Darwin

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  • INTELLIGENT DESIGN [intelligent design] theory that some complex biological structures and other aspects of nature show evidence of having been designed by an intelligence. Such biological structures are said to have intricate components that are so highly interdependent and so essential to a particular function or process that the structures could not have developed through Darwinian evolution , and therefore must have been created or somehow guided in their development. Although intelligent design is distinguished from creationism by not relying on the biblical account of creation, it is compatible with a belief in God and is often explicitly linked with such a belief. Also, unlike creationists, its proponents do not challenge the idea that the earth is billions of years old and that life on earth has evolved to some degree. The theory does, however, necessarily reject standard science's reliance on explaining the natural world only through undirected natural causes, believing that any theory that relies on such causes alone is incapable of explaining how all biological structures and processes arose. Thus, despite claims by members of the intelligent-design movement that it is a scientific research program, the work of its adherents has been criticized as unscientific and speculative for inferring a pre-existing intelligence to explain the development of biological structures instead of attempting to develop adequate falsifiable mechanistic explanations. In addition, the theory has been attacked on the grounds that many aspects of nature fail to show any evidence of intelligent design, such as "junk" DNA (see nucleic acid ) and the vestigial webbed feet of the frigate bird (which never lands on water). The idea that nature shows signs of having been designed by an intelligent being dates back at least to ancient Greece. The English theologian William Paley gave the theory its classic formulation in his Natural Theology; or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity (1802), in which he argued that the eye and other biological features are perfectly suited for their purposes and that in this suitable design the hand of God can be discerned. The modern intelligent-design movement, however, has its origins in the 1980s with such works as The Mystery of Life's Origins (1984) by Charles Thaxton et al. and Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (1986) by Michael Denton. Micheal Behe's Darwin's Black Box (1996) is perhaps the best-known statement of the movement's critique of Darwin and its argument for a role for God or some other intelligence in the design of biological entities. Advocates of intelligent design have campaigned to have it taught in U.S. public schools alongside the Darwinian theory of evolution.
  • Darwin

    1. 1. Charles Darwin:Charles Darwin: a Man aparta Man apart Rohit SamsonRohit Samson Parkland Magnet Middle SchoolParkland Magnet Middle School Grade 6Grade 6
    2. 2. ChilDhooDChilDhooD On February 12, 1809 Charles Robert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England as a son of a well-to-do physician. He was named Charles after his uncle and Robert after his father. He had four siblings, Erasmus being his older brother. In the spring of 1817, Charles went to a grammar school run by a Mr. Case. He was said to be shy yet mischievous. Darwin’s mother died on July 15, 1817, when he was only 8. In September 1818, Darwin attended Shrewsbury Grammar School, along with Erasmus, run by the Rev. Samuel Butler. The focus of their study was Greek and Roman grammar and reading. He did not do well in school, and on June 17, 1825 Darwin was removed because of bad grades. Because of this he spent the summer working in his dad’s medical practice.
    3. 3. anan UnproMisingUnproMising YoUthYoUth  Darwin was sent by his father to study medicine atDarwin was sent by his father to study medicine at Edinburgh University in Scotland. He was horrified,Edinburgh University in Scotland. He was horrified, however, by the sight of surgery without anesthesia, andhowever, by the sight of surgery without anesthesia, and discontinued his studies after only two years.discontinued his studies after only two years.  Darwin was accepted into Christ’s College at CambridgeDarwin was accepted into Christ’s College at Cambridge in Oct. 1827, but he lacked true interest in theology.in Oct. 1827, but he lacked true interest in theology. Instead, he collected beetles and studied them.Instead, he collected beetles and studied them.  His first work in science began with a geologic field tripHis first work in science began with a geologic field trip led by English geologist Adam Sedgwick.led by English geologist Adam Sedgwick.  Scottish zoologist Robert Grant introduced Darwin to theScottish zoologist Robert Grant introduced Darwin to the evolutionary ideas of the French naturalist Jean-Baptisteevolutionary ideas of the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who first thought of evolution of life fromLamarck, who first thought of evolution of life from simple forms.simple forms.
    4. 4. the Beaglethe Beagle VoYageVoYage • in DeCeMBer ofin DeCeMBer of 1831 the h.M.s.1831 the h.M.s. Beagle leftBeagle left plYMoUthplYMoUth harBor on a 5harBor on a 5 Year ‘VoYage ofYear ‘VoYage of sCientifiCsCientifiC exploration’.exploration’. • Darwin joineD asDarwin joineD as the ship’sthe ship’s natUralist.natUralist. • sea-siCkness anDsea-siCkness anD infeCtions apartinfeCtions apart he was aBle tohe was aBle to
    5. 5. GalapaGos GiantGalapaGos Giant tortoisetortoise photoGraph courtesy of Dr. phillip DvoskinphotoGraph courtesy of Dr. phillip Dvoskin
    6. 6. ““Darwin’s finches”Darwin’s finches”photograph courtesy of Dr. Phillip Dvoskin (Galapagos Islands 2004)photograph courtesy of Dr. Phillip Dvoskin (Galapagos Islands 2004)
    7. 7. naturalnatural selectionselection While there were many unusual animals on the Galapagos Islands, Darwin mainlyWhile there were many unusual animals on the Galapagos Islands, Darwin mainly noticed a group of birds, the famous “Darwin’s Finches” which were similar butnoticed a group of birds, the famous “Darwin’s Finches” which were similar but divided into at least 14 species, none of which existed on the mainland.divided into at least 14 species, none of which existed on the mainland.  Darwin believed that these birds came to the island seeking food and therefore had aDarwin believed that these birds came to the island seeking food and therefore had a common ancestor, but their descendants differentiated based on adaptation tocommon ancestor, but their descendants differentiated based on adaptation to different natural conditions like availability of food, predators, prey, and climatedifferent natural conditions like availability of food, predators, prey, and climate “eventually evolving into separate species.”“eventually evolving into separate species.”  He noticed that the 14 different species of finches each had “unique beaks tailored toHe noticed that the 14 different species of finches each had “unique beaks tailored to it’s specific diets.” For example the Warbler Finch has a sharp, pointy beak to eatit’s specific diets.” For example the Warbler Finch has a sharp, pointy beak to eat insects in trees, but the Large ground finch has a large, stout beak that allows it to eatinsects in trees, but the Large ground finch has a large, stout beak that allows it to eat seeds and nuts which are too big for other species. (courtesy of Newsweek article,seeds and nuts which are too big for other species. (courtesy of Newsweek article, Nov. 2005)Nov. 2005)  He also could identify the island origin of giant tortoises based on the patterns onHe also could identify the island origin of giant tortoises based on the patterns on their shells.their shells.  He concluded that creatures adapted themselves to different ways of life based on theHe concluded that creatures adapted themselves to different ways of life based on the environment and the fittest of them survived and procreated. He then realized thatenvironment and the fittest of them survived and procreated. He then realized that such NATURAL SELECTION explained the process of EVOLUTION.such NATURAL SELECTION explained the process of EVOLUTION.
    8. 8. Darwin’s wife &Darwin’s wife & chilDrenchilDren  Darwin married his cousin Emma Wedgwood of the WedgwoodDarwin married his cousin Emma Wedgwood of the Wedgwood Porcelain fame, a devout Catholic and they had 10 children:Porcelain fame, a devout Catholic and they had 10 children:  William Erasmus Darwin- (1839- 1914) married without children.William Erasmus Darwin- (1839- 1914) married without children.  Anne Elizabeth Darwin (Darwin’s favorite child)- (Mar. 2, 1847- Apr.Anne Elizabeth Darwin (Darwin’s favorite child)- (Mar. 2, 1847- Apr. 22, 1851) from tuberculosis.22, 1851) from tuberculosis.  Mary Eleanor Darwin- (Sep. 23, 1842- Oct. 16, 1842)Mary Eleanor Darwin- (Sep. 23, 1842- Oct. 16, 1842)  Henrietta Emma Darwin- (1843- 1929) no children.Henrietta Emma Darwin- (1843- 1929) no children.  George Howard Darwin- (1845- 1912) Came to America, had fourGeorge Howard Darwin- (1845- 1912) Came to America, had four children.children.  Elizabeth Darwin- (1847- 1926) died single.Elizabeth Darwin- (1847- 1926) died single.  Francis Darwin- (1848- 1925) He published some of Darwin’s lettersFrancis Darwin- (1848- 1925) He published some of Darwin’s letters and his autobiography. He married twice and had two children.and his autobiography. He married twice and had two children.  Leonard Darwin- (1850- 1943) Married with no childrenLeonard Darwin- (1850- 1943) Married with no children  Horace Darwin (1851-1928) Had three children.Horace Darwin (1851-1928) Had three children.  Charles Waring Darwin (Dec. 6, 1856- June 28, 1858)Charles Waring Darwin (Dec. 6, 1856- June 28, 1858)  In the end, Darwin had one wife, 10 children, and nineIn the end, Darwin had one wife, 10 children, and nine grandchildren. A number of his great-grandchildren still live today.grandchildren. A number of his great-grandchildren still live today.
    9. 9. The Theory ofThe Theory of evoluTionevoluTion • The evolution concept refers to the belief that existing animals and plants developed by a process of slow, continuous change from previously existing forms. •Organic evolution, as opposed to belief in the special creation of each individual species as an unchangeable form, envisions life as having had its beginnings in a simple mass (probably starting out in the sea) from which, over course of time, arose all living forms. •Inorganic evolution, on the other hand, is concerned with the development of the physical universe from unorganized matter.
    10. 10. inTelligenT DesigninTelligenT Design  Intelligent design is based on the theory that blueprints of the world were createdIntelligent design is based on the theory that blueprints of the world were created by an intelligent being.by an intelligent being.  This theory started out in the times of the ancient Greeks.This theory started out in the times of the ancient Greeks.  English Theologian William Paley in his bookEnglish Theologian William Paley in his book Natural Theology; or theNatural Theology; or the Evidences of the Existence and Attributed of the Deity (Evidences of the Existence and Attributed of the Deity (1802) brought it to the1802) brought it to the forefront.forefront.  Even though intelligent design is supposed to differ from creationism, it seems toEven though intelligent design is supposed to differ from creationism, it seems to be linked to the biblical version of the universe’s creation in 6 days.be linked to the biblical version of the universe’s creation in 6 days.  Intelligent design does not reject the fact that the Earth is billions of years old,Intelligent design does not reject the fact that the Earth is billions of years old, creationism does.creationism does.  While it does not reject some aspects of evolution, it rejects science’s theory thatWhile it does not reject some aspects of evolution, it rejects science’s theory that the world changed through natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions.the world changed through natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions.  Believers of intelligent design have been fighting to keep intelligent design taughtBelievers of intelligent design have been fighting to keep intelligent design taught in schools.in schools.  Their case was over-ruled by Judge John E. Jones III who claimed the theory asTheir case was over-ruled by Judge John E. Jones III who claimed the theory as a version of creationism and banned it from being taught in public schools ina version of creationism and banned it from being taught in public schools in Pennsylvania.Pennsylvania.  Later on January 19, 2006 the Vatican newspaper proclaimed that intelligentLater on January 19, 2006 the Vatican newspaper proclaimed that intelligent design is not science and should not be taught in schools along with evolution. Itdesign is not science and should not be taught in schools along with evolution. It also said that evolution doesn’t exactly remove God from the process of creation.also said that evolution doesn’t exactly remove God from the process of creation.
    11. 11. evoluTion vs.evoluTion vs. inTelligenT DesigninTelligenT Design The origin of The universe, of life, of The DifferenTThe origin of The universe, of life, of The DifferenT organisms on earTh anD of mankinD is basicallyorganisms on earTh anD of mankinD is basically explaineD in Two DifferenT ways: evoluTion anDexplaineD in Two DifferenT ways: evoluTion anD creaTion.creaTion.  Evolution is based on ‘survivalEvolution is based on ‘survival of the fittest’ by ‘naturalof the fittest’ by ‘natural selection’ and adaptation.selection’ and adaptation.  Evolution has been studiedEvolution has been studied and can be explained byand can be explained by various naturalisticvarious naturalistic experiments.experiments.  Evolution is a theory thought ofEvolution is a theory thought of gradually over a course of timegradually over a course of time through various observations.through various observations.  Intelligent design is based onIntelligent design is based on the assumption that anthe assumption that an intelligent designer created theintelligent designer created the world to this state ofworld to this state of perfection.perfection.  Creationism is a theory thatCreationism is a theory that has no fundamental scientifichas no fundamental scientific basis.basis.  Intelligent design is based onIntelligent design is based on blind belief.blind belief.
    12. 12. The laTe years ofThe laTe years of DarwinDarwin Charles Darwin remained ill most ofCharles Darwin remained ill most of his life. He never traveled abroadhis life. He never traveled abroad again. He may have suffered fromagain. He may have suffered from Chagas disease. On September 7,Chagas disease. On September 7, 1881, Darwin finished his final will. On1881, Darwin finished his final will. On Dec. 15, 1881, Darwin started feelingDec. 15, 1881, Darwin started feeling strong chest pains. From Feb. to Apr.strong chest pains. From Feb. to Apr. 1882, Darwin had violent seizures and1882, Darwin had violent seizures and heart troubles. A doctor was called onheart troubles. A doctor was called on April 18, 1882 and left the next dayApril 18, 1882 and left the next day saying Darwin was fine. Later that daysaying Darwin was fine. Later that day he suffered from more violent attacks.he suffered from more violent attacks. His family gathered around hisHis family gathered around his bedside. Charles Robert Darwin diedbedside. Charles Robert Darwin died about 4:00p.m April 19, 1882. On Aprilabout 4:00p.m April 19, 1882. On April 26 1882, Charles Robert Darwin was26 1882, Charles Robert Darwin was buried at Westminster Abbey (evenburied at Westminster Abbey (even without the family requesting it) next towithout the family requesting it) next to his friend, Sir John Herschelhis friend, Sir John Herschel (astronomer) about 20 feet from Sir(astronomer) about 20 feet from Sir Isaac Newton. Ironically, this was theIsaac Newton. Ironically, this was the only honor he received from the Britishonly honor he received from the British government under Queen Victoria,government under Queen Victoria, who were against Darwinism.who were against Darwinism.
    13. 13. Some BookS By CharleS Darwin • Darwin's Scientific Diaries 1836-1842. • On the Origin of Species a Facsimile of the First Edition • The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. • The Origin of Species • The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. • The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection: Or, the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. • The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882. • Charles Darwin and the Voyage of the 'Beagle'. • Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1836-1844: Geology, Transmutation of Species, Metaphysical Enquiries. • The Correspondence of Charles Darwin: 1821-1863 (vol- 1-11). • Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary.
    14. 14. The enDThe enD I wanted to acknowledge my family, whoI wanted to acknowledge my family, who introduced me to Charles Robert Darwin. I grewintroduced me to Charles Robert Darwin. I grew up admiring him. I chose him as a topic for myup admiring him. I chose him as a topic for my project because I wanted the world to know himproject because I wanted the world to know him as a Man Apart; a shy school misfit who thenas a Man Apart; a shy school misfit who then pursued his keen observation and provided thepursued his keen observation and provided the world scientific data never disproved for over 1world scientific data never disproved for over 1 ½ centuries.½ centuries. Thank you for your time.Thank you for your time.

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