Cancer Screening Programs EbruPresentation Transcript
Cancer screening is used to detect before
symptoms of the cancer appear.
In early stages of breast cancer, cervical
cancer and colorectal cancer it can be
impossible to see or feel. That is why we have
Can involve blood tests, urine tests, other
tests, or medical imaging.
Mammogram: screening programs for
Breast cancer is called mammogram.
Colonoscopy: screening programs for
Colorectal cancer is called a colonoscopy.
Pap Test: screening programs for Cervical
cancer is called a pap test.
Advantages of a mammogram
helps detect the cancer earlier
Disadvantages of a mammogram
false positives - when the
which makes it easier to
cancer is detected but the
test does not reveal the
Women ages 50 to 69 who take
presence of the cancer- and
part in screening are at a lower
over diagnosis - the screening
risk of dying from breast cancer
detects the cancer but it
would have never been there
if the patient hadn’t been
Advantages of a Colonoscopy
Disadvantages of a Colonoscopy
Detects colorectal cancer
Can help find gastrointestinal
invasive procedure (most
and bowel diseases
people are put to sleep during
Helps with the removal of
Polyps (tumors that grow
It is an uncomfortable and
Preparation requires the patient
inside the large intestine and
to be on a certain diet and
laxatives a day before
Can cause bleeding
Advantages of a Pap Test Disadvantages of a Pap Test
Regular Pap tests can
prevent nine out of ten
Not 100% accurate
may not always detect
Breast Cancer Screening
Clinical Breast Exam – The doctor will carefully feel
the breast and under the arms for lumps. If there is a
lump it might be a tumor and needs to be checked
with a mammogram.
Mammogram – The breast is placed on a flat support
plate and is compressed with a parallel plate
(paddle). An X-ray machine produces small bursts of
X-rays that passes through the breast to a detector
on the opposite side. Areas of low density such as
fatty tissues appear translucent but areas of dense
tissues like connective tissue, or tumors appear whiter.
Breast Cancer Screening
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – You take
off all clothes and jewelry you’re put on a tiny
slab and pushed into a hole in the machine you
lie still while the machine scans you’re body. The
machine uses a magnet, radio waves and a
computer to make detailed pictures of areas
inside the body. The MRI like a mammography
takes a picture but it is much more clear and is
used for people with high risk of breast cancer.
Clinical Breast Exam (Top Left), Magnetic Resonance Imaging - MRI- (Bottom
Colorectal Cancer Screening
Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) – This is a simple
blood test that can be taken in your own
home. If the test result is positive it doesn’t
mean you have colon cancer but it should be
followed up with a colonoscopy.
Colonoscopy – Examination of the lining of the
rectum and colon using a long flexible tube
with a camera on the end. The camera sends
images to a screen and the doctor can spot
the tumor or cancer.
Cervical Cancer Screening
Pap Test – Looks for abnormal cell changes in
the cervix. An instrument called a speculum is
gently inserted in the vagina. Cells can be
taken from the cervix and are sent to a lab to
Skin Cancer Screening
Skin Exams – If an area of the skin looks
abnormal, a biopsy is usually done. The doctor
will remove suspicious tissue with a local
excision. A pathologist then looks at your tissue
under a microscope to check for any cancer
Many people suffer from cancer around the world.
There are some people who can afford cancer
screenings. But, some Latino Patients are affected
with very significant issues such as economical
problems, cultural beliefs, and more.
Many immigrants in the U.S.A. are unaware of breast, colon and
cervical cancer screening programs. That is because the program is
limited, though it is free.
Working cancer patients do not get their treatment done, sine
they’re unable to get off from work; they worry about income loss or
getting fired from work
Scared for getting unhealthy diagnosis, which means, emotional
and financial burden on the family. If children are sick, they will be
taken to the doctor, regardless of financial or practical constraints.
Many women are emotionally challenged, they fear to
visit the doctor. They are responsible for their home and
family so they cannot afford any disease.
When a woman is diagnosed with cancer and enters
treatment, her role is changing from someone who
gives care to someone who needs care. In addition to
keeping multiple appointments, the side effects from
therapy such as nausea and fatigue may keep a
woman from her established role in the family.
Men, have little knowledge about cooking and other
responsibilities towards home. But men who act as head of the
household are afraid that a diagnosis of cancer will make them
appear weak to their family and will interfere in their ability to
care for them.
Fears about time missed from work, loss of income, inability to
support dependent family back home, unaffordable medical
care, and overwhelming language and cultural barriers, may
cause men to delay seeing the doctor until they are very sick.
If diagnosed with a serious illness, a man may keep the illness
from loved ones as long as possible for fear of burdening them.
This may cause feelings of isolation, loneliness, and depression
and may affect his treatment and healing process
Although most cancer screening tests are noninvasive or essentially invasive, some involve small
risks of serious complications that may be critical
(e.g.., perforation with colonoscopy)
Another, harm is the false-positive test result, which
can lead to anxiety and unnecessary invasive
diagnostic procedures. These invasive procedures
carry higher risks of serious problems.
A slighter known harm is over diagnosis
False-negative screening test delays diagnosis and
Some doctors rig the information of their
Some patients involuntarily take the
Patients may not be told the risks of the
screenings and the cancer
Social Issues Possible Solutions
Make sure they tell the patients all about the
cancer screening and let them know that the
tests are not 100% accurate.
Ethical Issues Possible Solutions
There should be more than one person
checking a test to make sure no funny business
is going on
The cancer should be explained to the patient
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