & Suffering during the
Depression”
 Learning Objective: Be able to describe how
people suf...
Great Depression
 What was it like to grow up
during the Great Depression of
the 1930’s?
 How did the Depression alter
f...
Great Depression
Period of time between 1929-
1940 in which the economy
plummeted and unemployment
skyrocketed
How does the American Banking
system work?
People invest their
money in the
banks and banks
then invest that
money in the
...
Can all Americans take out all
their money at the same time?
 No, because
the money isn’t
sitting in the
vault some of it...
Rush on the Banks
 During the Great Depression, people panicked and
withdrew their money from banks, but some couldn’t
ge...
Rush on the banks
In 1929, 600 banks closed
In 1933, 11,000 banks failed b/c the government
Protects your savings today up to $250,000
Gross National Product
 GNP- total output of the nation’s goods and services
 GNP was cut in half from $104 billion to $...
What was the higest percentage of unemployment during the
GD?
Economic Collapse
 Unemployment
jumped from:
 1.6 million in 1929
 4 million in 1930
 8 million in 1931
 12 1/2 milli...
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act
 What is GDP?
 What was the GDP in
1928?
 What was the GDP in
1933?
 What impact did the
Hawle...
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act
 Passed by Congress in the 1930’s
 Established the highest protective tariff in U.S.
History
 D...
Global Effects of the Depression
 As the U.S. economy collapsed so did EuropeAs the U.S. economy collapsed so did Europe’...
Bellwork:
 What would your life be like if
you had no home to live in and
no money to buy food or
clothes?
 What should ...
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act
 What is GDP?
 What was the GDP in
1928?
 What was the GDP in
1933?
 What impact did the
Hawle...
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act
 Passed by Congress in the 1930’s
 Established the highest protective tariff in U.S.
History
 D...
Effects of the Great Depression
 People lost jobs, were evicted from their
homes, & ended up on the streets
Homelessness
Effects of the Great Depression
Shantytowns/Hoovervilles-little towns consisting of
shacks that sprang up in cities across...
Effects of the Great Depression
Inhabitants blamed Hoover for their plight
Effects of the Great Depression
Hoover’s name became an object of ridicule
Soup Kitchens- free or low cost soup
Effects of the Great
Depression
Effects of the Great Depression
Breadlines- Men waiting in line for free bread.
http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_detail.cfm?
aid=a_000756&oid=ob_000064
Dust Bowl
 Drought that began in the early 1930’s
 Wreaked havoc on the Great Plains
No trees or grass to hold the topsoil in place
Plowing removed the thick layer of prairie
grasses
Farmers exhausted the la...
st storms hit Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, & Colora
Dust Bowl
Migrant “Oakies” on their way to California
Thousands of families fled to California
Dust Bowl
Alendanre Hogue
 Grew up in West Texas
 Part of the regionalist
movement of artist who
attempted to create
unique Americ...
Painting Analysis
 What does the
house, cow, the
windmill, the
dunes, the vulture
represent?
 What is the feeling
of the...
• Lonely house vast distance
between it and the one in the
background emphasizes
loneliness of life on the Great
Plains
Sk...
• Broken windmill the power
of nature the wind has
broken the blades
• The well has not produced
any water and the water
t...
What sense of the
Dust Bowl does this
photo give you?
Examine the
photograph closely.
What details from
the photo suggest
...
Why are the people in the
photograph standing in
line?
Irony involves the indirect
presentation of a
contradiction between...
Effects on Families
 Americans believed in
traditional values and
emphasized the
importance
of family
 Families entertai...
Depression Effects on Men
 Difficulty coping with unemployment
 Men walked the streets in search of jobs
 Some men aban...
Depression Effects on Men
 http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_
detail.cfm?aid=a_000750&oid=ob_000064
Hoboes- wand...
Effects on Women
 Canned food or sewed clothes to
make money
 Managed household budgets
 Many people believed that sing...
Effects on Children
 Poor diets, malnutrition,
diet related diseases, not
enough milk
 Rickets- a disease caused
by lack...
Effects on Children
 School year
shortened due to
insufficient funding
 Children went to
work in sweatshops
 Road the r...
Social and Psychological Effects
 Some people were
demoralized & lost
their will to survive
 Suicide rate rose
over 30%
...
Social and Psychological Effects
 People stopped going to
doctors & dentists
 Many did not go on to
college
 Some put o...
Chapter 22 Section 3
“Hoover Struggles with the
Depression”
 Learning Objective: Understand how Hoover’s
reluctance to he...
Who Won the Election of 1928?
Why might the democratic candidate not have won many states?
Herbert Hoover
 1928 Campaign pledge, “A chicken in every pot and a car
in every garage.”
Hoover’s Philosophy of Government
 “rugged
individualism”- the
idea that people
succeed through
their own efforts.
People...
Hoover’s Philosophy of
Government
 Opposed any form of federal welfare or direct relief to
the needy
 Believed handouts ...
Hoovers Philosophy of
Government
 The chief function of
government was to
encourage voluntary
cooperation among
competing...
Hoover’s Response to Crash
 Tried to reassure Americans that the nation’s
economy was on sound footing
 Remain optimisti...
Hoover’s Response to Crash
 Reacted with caution to stock market
crash
 Urged key leaders to work together to
provide so...
Economic Situation in 1930?
 Continued to worsen
 Unemployment continued to rise
 More companies went out of business
...
Herbert Hoover’s Response
 Directed federal funds to public works
projects, such as the Boulder Dam, to jump
start the ec...
Hoover’s Response
 Backed a series of federal programs:
Federal Farm Board
 National Credit Corp
 Federal Home Loan Ban...
Patman Bill
 Passed by Congress in
1924 authorized the
government to pay a bonus
to WWI veterans who had
not been compens...
Bonus Army March on Washington
10,000-20,000 WWI veterans and their families went to
Washington D.C. to demand bonus pay t...
Hoover Disbands the Bonus Army
 Hoover thought they
were communists and
persons with criminal
records so he opposed
the l...
 Hoover sent 1,000 soldiers under the command of Dwight D.
Eisenhower and Douglas MacArthur to disband the veterans.
 Th...
The New Deal
23 The New Deal
HOME
CHAPTER OBJECTIVE
To understand the impetus for
FDR’s New Deal legislations
and the impa...
1
A New Deal Fights the Depression
OVERVIEW
After becoming president, Franklin
Delano Roosevelt used government
programs t...
23
W I T H H I S T O R Y
I N T E R A C T
How would you begin to revive the
economy?
Examine the
Issues
It is 1933, the hei...
What Should Be Done to Cure the
Depression?
 Read each of the following suggested ways to
fix the economy.
 Pick the top...
Election of 1932
Franklin Delano
Roosevelt
Democratic Candidate
reformer
Herbert Hoover
Republican
Candidate
Incumbent
(re...
Who won the Election of 1932?
Who were the
two presidential
candidates in the
1932 election?
Who won the
election of
1932?...
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
 Thirty-Second
President
 1933-1945
Suffered from polio & was partially
paralyzed from the wai...
Brain Trust
A group of carefully
picked advisers
including
professors,
lawyers, &
journalists that
helped FDR set
policies...
New Deal
Goals of the New Deal:
 1. relief for the needy
 2. economic recovery
 3. financial reform
FDR’s programs desi...
First Hundred Days
What month is the president
elected in?
When is the president
inaugurated (sworn in) into
office today?...
A Wise Economist Asks A Question
1. What do squirrels do
with acorns in the
summer & fall?
2. Did the man
“squirrel” away ...
FDR Fireside Chat
How does FDR use the
fireside chat?
What type of language
does he use?
What was the focus of his
first t...
Banking Reform
 Widespread bank failures had caused Americans to
loose faith in the banking system.
 March 5, 1933 Roose...
Exit Ticket
Complete the, “Let’s Make A Deal” Worksheet.
Identify the specific problems Roosevelt will need to address
as ...
1
A New Deal Fights the Depression
OVERVIEW
After becoming president, Franklin
Delano Roosevelt used government
programs t...
 Insert make your own fireside chat or new deal
program poster.
Emergency Banking Relief
Act:
Authorized the Treasury
Department to inspect
the country’s banks.
Sound could reopen,
insol...
Glass-Steagall Act
Established the FDIC
Federal Deposit
Insurance
Corporation to
provide federal
insurance for
individual ...
Regulating Banking & Finance
 Federal Securities Act-
required corporations to
provide complete
information on all stock
...
21st Amendment
 Repealed
prohibition so that
government could
raise revenue by
taxing alcohol.
Rural Assistance
 Agricultural
Adjustment Act
(AAA)- sought to raise
crop prices by lowering
production which the
governm...
Agricultural Adjustment Act
(AAA)
 Government provided
subsidies for limits on
production of corn, wheat,
cotton, pork, &...
Agricultural Adjustment Act
 http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_deta
il.cfm?aid=a_000759&oid=ob_000064
 declared ...
Tennessee Valley Authority
TVA
 Designed to
develop & improve
the Tennessee
River Valley region
 Created thousands
of jo...
Built damns to prevent floods
Constructed
hydroelectric power
plants to attract more
industry and provide
electricity to homes
Power companies didn’t
li...
Civilian Conservation Corps
 Put almost 3
million young
men aged 18-25
to work building
roads, developing
parks, planting...
Planted 200 million tress in the Great Plains to prevent
another Dust Bowl
Public Works Administration
 Created in 1933 when Depression was at
its most severe and economic system of
U.S. was near ...
 The poster claims that
P.W.A. efforts were
aimed at turning relief
into what?
 What examples of
P.W.A. activities are
f...
National Industrial Recovery
Act (NIRA)
 Established codes of fair
business practices
 Set prices of products to
ensure ...
Home Owners Loan Corp
(HOLC)
 Provided
government loans
to homeowners who
faced foreclosure
because they
couldn’t make th...
Federal Housing
Administration (FHA)
 Furnishes loans for
home mortgages
and repairs
Federal Agency Emergency
Relief (FERA)
 $500 million to
provide direct relief
for the needy
 Food & clothing for
the une...
Keynesian Economics
 Deficit Spending-
spending more money
then the government
takes in to stimulate the
economic recover...
Opposition to the New Deal
 New Deal isn’t
doing enough!-
liberals
 New Deal is
doing too
much!-
conservatives
 Opposit...
New Deal Isn’t Doing Enough!
 Many Americans were
still desperately poor
 Worst off were blacks &
farmers
 Key figures ...
New Deal Critic: Dr. Francis
Townsend
 Retired California
Physician
 Suggested a $200
per month pension
for people over ...
New Deal Critic:
Father Charles Coughlin
 Catholic radio priest in
Detroit Michigan in 1930’s
 10 million listeners
 Cr...
National Union for Social Justice
 Every person capable of
work should receive a fair,
living, annual wage
 Nationalizin...
New Deal Critic: Huey Long
 Governor of Louisiana &
U.S. Senator
 Populist who championed
the working class & the poor
...
“Share Our Wealth”
 1. Federal govt give every family an allowance of not less
than 1/3 the average family wealth of the ...
The New Deal is Doing Too Much!
 Business Community & Republicans
 ND too complicated, too many codes & regulations
 Go...
The New Deal is Doing Too
Much!
 Govt schemes like
TVA unfair
competition since
private companies
aren’t funded by
govt
What is FDR wearing?
What does his clothing
represent?
What is FDR pointing at?
What compass did FDR
want to change? Why?
...
1
A New Deal Fights the Depression
1. List problems that President Roosevelt confronted and
how he tried to solve them.
co...
1
A New Deal Fights the Depression
2. Of the New Deal programs discussed in this section,
which do you consider the most i...
1
A New Deal Fights the Depression
3. Do you think Roosevelt was wrong to try to “pack”
the Supreme Court with those in fa...
1
A New Deal Fights the Depression
4. The New Deal has often been referred to as a turning
point in American history. Cite...
Chapter 22 The GReat Depression
Chapter 22 The GReat Depression
Chapter 22 The GReat Depression
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  • What did American companies do during World War I? increase production
    How will the decline in the demand for American goods impact businesses? They will make less profit
    If a company is loosing profits, what might the company do? Lay off workers, decrease production
  • Have you heard of the DOW or NASDAQ before?
  • What is happening in this image?
    What is the date? What happened on that day?
    What does the cartoonist suggest will happen to individuals because of the crash?
    How does the cartoonist convey a sense of fear and shock?
    What does the look on people’s faces indicate about the impact of the crash?
  • Who is standing in this line?
    What are they waiting for?
    Who is missing from the line? Why might that be?
  • Describe their appearance?
    What is the man holding in his hand?
    What might this be?
  • What 5 states are impacted by the Dust Bowl?
    What area of the country is affected by the Dust Bowl?
  • Why was Hoover reluctant to help people during the Depression?
  • What types of action did Hoover take to remedy the effects of the Depression?
  • Why do you think people blamed Hoover for their plight?
  • What measures did Hoover take and what results did he achieve to help the economy?
  • Backdrop of election is the Great Depression, read their policies and biography to determine which candidate you would vote for?
  • Who were the two presidential
    Candidates in the 1932 election?
    Who won the election of 1932?
    Which political party was the winning candidate apart of?
    Why might this candidate have won by such a large majority?
  • Compare the two images of Roosevelt. Which image would most likely be used during a political campaign and why?
  • What do you notice about this group?
    What might be the advantages of being similar?
    What might be the disadvantages of getting along so well?
    How might this impact New Deal programs?
  • What is the New Deal?
    What were 3 goals of the New Deal?
  • November
    January
  • Why did Roosevelt close the banks?
  • What is the Emergency Banking Relief Act?
    Which New Deal goal is this connected to?
    How does it help to provide financial reform?
  • What did the Glass Steagall Act do?
    Which New Deal goal is this connected to?
    How does it reform financial sector?
  • What does the SEC do?
    Why is the SEC necessary?
  • What did the 21st amendment do?
    Why did the federal government repeal prohibition?
  • What is the AAA?
    What does it do?
    Which New Deal goal is it connected to?
    How does the AAA provide relief for the needy or help the economy recover?
  • What is the TVA? What did the TVA do?
    Which New Deal goal is this connected with?
  • What is the CCC?
    What did the CCC do?
    Which New Deal goal is the CCC connected to?
  • What is the PWA?
    What does the PWA do?
    Which New Deal goal does this connect with?
  • What is the NIRA?
    What does the NIRA do?
    Which New Deal goal does this connect with?
  • What is the HOLC?
    What does the HOLC do?
    Which New Deal goal does this connect with?
  • What is the FHA?
    What does the FHA do?
    Which New Deal goal does this connect with?
  • What is FERA?
    What does the FERA do?
    Which New Deal goal does this connect with?
  • Transcript of "Chapter 22 The GReat Depression"

    1. 1. The Great Depression By Jackie White U.S. History II
    2. 2. Chapter 22 Section 1 “The Nation’ Sick Economy”  Key Question: What caused the Great Depression?  Chapter Objective: Students will be able to identify and describe the causes of the Great Depression.
    3. 3. Chapter 22 Section 1 “The Nations Sick Economy”  Learning Objective: Be able to summarize several causes of the Great Depression  Main Idea: As the prosperity of the 1920s ended, severe economic problems gripped the nation.  Why It Matters Now: The Great Depression had lasting effects on how Americans view themselves and their government.  Terms, People, & Events: price support, credit, DOW Jones Industrial Average, speculation, buying on margin, Black Tuesday, Great Depression, Hawley-Smoot Tariff
    4. 4. Warm Up:  What would you do if you lost your entire life’s savings and couldn’t find a job?  How might you feel if you couldn’t provide food, clothing, or shelter for your family?  What would happen if you spent more money then you actually had?  What happens when many people and businesses are in that situation?
    5. 5. Beginning of Economic Problems  What did American companies do during World War I?  As European countries rebuilt in the 1920s they decreased their dependency on American products.  How will the decline in demand for American goods impact businesses?  If a company is loosing profits, what might the
    6. 6. Industry  Some industries suffered from declining demand for goods after WWI  Some industries lost business to foreign competition and new American technologies  Coal industry declines b/c of development of new energy sources  Key industries barely made a profit (railroads, textiles, & steel) & had to lay off workers  New housing starts declined affecting other business that depended on construction
    7. 7. What types of industries would be affected by a decline in building new houses?  Loggers (cut down trees)  Construction workers  Plumbers  Landscapers  Electricians  Architects  Real Estate Agents
    8. 8. Major Industries What areas of the US will be most affected by the decrease in coal production?
    9. 9. Agriculture  http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_detail.cfm?aid  http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_detail.cfm ?aid=a_000749&oid=ob_000064  As you watch the video clips list/identify 3 problems in agriculture.
    10. 10. Agriculture  After WWI, demand for farm products fell drastically  Farm overproduction lead to a surplus of crops, which lead to a decrease in farm prices.  Many farmers were unable to make a profit to pay off their debts and some lost their farms to foreclosure  Congress passed federal price supports for farm products, but President
    11. 11. Consumer Spending  What are some examples of things that people spend money on?  Complete consumer spending worksheet  What was problematic about consumer spending?  By making credit easily available, businesses encouraged Americans to pile up a large consumer debt  Faced with rising prices, stagnant wages, and high levels of debt, consumers decreased their buying, and could not afford to
    12. 12. Distribution of Wealth  What percentage of Americans made more than $10,000 annually?  What percentage made less than $1,500 annually?  What was problematic about how wealth was distributed in 1929-1930? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPKKQnijnsM
    13. 13. Distribution of Wealth  Nearly half of American families earned the minimum amount needed for a decent standard of living  Unequal distribution meant most consumers had too little money to buy the goods produced by American factories
    14. 14. What is the NYSE? NYSE- New York Stock Exchange place to buy and sell stock since 1792
    15. 15. Stock Market  What is stock?  Stock- a share of a company that entitles you to profits made by the
    16. 16. Stock Market  What does a stockbroker do?  Stockbrokers-take orders from customers to buy and sell shares of stocks in more than 3,000 companies
    17. 17.  Dow Jones Industrial Average- barometer of stock market health based on the stock prices of the 30 largest firms trading on the NYSE
    18. 18. Stock Market Why do people invest money into the stock market?  Speculation- buying stock in hopes of making a quick profit  Bull Market- period of rising stock prices  In 1929 only 3% of population owned stock (4 million)  Most were already wealthy, some hoped to strike it rich
    19. 19. Black Tuesday  On October 29, 1929 the bottom fell out of the market and the nation lost confidence  Shareholders frantically tried to sell before prices plunged even lower  Millions of shares of stock could not find buyers  People who bought stock on credit were stuck with huge debts  Stock prices plummeted and most lost their savings.
    20. 20. Stock Market  Many investors engaged in buying on margin, paying a small percentage of the stocks price as a down payment and borrowing the rest.  Buying on margin fueled the market upward and generated wealth but only on paper  When the market crashed most investors lost their life savings
    21. 21. What was the DOW average in 1927? What was the DOW average in July of 1929? What happened to the DOW average between 1927- 1929? What do we call that pattern? When did the market crash? When did the market reach its lowest point?
    22. 22. What does the cartoonist suggest will happen to individuals because of the crash? How does the cartoonist convey a sense of fear and shock? What do the looks on people’s faces indicate about the impact of the crash?
    23. 23. Causes of the Great Depression Key industries barely made a profit cut hours or laid off workers  Agricultural decline post WWI, farmers couldn’t pay off loans, many lost their farms when the banks foreclosed and seized their property as payment for their debt  Americans were buying less b/c of rising prices and low wages  Wealth was not evenly distributed among rich and poor  Availability of easy credit during 1920’s caused many to go into debt
    24. 24. Chapter 22 Section 2 “Hardship & Suffering during the Depression”  Learning Objective: Be able to describe how people suffered during the Great Depression & the effect on men, women, & children.  Main Idea: During the Great Depression Americans struggled to survive & overcame adversity.  Why It Matters Now: Since the Great Depression, many Americans have been more cautious about saving, investing, & borrowing.  Terms, People, & Events: shantytown, soup kitchen, breadline, Dust Bowl, direct relief
    25. 25. Great Depression  What was it like to grow up during the Great Depression of the 1930’s?  How did the Depression alter family roles?  Did Depression hardship strengthen or weaken family bonds?
    26. 26. Great Depression Period of time between 1929- 1940 in which the economy plummeted and unemployment skyrocketed
    27. 27. How does the American Banking system work? People invest their money in the banks and banks then invest that money in the stock market or to give some of it out in the form of loans for mortgages, cars, & businesses
    28. 28. Can all Americans take out all their money at the same time?  No, because the money isn’t sitting in the vault some of it is invested so if everyone tried to take their money out at the same time the banks wouldn’t have enough money to pay
    29. 29. Rush on the Banks  During the Great Depression, people panicked and withdrew their money from banks, but some couldn’t get their money b/c the banks invested it in the stock
    30. 30. Rush on the banks In 1929, 600 banks closed In 1933, 11,000 banks failed b/c the government
    31. 31. Protects your savings today up to $250,000
    32. 32. Gross National Product  GNP- total output of the nation’s goods and services  GNP was cut in half from $104 billion to $59 billion  90,000 business went bankrupt
    33. 33. What was the higest percentage of unemployment during the GD?
    34. 34. Economic Collapse  Unemployment jumped from:  1.6 million in 1929  4 million in 1930  8 million in 1931  12 1/2 million in 1932  25 million in 1934  25% of nation’s families did not have a single employed wage earner  1 out of 4 people were unemployed
    35. 35. Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act  What is GDP?  What was the GDP in 1928?  What was the GDP in 1933?  What impact did the Hawley-Smoot Tariff have on US GDP?  How would that impact jobs and business?
    36. 36. Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act  Passed by Congress in the 1930’s  Established the highest protective tariff in U.S. History  Designed to protect American farmers and manufacturers from foreign competition  Had the opposite effect  Tariff made unemployment worse in industries that could no longer export goods to Europe  Countries retaliated by raising tariffs
    37. 37. Global Effects of the Depression  As the U.S. economy collapsed so did EuropeAs the U.S. economy collapsed so did Europe’s’s  WorldWorld’s nations had become interdependent’s nations had become interdependent  World trade droppedWorld trade dropped  World Wide unemployment soaredWorld Wide unemployment soared  Germany and Austria were particularly hard hitGermany and Austria were particularly hard hit  How might the global depression have contributedHow might the global depression have contributed to to Hitlerto to Hitler’s rise to power in Germany?’s rise to power in Germany?
    38. 38. Bellwork:  What would your life be like if you had no home to live in and no money to buy food or clothes?  What should the role of government be in helping people who are experiencing tough times?
    39. 39. Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act  What is GDP?  What was the GDP in 1928?  What was the GDP in 1933?  What impact did the Hawley-Smoot Tariff have on US GDP?  How would that impact jobs and business?
    40. 40. Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act  Passed by Congress in the 1930’s  Established the highest protective tariff in U.S. History  Designed to protect American farmers and manufacturers from foreign competition  Had the opposite effect  Tariff made unemployment worse in industries that could no longer export goods to Europe  Countries retaliated by raising tariffs
    41. 41. Effects of the Great Depression  People lost jobs, were evicted from their homes, & ended up on the streets Homelessness
    42. 42. Effects of the Great Depression Shantytowns/Hoovervilles-little towns consisting of shacks that sprang up in cities across the U.S.
    43. 43. Effects of the Great Depression Inhabitants blamed Hoover for their plight
    44. 44. Effects of the Great Depression Hoover’s name became an object of ridicule
    45. 45. Soup Kitchens- free or low cost soup Effects of the Great Depression
    46. 46. Effects of the Great Depression Breadlines- Men waiting in line for free bread.
    47. 47. http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_detail.cfm? aid=a_000756&oid=ob_000064
    48. 48. Dust Bowl  Drought that began in the early 1930’s  Wreaked havoc on the Great Plains
    49. 49. No trees or grass to hold the topsoil in place Plowing removed the thick layer of prairie grasses Farmers exhausted the land from overproduction of crops Dust Bowl
    50. 50. st storms hit Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, & Colora Dust Bowl
    51. 51. Migrant “Oakies” on their way to California Thousands of families fled to California Dust Bowl
    52. 52. Alendanre Hogue  Grew up in West Texas  Part of the regionalist movement of artist who attempted to create unique American art  He believed plowing the land broke a sacred bond  Believed farmers deserved some of the blame for causing the Dust Bowl because of their farming methods
    53. 53. Painting Analysis  What does the house, cow, the windmill, the dunes, the vulture represent?  What is the feeling of the painting?  Dreary, desolate, destruction, death, no signs of life or relief
    54. 54. • Lonely house vast distance between it and the one in the background emphasizes loneliness of life on the Great Plains Skeletal cow it looks forlornly at the water tank that is empty
    55. 55. • Broken windmill the power of nature the wind has broken the blades • The well has not produced any water and the water tank is filled with dust The vulture waiting for the cow to die and the fate of life on the plains
    56. 56. What sense of the Dust Bowl does this photo give you? Examine the photograph closely. What details from the photo suggest the impact of dust storms? What agricultural problems contributed to the problems in the Dust Bowl? Dust Bowl http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDxvc-BuS5A
    57. 57. Why are the people in the photograph standing in line? Irony involves the indirect presentation of a contradiction between an expression and the context in which it occurs. What was the original intent of the billboard? What contradictions occur as a result of the line in front of the billboard? A Relief Center in Louisville Kentucky by Margaret Bourke-White (1937)
    58. 58. Effects on Families  Americans believed in traditional values and emphasized the importance of family  Families entertained themselves by staying home and playing board games & listening to the radio  Some families broke apart under the strain to make
    59. 59. Depression Effects on Men  Difficulty coping with unemployment  Men walked the streets in search of jobs  Some men abandoned their families
    60. 60. Depression Effects on Men  http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_ detail.cfm?aid=a_000750&oid=ob_000064 Hoboes- wandered the country, hitched rides on railroad boxcars and slept under bridges No federal system of direct relief- cash payments or food provided by the government to the poor
    61. 61. Effects on Women  Canned food or sewed clothes to make money  Managed household budgets  Many people believed that single women had no right to work when there were men who were unemployed  Cities refused to hire married women as schoolteachers  Were not seen begging or standing in breadlines  Many women starved to death
    62. 62. Effects on Children  Poor diets, malnutrition, diet related diseases, not enough milk  Rickets- a disease caused by lack of vitamin D which makes bones become soft and prone to bending and structural change  Lack of money for health care led to serious problems, kids didn’t see a doctor or dentist
    63. 63. Effects on Children  School year shortened due to insufficient funding  Children went to work in sweatshops  Road the rails in search of adventure, work, escape
    64. 64. Social and Psychological Effects  Some people were demoralized & lost their will to survive  Suicide rate rose over 30%  3x more people were admitted into mental hospitals
    65. 65. Social and Psychological Effects  People stopped going to doctors & dentists  Many did not go on to college  Some put off getting married & having children  Frugality, never wanted to be poor again
    66. 66. Chapter 22 Section 3 “Hoover Struggles with the Depression”  Learning Objective: Understand how Hoover’s reluctance to help Americans caused the Depression to worsen.  Main Idea: President Hoover’s conservative response to the Great Depression drew criticism from many Americans.  Why It Matters Now: Worsening conditions caused the government to become more involved in the health and wealth of the people  Terms & Names: Herbert Hoover, Boulder Dam, Federal Home Loan Bank Act, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Bonus Army
    67. 67. Who Won the Election of 1928? Why might the democratic candidate not have won many states?
    68. 68. Herbert Hoover  1928 Campaign pledge, “A chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.”
    69. 69. Hoover’s Philosophy of Government  “rugged individualism”- the idea that people succeed through their own efforts. People should take care of themselves and their families and not depend on the government to bail them out. Self reliance, free competition, individual liberty
    70. 70. Hoover’s Philosophy of Government  Opposed any form of federal welfare or direct relief to the needy  Believed handouts weaken people’s self respect  Local charities should care for the less fortunate
    71. 71. Hoovers Philosophy of Government  The chief function of government was to encourage voluntary cooperation among competing interest groups  Federal government should guide relief measures but NOT directly participate in them
    72. 72. Hoover’s Response to Crash  Tried to reassure Americans that the nation’s economy was on sound footing  Remain optimistic  Go about business as usual  Believed depressions were normal parts of the business cycle  Do nothing and let the economy fix itself  Limited role of government in helping to solve problems
    73. 73. Hoover’s Response to Crash  Reacted with caution to stock market crash  Urged key leaders to work together to provide solutions and act in ways that would not make the economic situation worse  Urged businesses not to cut wages or lay off workers  Urged workers not to demand higher wages or go on strike
    74. 74. Economic Situation in 1930?  Continued to worsen  Unemployment continued to rise  More companies went out of business  Soup kitchens, shantytowns, & hoboes became common  Misery of ordinary people continued to grow  Republicans lost control of the House of Representatives & Senate
    75. 75. Herbert Hoover’s Response  Directed federal funds to public works projects, such as the Boulder Dam, to jump start the economy & create jobs What measures did Hoover take and what results did he achieve to help the economy? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oj7rdDoJKng
    76. 76. Hoover’s Response  Backed a series of federal programs: Federal Farm Board  National Credit Corp  Federal Home Loan Bank Act  Reconstruction Finance Corp  The economy continued to deteriorate  http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=9Z44gRBwLm8&feature=related
    77. 77. Patman Bill  Passed by Congress in 1924 authorized the government to pay a bonus to WWI veterans who had not been compensated adequately for their wartime service not to be paid until 1945 in the form of cash and life insurance policy  Wright Patman believed that money should be paid out immediately $500 per
    78. 78. Bonus Army March on Washington 10,000-20,000 WWI veterans and their families went to Washington D.C. to demand bonus pay they were promised
    79. 79. Hoover Disbands the Bonus Army  Hoover thought they were communists and persons with criminal records so he opposed the legislation  The marchers refused to leave  http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=xu9FxiHp8ss
    80. 80.  Hoover sent 1,000 soldiers under the command of Dwight D. Eisenhower and Douglas MacArthur to disband the veterans.  They gassed 1,000 people including an 11 month old baby who died & an 8 year old who went blind
    81. 81. The New Deal 23 The New Deal HOME CHAPTER OBJECTIVE To understand the impetus for FDR’s New Deal legislations and the impact these policies had on the American nation
    82. 82. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression OVERVIEW After becoming president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt used government programs to combat the Depression. Americans still benefit from programs begun in the New Deal, such as bank and stock market regulations and the Tennessee Valley Authority. MAIN IDEAMAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOWWHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMESTERMS & NAMES HOME • Franklin Delano Roosevelt • Glass-Steagall Act • Federal Securities Act • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) • Huey Long • deficit spending • New Deal ASSESSMENTASSESSMENT MAP
    83. 83. 23 W I T H H I S T O R Y I N T E R A C T How would you begin to revive the economy? Examine the Issues It is 1933, the height of the Great Depression. Thousands of banks and businesses have failed, and a quarter of the adult population is out of work. Now a new president takes office, promising to bring relief to the ailing economy. • What can be done to ease unemployment? • How can the government help failing industries? HOME • What would you do to restore public confidence and economic security? • How would you get money to pay for your proposed recovery programs? The New Deal
    84. 84. What Should Be Done to Cure the Depression?  Read each of the following suggested ways to fix the economy.  Pick the top three ideas that you think are best and label them 1, 2, &3  Pick the three ideas you think are the worst and label them 8, 9, & 10.
    85. 85. Election of 1932 Franklin Delano Roosevelt Democratic Candidate reformer Herbert Hoover Republican Candidate Incumbent (residing) President
    86. 86. Who won the Election of 1932? Who were the two presidential candidates in the 1932 election? Who won the election of 1932? Which political party was the winning candidate apart of? Why might this candidate have won by such a large majority?
    87. 87. Franklin Delano Roosevelt  Thirty-Second President  1933-1945 Suffered from polio & was partially paralyzed from the waist down. He was able to stand with the help of leg braces. Campaigned vigorously to prove he could undertake the job of President despite his disability
    88. 88. Brain Trust A group of carefully picked advisers including professors, lawyers, & journalists that helped FDR set policies to alleviate the problems of the Depression.
    89. 89. New Deal Goals of the New Deal:  1. relief for the needy  2. economic recovery  3. financial reform FDR’s programs designed to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression.
    90. 90. First Hundred Days What month is the president elected in? When is the president inaugurated (sworn in) into office today? First 3 months of Roosevelt’s administration (March-June 1933) A burst of congressional legislation (laws) to address problems of the Depression. Significantly expanded the federal government’s role in the nation’s economy.
    91. 91. A Wise Economist Asks A Question 1. What do squirrels do with acorns in the summer & fall? 2. Did the man “squirrel” away his money? 3. What happened to his savings? 4. What does this cartoon tell us about Americans faith in the banking system? 5. What can be done to restore Americans
    92. 92. FDR Fireside Chat How does FDR use the fireside chat? What type of language does he use? What was the focus of his first talk? http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_ detail.cfm? aid=a_000760&oid=ob_000064 http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVid eo.php? title=FDR_Fireside_Chat&video_id=89 365&vpkey=
    93. 93. Banking Reform  Widespread bank failures had caused Americans to loose faith in the banking system.  March 5, 1933 Roosevelt declared a “Bank Holiday”  Closed the banks to prevent further withdrawals & reorganization
    94. 94. Exit Ticket Complete the, “Let’s Make A Deal” Worksheet. Identify the specific problems Roosevelt will need to address as president. Brainstorm possible solutions to each problem.
    95. 95. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression OVERVIEW After becoming president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt used government programs to combat the Depression. Americans still benefit from programs begun in the New Deal, such as bank and stock market regulations and the Tennessee Valley Authority. MAIN IDEAMAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOWWHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMESTERMS & NAMES HOME • Franklin Delano Roosevelt • Glass-Steagall Act • Federal Securities Act • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) • Huey Long • deficit spending • New Deal ASSESSMENTASSESSMENT MAP
    96. 96.  Insert make your own fireside chat or new deal program poster.
    97. 97. Emergency Banking Relief Act: Authorized the Treasury Department to inspect the country’s banks. Sound could reopen, insolvent-remain closed How does this help to cure the economy? Restored confidence in banks
    98. 98. Glass-Steagall Act Established the FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to provide federal insurance for individual bank accounts.
    99. 99. Regulating Banking & Finance  Federal Securities Act- required corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and made them liable  Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC)- regulate the stock market and prevent insider trading.
    100. 100. 21st Amendment  Repealed prohibition so that government could raise revenue by taxing alcohol.
    101. 101. Rural Assistance  Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- sought to raise crop prices by lowering production which the government achieved by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of land unseeded.
    102. 102. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)  Government provided subsidies for limits on production of corn, wheat, cotton, pork, & tobacco  If farmers reduced their supply then prices would increase  Slaughtered 6 million hogs  In return for withdrawing land, farmers received “rental” payments from the AAA
    103. 103. Agricultural Adjustment Act  http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_deta il.cfm?aid=a_000759&oid=ob_000064  declared unconstitutional in 1936  Revived in 1938 with modifications to meet Court challenge
    104. 104. Tennessee Valley Authority TVA  Designed to develop & improve the Tennessee River Valley region  Created thousands of jobs & other benefits to an impoverished region  Which seven states benefit most directly from TVA projects?
    105. 105. Built damns to prevent floods
    106. 106. Constructed hydroelectric power plants to attract more industry and provide electricity to homes Power companies didn’t like the government production and sale of power they claimed it was unfair
    107. 107. Civilian Conservation Corps  Put almost 3 million young men aged 18-25 to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, & helping prevent soil erosion and flood control projects. http://www.iptv.org/IowaPathways/artifact_detail.cfm? aid=a_000755&oid=ob_000064
    108. 108. Planted 200 million tress in the Great Plains to prevent another Dust Bowl
    109. 109. Public Works Administration  Created in 1933 when Depression was at its most severe and economic system of U.S. was near “complete collapse”  Provided money to states to create jobs chiefly in the construction of schools & community buildings  Funded $3.3 billion to put people to work building roads, public buildings, improving waterways, and other projects  34,000 public projects
    110. 110.  The poster claims that P.W.A. efforts were aimed at turning relief into what?  What examples of P.W.A. activities are found in Texas?  What primary activity was taking place off the west and east coast of the U.S.?  What public-works
    111. 111. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)  Established codes of fair business practices  Set prices of products to ensure fair competition  Established standards for working hours & a ban on child labor  Guaranteed workers rights to unionize and bargain collectively.
    112. 112. Home Owners Loan Corp (HOLC)  Provided government loans to homeowners who faced foreclosure because they couldn’t make their loan payments.
    113. 113. Federal Housing Administration (FHA)  Furnishes loans for home mortgages and repairs
    114. 114. Federal Agency Emergency Relief (FERA)  $500 million to provide direct relief for the needy  Food & clothing for the unemployed, aged, & ill
    115. 115. Keynesian Economics  Deficit Spending- spending more money then the government takes in to stimulate the economic recovery by putting money in the hands of consumers to make it possible for them to buy goods & services and thus fuel economic growth British economist John Maynard Keynes
    116. 116. Opposition to the New Deal  New Deal isn’t doing enough!- liberals  New Deal is doing too much!- conservatives  Opposition from the Supreme Court
    117. 117. New Deal Isn’t Doing Enough!  Many Americans were still desperately poor  Worst off were blacks & farmers  Key figures were:  Huey Long  Father Coughlin  Dr. Francis Townsend
    118. 118. New Deal Critic: Dr. Francis Townsend  Retired California Physician  Suggested a $200 per month pension for people over 60  Open jobs for younger unemployment  Funded by a national transaction sales tax
    119. 119. New Deal Critic: Father Charles Coughlin  Catholic radio priest in Detroit Michigan in 1930’s  10 million listeners  Criticized FDR in weekly radio program  Critical of New Deal  International conspiracy of bankers  Fascist; Anti-Semitic overtones
    120. 120. National Union for Social Justice  Every person capable of work should receive a fair, living, annual wage  Nationalizing some public resources  Private ownership of property but controlling it for public good  Right for workers to form unions & govt support & protection  Human rights over property rights Father Charles Coughlin
    121. 121. New Deal Critic: Huey Long  Governor of Louisiana & U.S. Senator  Populist who championed the working class & the poor  “The Kingfish”  Critic of FDR’s New Deal for not doing enough to redistribute wealth  Promoted “Share the Wealth” program  Shot & killed by Dr. Carl Weiss in 1936  http://www.youtube.com/wat ch? v=hphgHi6FD8k&feature=rel
    122. 122. “Share Our Wealth”  1. Federal govt give every family an allowance of not less than 1/3 the average family wealth of the country  No family have a fortune more than 100-300 times the average family fortune  Capital levy tax on income over $1 million  2. No person have an income less than $2,000-$2,500 annually  3. Limit/regulate working hours to prevent overproduction and allow workers time for recreation, education, etc.  4. Old Age Pension for people over 60 years old  Guarantee all citizens a car, a house, a pension, & an education  Popular with the poor
    123. 123. The New Deal is Doing Too Much!  Business Community & Republicans  ND too complicated, too many codes & regulations  Govt shouldn’t support unions & wages, that is the job of the market  ND like Stalin’s 5 year Plan  Wealthy worked hard, high taxes discourage people from working hard, & gave money to people who did little for it.
    124. 124. The New Deal is Doing Too Much!  Govt schemes like TVA unfair competition since private companies aren’t funded by govt
    125. 125. What is FDR wearing? What does his clothing represent? What is FDR pointing at? What compass did FDR want to change? Why? How might the cartoonist feel about FDR’s power as president? •FDR is behaving like a dictator
    126. 126. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression 1. List problems that President Roosevelt confronted and how he tried to solve them. continued . . . Massive unemployment Bank holiday; treasury inspection; deposit insurance Federal work programs Paying farmers to slow crop production Lack of confidence in banks Low crop prices HOME Problems Solutions MAP ASSESSMENT
    127. 127. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression 2. Of the New Deal programs discussed in this section, which do you consider the most important? Think About: ANSWERANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • The FDIC boosted confidence in banks • The CCC provided aid for unemployment and helped the environment. • the type of assistance offered by each program • the scope of each program • the impact of each program HOME ASSESSMENT continued . . . MAP
    128. 128. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression 3. Do you think Roosevelt was wrong to try to “pack” the Supreme Court with those in favor of the New Deal? ANSWERANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • No: Given the crisis of the Depression, it was necessary for FDR to restructure the Court. • Yes: FDR’s proposed “Court-packing bill” would violate principles of judicial independence and the separation of powers. HOME ASSESSMENT continued . . . MAP
    129. 129. 1 A New Deal Fights the Depression 4. The New Deal has often been referred to as a turning point in American history. Cite examples to explain why. ANSWERANSWER The New Deal helped the failing banking system, restored people’s hope in the future, provided assistance to farmers and those in need of housing, and provided people with jobs. HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 1 MAP
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