Students, young men, Aryans, blond haired-blue eyed people
What is the Treaty of Versailles? Peace agreement to end World War I Which countries signed the Treaty of Versailles? France, Great Britain, & Germany How do the Germans feel about the Treaty? Angry & bitter How does the Treaty lead to World War II?
According to the Map, what happened to German territory as a result of the Treaty of Versailles? (lost substantial amounts of territory)
What are the children playing with? Money, (Reichsmark RM) Where might the children be? Germany What does this tell you about the value of the money? Lost its value
Why are the German soldiers dissatisfied after WWI? (upset for losing war, angry at government for signing Treaty of Versailles) Who is the circled dissatisfied German soldier? Adolf Hitler
What was the purpose of the League of Nations? Use diplomacy to solve international conflicts and disputes Which countries were expelled from or left the League of Nations? Germany, Japan, etc. Which powerful country refused to join the League? The U.S. Is the League of Nations going to be effective at preventing war? No Why not? No method of enforcement of its edicts
According to the cartoon, who created the League of Nations? Which is the missing stone in the bridge? What will happened to the bridge without the missing keystone? Is the League of Nations going to be effective at preventing war? Why or Why not?
Why is the League of Nations ineffective of maintaining world peace?
Why did Germany experience a Depression post WWI? How did the Depression effect the German people?
What is this man carrying in his wheel barrel?
How does the economic hardship in Germany contribute to Hitler’s rise to power?
Poor, emaciated, crippled, suffering, Fat, decadent, greedy They dislike the Weimar republic
1. What are 4 basic beliefs of Nazism?
How did Hitler come to power in Germany?
What is the Third Reich?
How did the burning of the Reichstag enable Adolf Hitler to seize power?
Archipelago, island, needed more living space for Japanese people & natural resources
Who is the emperor of Japan? What were Japanese beliefs about the emperor? What is bushido?
If you were Japanese and needed more living space for a growing population what would you do? Build up your military and invade other countries
According to the map, which country does Japan invade in 1931?
How does the League of Nations respond to Japan’s invasion on Manchuria?
What is the Tanaka Memorial?
What actions do the Japanese take during the invasion of China?
What actions do the Japanese take during the invasion of China?
Who is the leader of Italy?
Look at the poster, how would you describe fascism based on the picture? What is fascism?
Why are Mussolini’s followers called Black Shirts? What was the March on Rome?
What is totalitarianism?
Which country does Italy attack in 1935?
How does the League of Nations respond to the invasion? Explain the meaning of the following quote. “It is us today…It will be you tomorrow.” Emperor Haile Selassia
Rome is the capital of which country? Berlin is the capital of which country? What is the Rome-Berlin Axis?
Japan and Italy They are small countries
Who is the leader of the Spanish rebels?
What is the Spanish-Civil war? When was the Spanish Civil War?
What were the two sides fighting during the Spanish Civil War? Which groups tended to support each side?
How does Italy & Germany respond to the Spanish civil War?
Why might the Spanish Civil war be considered a dress rehearsal for WWII?
What do you see or notice in the painting? Who created the painting? What is the title of the painting? What is Geurnica? What does this painting tell us about war in general?
Between France & Germany A demilitarized zone After WWI To protect France against future German invasion
Which country does Germany invade to its south in 1938? What former empire was Austria created out of?
What does the orange on the map represent?
What might have been Hitler’s motive for invading the Sudetenland?
How would do you think the people in the photograph feel about becoming part of Germany? Why might they think this is a good thing?
Who is Hitler shaking hands with? Which country is he the leader of? Why might Chamberlin have made a deal with Hitler?
What is appeasement?
Who is this man? How does he feel about the Munich Pact?
According to the map which country does Germany invade in 1939?
How do you think the Czechoslovakian people felt about becoming part of the Third Reich?
Which country does Germany invade to its east?
Which country borders Germany to the east? Poland What large European country that borders Poland to the east might react to a German invasion of Poland? Why? Which two countries have an alliance to protect Poland? Great Britain & France What caused Germany to loose World War I? A two front war How could Germany try to avoid another potential two front war?
What is blitzkrieg? Why do you think it is called lightening war? What are the characteristics of lighting? Powerful, deadly, strikes suddenly without warning
What is the Luftwaffe?
1940 Great Britain Be prepared for a German attack. All British subjects were issued a gas mask.
What is the Maginot line? A system of fortifications Where is the maginot line located? Between border of France & Germany When was the maginot line built? After World War II Why was Maginot line built? To protect France from future German invasion? Who built it? The Germans
If you were Hitler planning on invading France how would you do it & why?
How does Germany invade France? Why?
If you were the British & French surrounded by Germanys to the North and Italians to the south what are your options? What would you do?
What is the Good Neighbor policy?
What did the Neutrality acts prohibit or outlaw? What are the Neutrality Acts designed to do? When were they issued? Why did they change over time?
What is cash & carry Act? Why might the U.S. have changed from earlier provisions of the Neutrality acts? What are some benefits?
What does FDR mean hen he said, “You can’t tame a tiger into a kitten.. ”? You can’t make something that is aggressive passive or peaceful. Who was FDR referring to? Adolf Hitler What would happen to the world if Britain was defeated by the Axis powers? The Axis powers would be left unchallenged to conquer the world. How should the United States respond to this threat? (What are the options)
What is the Lend-Lease Act? Which countries did the U.S. provide arms & supplies to? Why did the U.S. do this?
Which country did the U.S. give the most money to?
Winston Churchill & FDR on board a navy vessel navy uniforms
Who signed the Atlantic Charter? What does it do? Solidifies and alliance between the U.S. & Britain What is it modeled after?
How should FDR respond?
What is this a picture of? How should the U.S. respond to the loss of American sailors lives? Why do you think FDR said, “The shooting has started and history will record who fired the first shot.” Why might it have been important to FDR and other Americans that the enemy attacks first? What do you think will happen as a result of this event?
Who is the central figure in the cartoon? Where is he located? What is he saying? What is happening in Europe?
Identify the 3 men in the photograph? Which countries do are they the leaders of?
Complete the hook activity, read the background essay, then answer the document based questions.
Who is the Prime Minister of Japan?
According to this map, which region did Japan take control by 1942? Why might Japan have wanted this territory?
Who are the two figures in the cartoon suppose to represent? Uncle Sam=American government & Hideki Tojo What is Uncle Sam doing? Stopping the flow of U.S. oil to Japan What effect will this have on Japan? They will be unable to fuel the war effort
What is this a map of? Pearl Harbor What do you notice about the location of all the battleships? They are all clustered together Why might they have done that? Believed they wee safe in harbor, easier to protect, sitting ducks for enemy
What is this an image of? Pearl Harbor From what perspective is the photo taken? Arial Who might have taken this photograph? Japanese pilot
Ch. 24 wwii
By: Jackie White U.S. History II
Chapter 24 Section 1 “Dictators Threaten World Peace”• Main Idea: The rise of rulers in Europe & Asia led to World War II.• Why It Matters Now: Dictators of the 1930’s & 40’s changed the course of history, making world leaders especially watchful for the actions of dictators today.• Terms & Names: Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Francisco Franco, totalitarianism, fascism, Nazism, Neutrality Acts
Learning Objective• Guiding Question: How did the rise of dictators in Europe and Asia lead to World War II?• Understand the conditions that brought dictators to power and the aggressive actions taken that led to the outbreak of World War II.• Be able to identify the dictators, their country, type of government, & aggressive acts.
What do you know about WWII?• http://www.history.com/interactives/inside-wwii-interactive
Germany Nazi Party Poster • To whom do you think this poster is directed? • How does this poster try to attract students to the Nazi party? • Is it effective?
The Treaty of Versailles Caused anger and resentment Germany saw nothing fair about Article 231 (war guilt clause) that blamed them for starting WWI. Germans felt betrayed by their government for agreeing to the treaty and anger towards the Allies.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yj_eiyBsSSc&feature=player_embedded
The Treaty of VersaillesGermany was stripped of its overseas colonies andborder territories.
The Treaty of Versailles Germany experienced hyperinflation in 1923, the economic demand of reparation payments was the prime cause of inflation.
The “Stab-In-The-Back” TheoryGerman soldiers are dissatisfied.
The League of Nations• What was the purpose of the League of Nations?• When was the League created?Designed after WWI to prevent acts of aggression.
The League of Nations Which countries were expelled from or left the League of Nations?
The League of NationsWhich powerful country refused to join theLeague?Will the League of Nations be very effective inpreventing war?
The League of NationsU.S. did not join because they wanted to remain out of European conflicts -America practices a policy of isolationism
The Ineffectiveness of the League of NationsNo control of major conflicts.No progress in disarmament.No effective military force.No ability to enforce its edicts.
The Great Depression •World War I reparations and dependence on American loans caused a depression Germany. •1932, 6 million Germans were unemployed• Why did Germany •Helped Nazi party experience a Depression post WWI? come to power by• How did the Depression blaming economic effect the German hardships on Jewish people? people
The Great DepressionIn 1923 a five million German mark wasworth less then a penny due to hyperinflation
The Great DepressionGermans were desperate and turned toHitler for hope.
Decadence of the Weimar Republic How are the German people portrayed? How is the German government portrayed? How do you think the German people feel about their government (the Weimar Republic?)
Adolf Hitler• A jobless soldier drifting around Germany post WWI• 1919 he joined a struggling group called the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) Called himself Der Fuhrer-• He proved to be a “The Leader” & promised to powerful speaker and bring Germany out of chaos quickly became the party’s leader
Adolf Hitler• Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) The original title Hitler chose was "Four and a Half Years of Struggle against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice.”• Throughout Mein Kampf, Hitler refers to Jews as parasites, liars, dirty, crafty, sly, wily, clever, without any true culture, a sponger, a middleman, a maggot, eternal blood suckers, repulsive, unscrupulous, monsters, foreign, menace, bloodthirsty, avaricious, the destroyer of Aryan humanity, and the mortal enemy of Aryan humanity.
Mein Kampf• Set forth the basic beliefs of Nazism that became the action plan for the Nazi Party• Wanted to unite all German people into a great German empire• National expansion- Secure more living space/land for German people• Enforce racial purification, wanted to form a master race of “Aryans” (blond haired blue eyed people) who were destined to rule the world• “Inferior races” Jews, Slavs, & all nonwhites were fit only to serve Aryans
Election of Adolf Hitler• Hitler was elected in a democratic election• The last election of the Weimar Republic that governed Germany after World War I• Hitler and Nazis accused the ruling Socialists Democrats of betraying Germany by signing the Treaty of Versailles
Adolf Hitler • By 1932, Nazism the belief in extreme nationalism & racism becomes the strongest political party in Germany • 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor (prime minister)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yf6_zKLbykQ
Third Reich• Once in power, Hitler dismantled Germany’s democratic Weimar Republic & established the Third Reich or Third German Empire• Hitler believed the Third Reich would last for a thousand years.
Burning of the Reichstag• The Reichstag building, seat of the German government, burns after being set on fire by Nazis in February of 1933.• This enabled Adolf Hitler to seize power under the pretext of protecting the nation from threats to its security
Oath of Allegiance to Hitler• The oath of loyalty of the soldiers of the armed forces:I swear by God this sacred oath: I will render unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, the Fuhrer of the German Reich and people, Supreme Commander of the What is unusual about this Armed Forces, and will oath? be ready as a brave soldier to risk my life at What are soldiers any time for this oath. committing to do? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9QyqxkM_Z94
Summarize• Who is the leader of Germany?• What type of government does Germany have?
Japanese Militarist Expansion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=inA-36YRV0YWhat geographic features might have led Japanto expand?
Japanese Culture Bushido Way of the warrior Code of conductEmperorHirohito LoyaltyOmnipotent Death beforeGod dishonorDestined bydivine right torule the world
Japanese Militarist Expansion • Wanted more living space for a growing population • Nationalistic Military leaders were trying to take control of the imperial government
Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931Japanese Militarists launched a surprise attack andseized control of the Chinese province Manchuria within months 1931
Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931•League of Nations investigates Manchuriansituation•Condemned Japan for their actions•Japan quit the League of Nations
The Tanaka Memorial Japanese plan for domination of Asia & the world. In order to conquer all of Asia & the rest of the world we must first conquer China
The Japanese Invasion of China, 1937 The Japanese invade mainland China by dropping bombs on civilian areas in Shanghai in hopes of forcing a quick surrender After the fall of Shanghai Japanese Army began march to Chinese capital Nankinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YoW2WYdOsvg&feature=rel
Rape of Nanking • The Japanese used mass killings • set villages & cities on fire • raped women and kept others as sexual slaves • tortured, mutilated, & killed Chinese citizens
Summarize• Who is the leader of Japan?• What are two countries that Japan invaded in the 1930’s?• What type of actions did Japanese soldiers take during these invasions?• How might these aggressive acts lead to WWII?
Mussolini’s Rise to Power Unemployment & inflation led to strikes in Italy • Middle & upper class demanded strong leadership • A powerful speaker, Benito Mussolini appealed to wounded“Italy wants peace, work, national pride andand calm. I will give these played on people’sthings with love if possible, fears of an economicwith force if necessary.” collapse and communism
Fascism in Italy • 1921, Mussolini established the Fascist Party, which stressed nationalism & the interests of the state above the individual •Argued power rest with a strong leader and a small group of devoted party members
Fascism• What are some basic beliefs of fascism?• Concentrated private wealth, control of information, massive investment in manufacture of arms and military equipment, suppression of labor movements
March on Rome• October 1922, Mussolini marched on Rome with thousands of his followers, whose uniform gave them the name “Black Shirts”
Totalitarianism in Italy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hIxAsangFZc• Italian king appointed Mussolini head of the government• Called himself Il Duce, or “the leader”• Mussolini crushed all opposition and made Italy a totalitarian state• A government that maintains complete control over its citizens, individuals have no rights.
Italy Attacks Ethiopia, 1935Mussolini began building his Roman Empire byinvading Ethiopia, one of Africa’s few remainingindependent countries
Italy Invades EthiopiaThe League of Nations Emperor Haile Selassie responded with an economic boycott1936 Ethiopia had fallen Ethiopian emperor says, “It is us today…It will be you tomorrow.”http://www.watchmojo.com/index.php?id=10699
Rome-Berlin Axis, 1936Forged a relationship between German and Italian dictators called The “Pact of Steel” Adolf Hitler and Italian Benito Mussolini together in Munich, June 18, 1940.
Japan Invades Italy invades Ethiopia Manchuria1. Which countries were aggressors?2. What do you notice about the size of Italy & Japan with respect to the countries they invaded. What similarities do you see?
Spanish Civil War• 1936 a group of Spanish army officers led by General Francisco Franco rebelled against the Spanish republic.
The Spanish Civil War: 1936 - 1939•Insurrection against a legally constituted,democratic, but left leaning government•Revolts broke out all over Spain, the Spanish CivilWar began
The Spanish Civil War: 1936 - 1939 The The National Popular Front Front [Nationalists] [Nationalists] [Republicans] [Republicans] The “Right” Army “Loyalists” Industry Workers Landowners Peasants The middle class Unions Catholic Church SocialistsSupported by Germany & Communists Italy Anarchists
International Response to Spanish Civil War• Italy & Germany backed Franco’s forces by supplying weapons, tanks, and fighter planes into Spain to test new weapons and tactics that would later be used during WWII
The Spanish Civil War:A Dress Rehearsal for WWII? Italian troops in Madrid “Today Spain, Tomorrow the World”
The Spanish Civil War: 1936 - 1939 3,000 Americans formed the American “Lincoln Brigade” to fight Franco
▪The overall scene is within a room ▪Under the horse is a dead, apparentlywhere, at an open end on the left, a dismembered soldier; his hand on a severed armwide-eyed bull stands over a woman still grasps a shattered sword from which a flowergrieving over a dead child in her arms. grows.▪On the open palm of the dead soldier is a stigma, a symbol of martyrdom derived from the▪The center is occupied by a horse stigmata of Christ.▪A light bulb blazes in thefalling in agony as it had just been run shape of an evil eye over the suffering horsesthrough by a spear or javelin. head (the bare bulb of the torturers cell.) Picassos intended symbolism in regards to thisIt is important to note that the large object is related to the Spanish word for lightbulb;gaping wound in the horses side is a "bombilla", which makes an allusion to "bomb"major focus of the painting. and therefore signifies the destructive effect▪Two "hidden" images formed by the which technology can have on society.[citationhorse appear in Guernica: needed]▪To the upper right of the horse, a frightened female figure, who seems to be▪A human skull overlays the horses witnessing the scenes before her, appears to havebody. floated into the room through a window. Her arm,▪A bull appears to gore the horse from also floating in, carries a flame-lit lamp. The lampunderneath. The bulls head is formed is positioned very close to the bulb, and is a symbol of hope, clashing with themainly by the horses entire front leg lightbulb.▪From the right, an awe-struck womanwhich has the knee on the ground. The staggers towards the center below the floatinglegs knee cap forms the heads nose. A female figure. She looks up blankly into thehorn appears within the horses breast. blazing light bulb.▪Daggers that suggest▪The bulls tail forms the image of a screaming replace the tongues of the bull,flame with smoke rising from it, grieving woman, and horse.▪A bird, possibly a dove, stands on a shelf behind the bull inseemingly appearing in a window panic.▪On the far right, a figure with arms raisedcreated by the lighter shade of gray in terror is entrapped by fire from above andsurrounding it. below.▪A dark wall with an open door defines the
Guernica• By Pablo Picasso depicts the Nazi German bombing of Guernica, Spain on April 26, 1937 during the Spanish Civil War.• The attack killed between 250 and 1,600 people, and many more were injured.• The Spanish government commissioned Pablo Picasso to paint a large mural for the Spanish display at the Paris International Exposition• Guernica epitomizes the tragedies of war and the suffering war inflicts upon individuals.
Dictators Rise to PowerIn which countries did authoritarian rulers come topower?
Exit Ticket• Answer the 5 questions using the Timeline of Events Leading to World War II• Put the following events in the order in which they occurred by numbering them in chronological order (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc.)• Then record the sequence of events on the flow chart.
Chapter 24 Section 2 “War in Europe”• Main Idea: Using the sudden mass attack called blitzkrieg, Germany invaded and quickly conquered many European countries.• Why It Matters Now: Hitler’s actions started World War II and still serve as a warning to be vigilant about totalitarian government.• Terms & Names:Neville Chamberlin non-aggression pactWinston Churchill blitzkriegCharles de Gaulleappeasement
Learning ObjectiveGuiding Question: What military tacticsdid Germany use to expand intoneighboring territories and how did othercountries respond to German’s actions?Describe Germany military tactics andstrategy used to quickly conquerneighboring European countries and theinternational response.
Warm UpImagine you werebeing robbed,what would youdo? How might size & strength of your opponent influence your response?
German Acts of Aggression• 1933 Hitler pulled Germany out of the League• 1935 Hitler began a military build up• 1936 Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland, a German region bordering France and Belgium that was demilitarized (DMZ) as a result of the Treaty of Versailles
Germany Invades the Rhineland March 7, 1936 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpxdYTNkbe4Where is the Rhineland located?What is the Rhineland?When was it created?Why was it created?
Germany Invades Austria (1938)• Hitler began his plan to expand into the land of his neighbors.• Austria was created out of the former Austro Hungarian Empire after WWI at the Paris Peace Conference
• Majority of Austria’s population was German who favored unification with Germany• March 12, 1938 German troops marched into Austria unopposed
The Austrian Anschluss, 19381 day later Germany announced that its Anschluss or“union” with Austria was complete•The U.S. & the rest of the world did nothing.
Adolf Hitler, Fuhrer of Germany, accepts salutesand cheers from the Nazi controlled Reichstag after announcing the Anschluss (union) with Austria.
Invasion of Sudetenland• 3 million German speaking people lived in the western boarder regions of Czech called the Sudetenland
Invasion of the Sudetenland•Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland to providemore living space for Germany as well as to control itsimportant natural resources
Invasion of Sudetenland • Hitler accused the Czechs of abusing the Sudeten Germans. • Example of Nazi newspaper headline propaganda: “Women & Children Mowed Down by Czech Armored Cars”
Brink of War• Great Britain & France promised to protect Czechoslovakia at first• War seemed inevitable
Predicting Responses: The Czechoslovakian Crisis• How do you predict your country respond to the Czech crisis?• Students will be assigned to one of six countries based on row• Read the summary of what happened• Predict how your assigned country responded• Share predictions with class• Review actual response
Munich Agreement • Hitler promised them it would be his “last territorial demand” • Eager to avoid war, they believed him • Munich Agreement (1938) turned the Sudetenland over toHitler invited the Premier of Germany without firingFrance & British PrimeMinister Neville a single shot.Chamberlin to meet with
The Munich Agreement, 1938 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SetNFqcayeA British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain Now we have “peace in our time!” HerrHitler is a man we can do business with.
Appeasement • Giving up principles to pacify an aggressor. • By signing the Munich Pact, Britain & France took this policy toward German aggression
Winston Churchill• Churchill believed that Chamberlin adopted a policy of appeasement, giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.• He believed the Munich Pact was dishonorable and wouldn’t prevent war.• “Britain & France had to choose between war and Political Rival of the dishonor. They chose British Prime Minister dishonor. They will have Neville Chamberlin war.”
German Offensive• 1939 German troops invaded what remained of Czechoslovakia
Predicting Responses:Violation of the Munich Pact• How do you think your country responded to the violation of the Munich Pact?• Students will be assigned to one of six countries based on row• Read the summary of what happened• Predict how your assigned country responded• Share predictions with class• Review actual response
Czechoslovakia Becomes Part of the Third Reich: 1939 Hitler gloated that “Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist.”
Hitler turned his sights towards Germany’s eastern neighbor, Poland.• Poland had a large German speaking population• Hitler accused Poland of mistreating Germans and they needed his protection
Invasion of Poland A German attack on Poland might bring Germany into a conflict with the Soviet Union • As well as provoke France & GB to declare war since they promised to protect Poland • A two front war exhausted Germany during WWI
Predicting Responses: Invasion of Poland• How did your country respond to the invasion of Poland?• Students will be assigned to one of six countries based on row• Read the summary of what happened• Predict how your assigned country responded• Share predictions with class• Review actual response
Nonaggression Pact• Activity: Read the non-aggression pact.• When was the pact made?• August 23, 1939• Which countries made the agreement?• Soviet Union & Germany• What did Germany and the Soviet Union agree to?• Agreed to never attack each other & to divide Poland between them
Invasion of Poland• Blitzkrieg (blits-kreeg)- lightning war take the enemy by surprise by creating shock and then quickly crush the opposition with overwhelming force
Invasion of Poland• Luftwaffe (looft-vahf-uh) or German air force bombed Poland’s military bases, airfields, railroads
Invasion of Poland • 1.German ground forces had overwhelmed the initial lines of Polish defense within 2 days. • 2.Effective military opposition to the German invasion ended on October 6th, 1939. • 3.Danzig fell on September 7th, after one week of bombardment. • 4.Warsaw capitulated on September 28th. • 5.65,000 Polish troops were killed in the invasion. Hundreds of thousands were captured or wounded
Invasion of Poland•Soviet Union attacked Poland from the east•By the end of the month, Poland ceased to exist•September 3, 1939 Britain & France declare war on Germany•http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kvxpd2_-fx4&feature=player_embedded - at=70
Exit Ticket• Complete the time line by arranging the following events in the order in which they occurred.• 1933 Hitler pulled Germany out of the League• 1935 Germany began a military build up• 1936 Germany invaded the Rhineland• 1938 Germany Invaded Austria• 1938 Germany invaded the Sudetenland• 1938 Munich Agreement was signed• 1939 Czechoslovakia is conquered by Germany• 1939 Germany Invades Poland• 1939 Non Aggression Pact was signed• 1939 Germany & Soviet Union invade Poland• 1939 World War II Begins
Learning Objective:Guiding Question: How did Britain andFrance respond to German attacks in 1940?Identify significant events/battles betweenFrance, Britain, & Germany after theoutbreak of World War II in Europe.
Warm Up: • When do you think this poster was created? • Who do you think created this poster? • What is the purpose of the poster?
Warm Up• Read the magazine article: Will Hitler Commit Military Suicide This Year?• What are the possibilities presented in the article?• Which do you predict Hitler will do & why?
France – False Sense of Security? A system of fortifications built along France’s eastern boarder What is the Maginot Line?
Phony War• French & British troops on the Maginot Line sat staring into Germany waiting for something to happen.
Sitzkrieg• French, British, & German troops often worked and rested in plain sight of each other on opposite sides of the Siegfried Line (on the German side)• Blitzkrieg gave way to sitzkrieg “sitting war” or phony war as the newspapers called it
The “Phony War” Ends: Spring, 1940 Maginot Line was ineffective
Invasion of France• German army by passed the line by invading France through the Ardennes (ahr-den), a region of wooded ravines in Northeast France, thereby avoiding the British & French troops who thought it was impassable, & marched toward Paris.
Invasion of France WWII in color -4:48 http://www.youtu be.com/watch? v=bl4eXcoU6A0 &feature=relmfu• Italy entered the war on the side of Germany & invaded France from the south as German troops approached from the North British & French soldiers were surrounded.
Dunkirk (duhn-kurk)• The German offensive trapped 400,000 British & French soldiers who fled to the beaches of Dunkirk on the French side of the English Channel.
Dunkirk France Evacuated800 tugboats, fishing boats, river barges, etcferried 330,000 French & British soldiers tosafety across the English Channel.
Dunkirk France EvacuatedWWII in color 6:14-8:37http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl4eXcoU6A0&feature=relmfu
Dunkirk France Evacuated June 4, 1940British soldierscaptured by theGermans atDunkirk,France, in June1940.
Predicting Responses: The Invasion of France• How do you think your country responded to the threat of the fall of Paris?• Students will be assigned to one of six countries based on row• Read the summary of what happened• Predict how your assigned country responded• Share predictions with class• Review actual response
France Surrenders June, 1940A French man weeps as the Nazis march into Paris, June 14,1940, beginning a four-year occupation of the City ofLights.
France Surrenders• Germans would occupy the northern part of France
A Divided France Marshall PetainNazi controlled puppet government headed byMarshall Philippe Petain set up at Vichy France
The French Resistance •Charles de Gaulle a French general fled to England where he set up a government in exile.General Charles DeGaulle“France has lost a battle, butFrance has not lost the war.”
The Blitz http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJd9LZSjP8s WWII in color 10:35-1:30•German Luftwaffe made bombing runs over Britain inattempt to destroy Britain’s Royal Air Force (RAF)•Every night for 2 months German planes bombedBritish targets (airfields, aircraft, cities)
Predicting Responses: The Battle of Britain• How do you think your country responded to the Battle of Britain?• Students will be assigned to one of six countries based on row• Read the summary of what happened• Predict how your assigned country responded• Share predictions with class• Review actual response
The Battle of Britain• RAF fought back with the help of radar, British pilots accurately plotted the flight paths of German planes in darkness & shot down over 185 German planes• Hitler called off the invasion indefinitely
• What are the children doing?• What might they be looking for?• Where are they located?• What might it feel like to be kid then?• What was happening?
Battle of Britain: The “Blitz” An aircraft spotter on the roof of a building in London with Saint Pauls Cathedral in the background.Firefighters puttingout fires after aGerman air raid
Battle of Britain:The “Blitz” Saint Pauls Cathedral stands gloriously in the distance amid the wreckage caused by the German fire-bombing of London. Sunday, December 29, 1940.
The London “Tube”:Air Raid Shelters during the Blitz
Daily life in adamagedresidentialneighborhood. Three children who have been left homeless by the random bombs of German night raiders, sit outside the wreckage of their home.
Mapping Activity• Draw an arrow to indicate European countries invaded by Germany between 1938-1941.• Label the year the country was invaded in parenthesis underneath the name or above the arrow.• Color each country using colored pencils or outline in marker.
Exit Ticket• Complete the timeline activity by arranging the following events in the order in which they occurred. 1933 Hitler pulled Germany out of the League 1935 Germany began a military build up 1936 Germany invaded the Rhineland 1938 Germany Invaded Austria 1938 Germany invaded the Sudetenland 1938 Munich Agreement was signed 1939 Czechoslovakia is conquered by Germany 1939 Germany Invades Poland 1939 Non Aggression Pact was signed 1939 World War II Begins
Chapter 24 Section 4 “America Moves Toward War”• Main Idea: In response to the fighting in Europe, the U.S. provided economic and military aid to help achieve allied victory.• Why It Matters Now: The military capability of the U.S. became a deciding factor in WWII & in world affairs ever since.• Terms & Names: Axis Powers, Allies, Lend-Lease Act, Atlantic Charter, Hideki Tojo, Pearl Harbor
Learning Objective:• Guiding Question: How does the U.S. respond to the outbreak of war in Europe?• Identify several ways in which the US assisted the Allies without declaring war.• Summarize the events that brought the US into armed conflict with Germany.
Gallery Tour• In a single file line, walk around the room and read the timeline of events leading up to U.S. entry into World War II.• How do you think the United States should respond to each of these events?• At what point, if any, do you think the U.S. should join the war?
How should the U.S. respond?• After Japan invaded Manchuria 1931• After Germany violated the Treaty of Versailles by building up its military in 1935• After Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935• After Germany violated the Treaty of Versailles again by invading the Rhineland which was a demilitarized zone March 7, 1936• After Mussolini & Hitler sign the Pact of Steel 1936• After Japan invaded China & the Rape of Nanjing in 1937• After Germany invaded Austria March 12, 1938• After Germany invaded the Sudetenland September 30, 1938• After Germany invaded Czechoslovakia 1939• After Germany invaded Poland September 1, 1939• After Britain & France declared war on Germany September 3, 1939• After France surrendered to Germany June 1940• After the Battle of Britain December 29, 1940• After Germany, Japan, & Italy form the Tripartite Pact/Axis Powers 1940• After Japan attacks Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941
U.S. Responds Cautiously• Most Americans were alarmed by the international conflicts but believed that the U.S. should not get involved
America Clings to Isolationism• In 1930’s numerous books argued that U.S. was dragged into WWI by greedy bankers and manufacturers• Congressional Committee led by General Nye held hearings to investigate the charges• Documented the large profits that bankers and manufacturers made during the war• Made Americans determined to avoid war
International AgreementsLocarno Pact – 1925 France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy Guarantee existing frontiers Establish DMZ 30 miles deep on East bank of Rhine River Refrain from aggression against each otherKellogg-Briand Pact – 1928 Makes war illegal as a tool of diplomacy No enforcement provisions
FDR Foreign Policy • 1933, recognized the Soviet Union & agreed to exchange ambassadors with Moscow • Good Neighbor policy of nonintervention in Latin America and withdrew armed forces stationed there • 1934, pushed the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act which lowered trade barriers by giving the president the power to make tradehttp://www.encyclopedia.com/video/dX1U agreements with other nations,oMWapzg-us-recognizes-soviet-russia-1933.aspx aimed at lowering tariffs1933.aspx
U.S. Neutrality Acts: 1934, 1935, 1937, 1939Outlawed arms salesor loans to nationsat war.Extended the ban onarms sales and loansto nations engagedin Civil War-such asSpain.Forbade US citizensfrom traveling onbelligerent ships
Neutrality ActsWhen Japan invaded China FDR claimed there was no need to enforce the Neutrality Acts because Japan had not formally declared war on China• U.S. continued sending arms and supplies to China
Cash-and-Carry (1939)• Congress passed a provision to the Neutrality Acts that allowed warring nations to buy U.S. arms as long as they paid cash & transported them on their own ships• FDR hoped the arms would help France & Britain defeat Hitler & keep the U.S. out of the war.
America Builds Up it Defenses• FDR provided the British with “all aid short of war” he sent 500,000 rifles, 80,000 machine guns to Great Britain.• FDR asks Congress to increase military spending in response to Nazi victories.• Congress passed Nation’s 1st peace time military draft Selective Training & Selective Service Act registered 16 million men between 21-35.• FDR runs for a 3rd term, reelected with 55% of the votes, promised to keep nation out of war
The Great Arsenal of Democracy http://www.myoldradio.com/old-radio-episodes/fdr-great-arsenal-of-democracy-speech/11• FDR- “You can’t tame a tiger into a kitten..”• -impossible to negotiate with Hitler• If Britain fell, the Axis powers would be unchallenged to conquer the world• U.S. must prevent that situation & turn itself into a “great arsenal of democracy” http://www.schooltube.com/video/30747e2e060f4e4efc5b/
U. S. Lend-Lease Act, 1941Great Britain.........................$31 billionSoviet Union..........................$11 billionFrance..................................$3 billionChina..................................$1.5 billionOther European......................$500 millionSouth America.......................$400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,0001941 Lend Lease Act- lend or lease arms& other supplies to any country whosedefense was vital to the U.S.
Atlantic Charter Do you recognize anyone? Who? Where are they? How can you tell?• A joint proclamation by the United States and Britain declaring that they were fighting the Axis powers to "ensure life, liberty, independence and religious freedom and to preserve the rights of man and justice."
The Atlantic Charter • Roosevelt and Churchill sign treaty of friendship in August 1941. • Solidifies alliance. • Fashioned after Wilson’s 14 Points. • Calls for League of Nations type organization.
Atlantic Charter• FDR & Churchill met secretly aboard battleship USS Augusta 1941• Both countries pledged: collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, freedom of the seas.• FDR promised he would do everything to force an incident• Became the basis of the “Declaration of the United Nations” signed by 26 nations to express the common purpose of the Allies the renunciation of all aggression, right to self-government, access to raw materials, freedom from want and fear, freedom of the seas, and disarmament of aggressor nations.
Shoot on Site• German submarine fired on the U.S destroyer Greer in Sept 1941• FDR ordered navy commanders to shoot German submarines on site
• Days later German U-Boats sank the U.S. Destroyer Rueben James killing 100 U.S. sailors• FDR announced, “The shooting has started and history will record who fired the first shot.”• A full scale war seemed inevitable however the attack that brought the U.S. into the war came from Japan
Exit Ticket: U.S. Response1. What does UncleSam turning hisback on Europeshow aboutAmerican attitudesin the late 1930’s?2. What U.S. policyis this cartoonreferencing?3. Why might theAtlantic Oceanappeared to haveshrunk in the1930’s?
Learning Objective• Guiding Question: Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?• Cite 3 pieces of evidence from the documents as to why Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis, 1940 The Tripartite Pact Tojo Hitler MussoliniGermany, Italy, & Japan signed the Tripartite Pactbecoming the Axis Powers. Agreed to come to thedefense of the others in case of an attack.
Political Cartoon Analysis• Which 3 countries are represented by the figures?• Identify the figures by name.• What do the figures appear to be doing?• What event does this cartoon deal with?
Document Based Questions• Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
Japan in the Pacific• Hideki Tojo Prime minister of Japan & chief of staff of Japan’s Kwantung Army invaded French, British, & Dutch colonies in Asia hoping to unite East Asia under Japanese control
Japan took control of French Indochina (present day Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos)
• According to the cartoon, how does the U.S. respond to Japanese militaristic expansion?• protested by cutting off trade with Japan (embargo)• Japan couldn’t survive without oil
Was the Americangovernment aware that theJapanese might attack theU.S. after the oil embargo?How did the U.S. feel aboutthis possibility?Why might the U.S. havewanted the Japanese toattack first?
Peace Talks?• Nov 5, 1941 Hideki Tojo ordered the Japanese military to prepare for an attack on the U.S.• U.S military had broken Japan’s secret communication codes & learned that Japan was preparing for a strike but didn’t know where• FDR sent out a “war warning” to military commanders in Hawaii, Guam, & the Philippines that, “the U.S. desires that Japan commit the first overt act.”• Dec 6, 1941 U.S. decoded a Japanese message that instructed the Japan’s peace envoy to reject all American peace proposals http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Af10ZxmjogQ Pearl Harbor video clip 31:37-33:52
Pearl Harbor• Dec 7, 1941 Japanese dive bombers attacked U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor • 180 Japanese warplanes launched from 6 aircraft carriers bombed targets until 9:30 amhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Af10ZxmjogQ 36:58-38:56
Pearl Harbor from the Cockpit of a Japanese Pilot http://www.yout ube.com/watch? v=Af10Zxmjog Q 48:18-49:12 intercepting messages 1:03:32-1:04:17 1:05-1:09 1:18:45 •Japanese killed 2,403 Americans wounded 1,178. •Damaged 21 ships, including 8 battleships •300 aircraft were destroyed or damaged •3 aircraft carriers were at sea managed to escape disaster
Admiral Isoroku Yamamotohttp://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/multimedia/interactive/pearl-harbor/?ar_a=1 interactive Pearl Harbortimeline
USS Arizona, Pearl Harbora bomb penetrated into the forward magazine causingmassive explosions and killing 1,104 men.