7 The Road To The Final Solution
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7 The Road To The Final Solution

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7 The Road To The Final Solution 7 The Road To The Final Solution Presentation Transcript

  • IDEOLOGY OF THE NAZI PARTY AND THE ROAD TO THE FINAL SOLUTION A VERY FEW POINTS
  • POINTS TO KEEP IN MIND
    • Nazism was a policy of National Survival
    • Italy a ‘mouse’ Germany ‘a lion’.
    • Nazism based on race not religion.
    • Not even sure the ‘Aryan’ people were the best – it was survival of the race.
    • A ‘Peter Pan’ philosophy.
  • ADOLPH HITLER AND IDEOLOGY
    • A ‘hodgepodge’ of ideas.
    • Hitler: idealist visionary, master political tactician. A brave man, charismatic, rejected Germany’s class based past. (Von)
    • “ Fascism is the concept of the future state as exemplified by realism in Italy” AH (1935)
    • The Road to Serfdom (Hayek)
  • Start in a Far Off Land: ‘Armenia’ (Turkey Cannot Bully History - The Chronicle Herald, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada May 22 2006)
    • Refers to the massacres and forcible removals of hundreds of thousands to over a million Armenians, during the government of the Young Turks from 1915 to 1917 in the Ottoman Empire.
    • German engineers and workers who were involved in building the railway also witnessed seeing Armenians being crammed into cattle cars — up to ninety in each car — and shipped along the railroad line.
    • Major General Otto von Lossow , the acting military attaché and head of the German Military Plenipotentiary in Ottoman Empire attested in a conference held in 1918 to the intentions of the Ottoman government:
    • “ The Turks have embarked upon the "total extermination of the Armenians in Transcaucasia...The aim of Turkish policy is, as I have reiterated, the taking of possession of Armenian districts and the extermination of the Armenians. Talaat's government wants to destroy all Armenians, not just in Turkey but also outside Turkey. On the basis of all the reports and news coming to me here in Tiflis there hardly can be any doubt that the Turks systematically are aiming at the extermination of the few hundred thousand Armenians whom they left alive until now.
  • MAP FROM FISK’S BOOK
  • INTERESTING POINTS (Robert Fisk- The Great War for Civilization)
    • German officers heavily involved with Turkish forces in WW1
    • Use of Cattle Trucks
    • General Hans Von Seeckt
    • Rudolf Hoess
    • Erwin Von Scheubner-Richter
    • Proved that the western powers did not care and would do nothing.
    • USA-State of Israel-France/Germany
  • A Speech on Eastern Europe At the Versailles Conference
    • “ We have too many Jews, and those that will be allowed to remain with us must change their habits.----The Jew must produce and not remain devoted to what we regard as parasitical pursuits. Unless restrictions are placed on them soon all of our Lawyers, Doctors and small merchants will be Jews”.
  • Jews a People Without a Land: The Russian Pale
    • In the Middle Ages, many Jews settled in Poland because of the tolerance of the local rulers and aristocrats, who found them useful. Poland had the largest Jewish population anywhere in the world.By the 18th century most of the Jewish population of Poland passed under Russian rule.
    • Under Russian rule
    • The 'Pale of Settlement' in Tsarist Russia. was far more unpleasant than it had been in Poland. Jews, were allowed to live only in the so-called ‘Pale of Settlement’ - mainly the lands taken during the partitions of Poland.
    • After revolutionaries assassinated Tsar Alexander II in March 1881, Jews suffered renewed oppression throughout the Russian Empire. Not for the first time – and certainly not for the last - Jews were used as a convenient political scapegoat, and were blamed for many of the country’s problems.
    • The authorities encouraged ‘pogroms’ – over 200 outbreaks of organized violence against Jews. These included looting, rape and murder. If the brutality was not enough, official repression followed. Under the 'May Laws' of 1882:
    • Jews were forced to live in the towns and small towns of the Pale; more than a million Jews living outside these towns were forced to leave their homes
    • restrictions were placed on Jewish trading
    • Jewish students were allowed only 10% of the total university places available. 
  • OPERATION BARBAROSSA
    • Nazi Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union during that commenced on June 22 1941. The operation was named after the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire, a leader of crusades in the 12th century: according to Nazi ideology the conquest of 'inferior races' was similarly righteous.
    • The original goal was the rapid conquest of the European part of the Soviet Union, west of a line connecting the cities of Arkhangelsk and Astrakhan , often referred to as the AA line
  • The Dreyfus Affair
    • French Jews were in a relatively precarious situation in France during the 1890s. With the Third Republic in 1871, politicians sought to capitalize on the new-found fervor for a Catholic France. French Jews were viewed as a "nation within a nation.“ Separation of Church and State would not occur in France until 1905, as a repercussion of the Dreyfus affair.
    • In 1894, Dreyfus was arrested and charged with passing military secrets to the Germans. He was convicted of treason by a military tribunal in 1894 and imprisoned on Devil’s Island
    • Émile Zola exposed the affair to the public in a famous open letter to the President "J'accuse!" ; it was published January 13 1898. It was "one of the great commotions of history." Zola's intent was to force his own prosecution for libel so that the emerging facts of the Dreyfus case could be thoroughly aired. In this he succeeded. He was convicted, appealed, was retried, and, before hearing the result, fled to England on the advice of his counsel and friends, returning to Paris in June 1899 when he heard that Dreyfus's trial was to be reviewed.
  • The Ghetto
    • A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background are united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. The word historically referred specifically to the Venetian Ghetto in Venice Italy, where Jews were required to live.
    • In Venetian a Ghetto is an Iron Foundry. One island, with one access bridge. in the Venetian Lagoon was used specifically for this purpose.
  • And Germany?
    • In contrast to the Nazi caricature of them, most Jews in Germany were actually quite cosmopolitan in nature and considered themselves to be Germans by nationality and Jews only by religion. They had lived in Germany for centuries but constituted only about one percent of the overall population. Before Hitler, over half of the Jews in big German cities married non-Jewish Germans.
    • A higher percentage of German Jews fought in World War 1 than that of any other ethnic, religious or political group in Germany.
    • Walter Rathenau, Jewish industrialist and Foreign Minister of Germany, was a proponent of Jewish assimilation until his assassination by right-wing nationalists in 1922
    • During World War I, German Jews by the tens of thousands fought bravely for the Fatherland, earning numerous medals and serving as officers. One of the Army officers in command of Hitler during the war was a Jewish lieutenant who recommended young Corporal Hitler for the Iron Cross first class, a rarity for a common foot soldier. To his dying day, Hitler wore that Iron Cross, passing on all other Nazi decorations and paraphernalia with the exception of his gold Party membership pin.
    • Many eastern Jews fled to Germany to escape the ‘Pale’
  • SO WHY GERMANY? NOTE: A YOUNG COUNTRY
    • True that the German people did not vote for a policy of racial extermination. They voted for order in 1936. (But!!)
    • Nazism did fix unemployment
    • Nazism was fascism with a Social Darwinist racial policy. Supported by those who had lost and despaired: (Farmers, small business, retired, fixed incomes, protestant middle class, Bavaria)
    • A brutal dictatorship with medieval ideas had taken over the most powerful state in Europe
    • Kinde/Kurche/Kuche paternalism
  • RACE POLICY
    • Anti-Semitism was race not religion
    • “ What distinguishes the Jews is that they possess no territory of their own and could not participate in the struggle for living space. So they were always parasites”.
    • It was further justification for conquering eastern lands for ‘living space’.
    • A mish-mash of racial tripe given credence by a Totalitarian Dictator.
  • IDEOLOGY WAS TO TAKE PLACE IN THE EASTERN LANDS AWAY FROM GERMANY
    • 1946 Affidavit by Hoess talking about meeting with Himmler in Summer 1941.
    • “ The Fuhrer has ordered the final solution of the Jewish question---the SS have to carry out this order---I have earmarked Auschwitz for this task----you will maintain the strictest silence----Every Jew we can lay our hands on must be exterminated----If we fail then one day the Jews will destroy the German people.”
  • IT WAS RACIALLY NUTS
    • A) Lamarckism: Change because of circumstances or conditions
    • B) Darwinism: Random Accidental change
    • C) DNA testing: Now disproves all of this rubbish-all in the genes)
    • (Gregor Mendel –Augustin Monk – disproved all this in 1866. Cabbages – no matter what blending purple or white flowers in 3/1 ratio, Labradors)
  • SOME IRONIES
    • France not Russia was ‘milked’ for the German War Effort.
    • One Third German troops at Stalingrad Soviet Citizens (So why not treat occupied territories better?)
    • “ JUNO” Beach
    • Camp Guards Ukrainian
    • Racial Policy before welfare of German Troops
  • NOT TEUTONIC EFFICIENCY PLAN WAS FOR THE EAST TO PROVIDE FOR THE WAR
    • Little industrial standardization
    • Ammunition on demand (Below WW1)
    • Little shift work in factories
    • 1.5 million German women remained in domestic service: Britain 61% available women employed. Germany 41%
    • No long range bombers
    • 2 million horses as not mechanized
    • 1941: still making 88% of consumer goods as per 1939.
  • OBVIOUSLY BOLSHEVISM WAS A JEWISH CONPIRACY!
  • ‘Science’ of Eugenics
    • Eugenics was a social philosophy which advocated the improvement of human hereditary through various forms of intervention. Eugenicists advocate specific policies that (if successful) would lead to a perceived improvement of the human gene pool
    • Eugenics was an academic discipline at many colleges and universities.
    • During the 1860s and 1870s, Sir Francis Galton systematized these ideas and practices according to new knowledge about the evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his cousin Charles Darwin. After reading Darwin's He reasoned that, since many human societies sought to protect the underprivileged and weak, those societies were at odds with the natural selection responsible for extinction of the weakest.
    • In Canada, the Eugenics movement took place early in the 20th Century, and largely in Alberta. The focus of the motion was the sterilization of mentally deficient individuals, as determined by the Alberta Eugenics Board (Act repealed in 1945)
    • The US SUPREME COURT upheld the constitutionality of a Virginia Law allowing for the compulsory sterilization of patients of state mental institutions in 1927, between 1907 and 1963, over 64,000 individuals were forcibly sterilized under eugenic legislation in the United States
  • "We do not stand alone": Nazi poster from 1936 with flags of other countries with Compulsory Sterilization legislation
    • Nazi Germany conducted eugenics programs which attempted to maintain a "pure" German race through a series of programs that ran under the banner of “ racial hygiene ".
    • 22 June 1933 First Sterilization law
    • During the 1930s and 1940s, the Nazi regime forcibly sterilized hundreds of thousands of people whom they viewed as mentally and physically "unfit", an estimated 400,000 between 1934 and 1937. The scale of the Nazi program prompted American eugenics advocates to seek an expansion of their program, with one complaining that "the Germans are beating us at our own game”
    • The second largest eugenics movement was in the USA. Beginning with Connecticut in 1896, many states enacted marriage laws with eugenic criteria, prohibiting anyone who was "epileptic, imbecile or feeble minded" from marrying. In 1898 Davenport, a prominent American biologist, began as director of a biological research station based in Cold Springs Harbor . In 1904 Davenport received funds from the Carnegie Institution to found the Station for Experimental Evolution.
  • EUTHANASIA
    • If you can kill your own people to ‘strengthen the race’ why stop?
    • Action T4 was a program between 1939 and 1941, during which the regime systematically killed between 75,000 to 250,000 people with intellectual or physical disabilities.
    • The German people needed to be “cleansed” of “racially unsound” elements, which included people with disabilities. The program set important precedents for the later Holocaust of the Jews of Europe: the historian Ian Kershaw has called it “a vital step in the descent into modern barbarism
    • More generally, Hitler frequently used medical metaphors for those he sought to remove from the German “racial community” – he referred to the Jews as a bacillus which must be killed or a cancer which must be excised. Likewise, he saw the disabled as a “diseased element” in the German racial body. In the minds of Hitler and other Nazis, the need to “cleanse” the German race was inseparable from the rest of the Nazi project.
    • In his book Mein Kampf (1924), Hitler wrote:
      • He who is bodily and mentally not sound and deserving may not perpetuate this misfortune in the bodies of his children. The völkische [racial] state has to perform the most gigantic rearing-task here. One day, however, it will appear as a deed greater than the most victorious wars of our present bourgeois era.
  • Doctors Become Agents of State Policy
    • Hitler had always been in favour of killing those whose lives he judged to be “unworthy of life.” In 1935 he told the Reich Doctors’ Leader, Dr Gerhard Wagner , that the question could not be taken up in peacetime: “such a problem could be more smoothly and easily carried out in war,” he said. He intended, he wrote, “in the event of a war radically to solve the problem of the mental asylums”
    • By 1941 over 5,000 children had been killed.
    • December 1946, an American military tribunal tried 23 doctors and administrators for their roles in war crimes. These crimes included the systematic killing of those deemed "unworthy of life," including the mentally retarded, the institutionalized mentally ill, and the physically impaired.
    • NOTE: This was not ‘mercy killing’ to save suffering. It was the state killing to remove ‘useless elements’. Medical Profession is now an agent of the State Racial Policy. Only a very short step to Concentration camp medical research
  • It starts slowly in 1933 Boycott Boycott the Jews Doctors-Shops-Names & Anti Jewish Election Poster
  • Nazi Racial Policy a Disaster for German Science
    • IG Farben
    • World leaders in Chemistry and Physics.
    • 1900-1933 only 7 Nobel prizes in the sciences went to the USA, 1933-1970 it was 77.
    • 1900-1933 25 out of 66 (50%) Nobel prizes in the sciences went to Germany. Since 1933(10%)
  • Paul Ehrlich
  • Perkin’s work in dismay
    • All Part of the same dye-stuff Chemistry
  • IG FARBEN and USA Interssen Gemeinschaft Farben.
    • I.G. Farben's assets in America were controlled by a holding company called American I.G. Farben. The following individuals, among others, were members of the Board of Directors of this corporation:
    • Edsel Ford, President of the Ford Motor Co.; (Note Opel )
    • Charles E. Mitchell, President of Rockefeller's National City Bank of New York;
    • Walter Teagle, President of Standard Oil of New York;
    • Paul Warburg, Chairman of the Federal Reserve, and the brother of Max Warburg, the financier of Germany's war effort, and
    • Herman Metz, a director of the Bank of Manhattan, controlled by the Warburgs.
    • The Nuremberg trial indicted Otto Ambros, chief of I G Farben's poison gas facilities. Ambros was convicted for crimes against humanity, including slavery and murder, and sentenced to eight years in prison. On his release from jail Dow Chemicals invited him to come and work with them in the US.
    • Support continued even after the war started, in March 1938, the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation, 50% owned by GM and 50% by Standard Oil, was asked by I.G. Farben to build tetra-ethyl plants in Germany, with the full support of the U.S. Department of War which expressed no objection to the transactions.
    • And in August, 1938, I.G. Farben "borrowed" 500 tons of tetra-ethyl lead, the gas additive, from Standard Oil.
  • PROPAGANDA STEPS UP: School books and Rabid Newspapers (Ritual Murder of Christians 1934) 1935 The ‘Nuremburg Laws’
  • German National Catechism “Race & People” 1934 School Book and School Book 1936
  • 7 th Grade School Book “How to Tell a Jew”
  • Segregation 1936
  • Reserved for Aryans
  • Business as Usual (1939)
  • PREPARATION FOR RACIAL POLICY ( AND CAREFUL IMAGE SELECTION) (A Nation of Cheaters in the East)
  • GOEBBELS PROPAGANDA 1943 Film: The Jew, Inciter of War-Prolonger of War 1940 Film Poster “The Eternal Jew”
  • Wannsee January 20, 1942
    • 28 August 1941 Eichmann in a letter to the Berlin foreign office said the Final Solution was coming.
    • Eichmann’s own testimony at his trial said he first heard about it in late summer 1941
    • On 31 July 1941, Göring gave a written authorization to SS-Gruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, Chief of the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) to "make all necessary preparations" for a "total solution of the Jewish question" in all the territories under German influence; to co-ordinate the participation of all government organisations whose co-operation was required; and to submit a "comprehensive draft" of a plan for the "final solution to the Jewish question".
  • A BUSINESS MEETING
    • SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich (Chief of the RSHA and Reichsprotektor of Bohemia-Moravia), presiding
    • Dr Josef Bühler (Government of the General Government )
    • Dr Roland Freisler (Reich Ministry of Justice)
    • SS-Gruppenführer Otto Hofmann (Race and Resettlement Main Office, RuSHA)
    • SA-Oberführer Dr Gerhard Klopfer (NSDAP Chancellery)
    • Ministerialdirektor Friedrich Wilhelm Kritzinger (Reich Chancellery)
    • SS-Sturmbannführer Dr Rudolf Lange (Commander of the SD for Latvia )
    • Reichsamtleiter Dr Georg Leibbrandt (Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern territories)
    • Martin Luther (Foreign Office)
    • Gauleiter Dr Alfred Meyer (Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern territories)
    • SS-Gruppenführer Heinrich Müller (Chief of Amt IV ( Gestapo ), Reich Security Main Office (RSHA))
    • Erich Neumann (Director, Office of the Four Year Plan)
    • SS-Oberführer Dr Karl Eberhard Schöngarth (SD, assigned to the General Government)
    • Dr Wilhelm Stuckart (Reich Ministry for the Interior)
    • SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann (Head of Referat IV B4 of the Gestapo ), minutes secretary
  • One Meeting among many: a) Smooth over departmental problems b) Look at legalities c) Is it humane? d) Who is a Jew?
    • since it was no longer possible for European Jews to emigrate, another, "final", solution would have to be found to the "Jewish question". He reported that "another possible solution of the problem has now taken the place of emigration, i.e. the evacuation of the Jews to the East".
    • "No less than eight of the fifteen participants held the doctorate. Thus it was not a dimwitted crowd unable to grasp what was going to be said to them. Nor were they going to be overcome with surprise or shock, for Heydrich was not talking to the uninitiated or squeamish
    • It was not until 1947 that a copy of the minutes (known from the German word for "minutes" as the "Wannsee Protocol" was found in the papers of Undersecretary Martin Luther, who had died in May 1945.
  • MASS ANNIHILATION WAS NOT RANDOM KILLING. IT WAS PART OF A PLANNED NEW EUROPE.
    • “ I reported to Hitler what I had seen of Koch's 'planning agency' [Koch was the Gauleiter of East Prussia]. A young academic had devised all kinds of fantastical 'model landscapes' for the future. He had had maps drawn up at his institute, marked out with lines of communication, fields of force, lines of force, motorways, railway lines, canal projects. The whole of the East as far as the Black Sea, as far as the Caucasus, was divided up into meticulously planned economic zones. These maps showed Germany and western Russia as a single vast land mass with integrated economic and transport systems. The whole scheme was German-centred, of course--planned and run by Germany, for Germany. In this 'planned economy' Poland had ceased to exist”
    • Reich Ministry of Finance 1934
    • Today Auschwitz is discussed in terms of a 'totally irrational racial hatred', of 'annihilation for annihilation's sake', of the 'self-perpetuating machinery' of German bureaucracy, the 'descent into barbarism' and 'the breakdown of civilization'. What is widely ignored or relativized is the fact that in the eyes of those who paved the way for the 'final solution' the policy of extermination implemented against other population groups, most notably in the Soviet Union and Poland, took its place alongside the murder of the European Jews as part of a grand strategy known as 'negative population policy'.
  • Special Commando Units “Under Stress”
  • ENORMITY OF PLANS (Bialystok)
  • THE MOST WELL KNOWN
  • THERE WERE MANY WILLING HELPERS (Note Israel and Europe today: 115,000 Dutch)
    • WANNSEE CONFERENCE
    • “ In occupied and unoccupied France the regime of Jews for evacuation will in all probability proceed without great difficulty.
    • The case of Italy, where deportation of Jewish people had only started after the German occupation — Italy surrendered to the Allies in mid-1943. In particular, in Nice, “ Italians had protected the Jews. And the French authorities complained about it to the Germans .”
  • TRIAGE: Medical Profession Fully Engaged
    • PSYCHOLOGY BOOKS
    • Stanley Miligram 1963-1974 (Obedience)
    • Smith and Bond 1993 (Obedience: Germany 85% - Australia 16%)
    • Seligman (Learned Helpless ness)
  • Auschwitz 1944
  • German Aerial Photo 1945
  • The Worst of All?
  • NEVER THINK IT COULD NOT HAVE HAPPENED ANYWHERE
    • GUERNSEY EVENING PRESS Responsible Editor: J. S. IRISH
    •   No. 11,454   GUERNSEY, TUESDAY, JANUARY 20, 1942   THREE-HALFPENCE
    • Feodosia Recaptured by Germans
    • 4,600 Prisoners and Large Quantities of War Material Taken
    • From the Führer's Headquarters, January 19th, 1942.
    • The German Supreme Command announces
  • AND JUSTICE PREVAILED?? (That is if the Allies did not want you)
    • Note the ‘innocent gentleman on the right (Speer)
    • Why Jodel?
    • Why William Joyce?
  • One Small Step for Man and D.O.R.A.
  • SPOT THE NAZI
  • AND ONE WHO NEVER RECANTED Hanna Reitsch The Greatest Pilot of all?
    • Committed Nazi
    • Great supporter of Hitler
    • Flew the V1 Bomb
    • Personal Pilot to head of Luftwaffe
    • Last plane in and out of Berlin
  • Weasel Words and Apologists
    • David Irving In Mein Kampf he talked about ‘rooting out the Jews’ ; never mentioned extermination.
    • You have to take the whole breadth of Hitler’s philosophy and the fact that he was always in absolute command.
    • The last death march of the war from Maulthausen in Austria to Gunskirchen took place in the first week of May 1945 after Hitler had committed suicide.
  • Feb 1945 Borman recorded Hitler as saying: Borman Documents. London 1961
    • “ Never before has there been a war so typically and so exclusively Jewish. I have at least compelled them to discard their masks----I have opened the eyes of the whole world to the Jewish peril. Well, we have lanced the Jewish abscess: and the world of the future will be eternally grateful to us”
  • THE ROAD TO THE FINAL SOLUTION A VERY FEW POINTS