CHAPTER 1
INTRODUTION
1.1 Introduction:-
Automatic meter reading (AMR) is the technology of automatically collecting
data ...
1.3 Benefits of AMR:-
The automatic meter reading (AMR) technology is very useful in many
applications. By using AMR techn...
solutions require a much smaller staff of meter readers, who merely need to walk or
drive by the many meters in any neighbo...
1.5.2 Touch Based:-
With touch based AMR, a meter reader carries a handheld computer or data
collection device with a wand...
repeaters passing the data to nearby meters until it makes it to a main collector. A
mesh network may save the infrastruct...
1.5.7 Wireless Fidelity(Wi-Fi):-
Today many meters are designed to transmit using Wi-Fi even if a Wi-Fi
network is not ava...
CHAPTER 2
CIRCUIT AND BLOCK DIAGRAMS
2.1 Transmitter Unit:-
The transmitter circuit diagram and block diagram are shown in...
Figure-2.2-Block diagram of transmitter unit
8
2.2 Receiver Unit:-
The receiver unit circuit diagram and block diagram are shown in figure 2.3
and 2.4 respectively. The ...
Figure-2.4-Block diagram of receiver unit
10
CHAPTER 3
TRANSMITTER UNIT
3.1 Introduction:-
Transmitter unit is used to send the meter reading to the receiving end. The...
Figure-3.1-Pin configuration of AT89C2051
3.2.2 Description:-
The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit
...
Figure-3.2-Block diagram of AT89C2051
13
3.2.3 Pin Description:-
Table-3.1-Pin description of AT89C2051
Pin Number Description
1 RESET - Reset
2 P3.0 - Port 3 - RX...
3. Port 1
Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. Port pins P1.2 to P1.7 provide internal
pull-ups. P1.0 and P1.1 requ...
6. XTAL1
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock
operating circuit.
3.2.4 Oscillator C...
AT89C2051. This should be the responsibility of the software programmer. For
example, LJMP 7E0H would be a valid instructi...
Truth Table-3.3-74LS244
H = High voltage level, L = Low voltage level
X = Immaterial, Z = High Impedance
Table-3.4-Guarant...
Because they’re electro-mechanical, relays are also not as reliable. And only
capable of relatively low speed operation. W...
3.4.1 Features:-
 Gallium Arsenide Diode Infrared Source Optically Coupled to a Silicon npn
Phototransistor
 High Direct...
Figure-3.5-Typical characteristics
3.5 Encoder HT12E:-
3.5.1 Features:-
 Operating voltage
 2.4V~12V for the HT12E
 Low...
 Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor
 Data code has positive polarity
 Minimal external components
 HT12A/E: 18...
Figure-3.6-Pin assignment of HT12E-18 DIP
Table-3.6-Pin description of HT12E
PIN
NAME
I/O
INTERNAL
CONNECTION DESCRIPTION
...
OSC2 O OSCILLATOR 1 Oscillator output pin
X1 I OSCILLATOR 2
455kHz resonator oscillator
input
X2 O OSCILLATOR 2
455kHz res...
device is in the momentary mode. When the transmission enable is removed during a
transmission, the DOUT outputs a complet...
Figure-3.10-Application circuit of Encoder HT12E
3.6 Seven Segment Display:-
A seven-segment display less commonly known a...
3.7 AM Transmitter Module:-
Amplitude modulated transmitter module is attached in the transmitter unit.
The module has fou...
made at the factory. The main drawbacks that the entire antenna must be small
enough to fit through a small hole in the li...
Figure-3.11-Connection diagram of Pulse Generator
CHAPTER 4
RECEIVER UNIT
4.1 Introduction:-
The R.F. Solutions range of A...
antenna only. In addition the it operates from a 5Vdc supply. RF Solutions also offer a
range of Super Heterodyne Receiver...
Figure-4.2- Circuit diagram
Table-4.1-Pin description of RX3400
31
4.2.2 Functional Description:-
The RX3400/RX3400-LF ASK receiver IC incorporates an LNA; mixer; PLL-
based local oscillato...
Figure-4.3-Application circuit of RX3400
4.3 Antenna:-
The antenna is also used at the receiver unit to collect the data w...
4.4.1 Features:-
 Operating voltage: 2.4V~12V
 Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology
 Low standby current
...
chosen. The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a programmed 2^12
series of encoders that are transmitted by a...
4.5 Seven Segment Display:-
A seven-segment display (abbreviation:"7-segment display"), less commonly
known as a seven-seg...
The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit
microcomputer with 2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable...
shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If
adequate heat sinking is provided, ...
The second pin of each LED is connected to each other. The power required for the
glowing of the LEDs is drawn from the di...
the LED will not glow because the proper power required to display the data is not too
much. Thus display driver 74LS244 i...
that are set currently are quite ambitious. Features such as a new emitter/detector and
a new PIC that required a differen...
data became a need for daily and even hourly readings of the meters. Consequently,
the sales of drive-by and telephone AMR...
[11] Ritchie W.K., “Different Display Device” British Telecommunication Engg.1
(4), PP. 205-210; 1983.
[12] Walker. E.H. “...
{
count = 0;
blink_digit = ~blink_digit;
}
if (blink_digit)
P1 = 0;
else
P1 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]);
}
e...
TR0 = 1;
while (1)
{
/*
MSDelay (1);
P2 = mux;
P0 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]);
pointer1++;
if (pointer1 == 5...
return 0xBB;
case '3':
return 0xBE;
case '4':
return 0xDC;
case '5':
return 0xEE;
case '6':
return 0xEF;
case '7':
return ...
return 0xD4;
case '5':
return 0xE6;
case '6':
return 0xE7;
case '7':
return 0x34;
case '8':
return 0xF7;
case '9':
return ...
bit blink_digit=0;
void timer0 (void) interrupt 1
{
TR0 = 0;
TL0 = 0x24;
TH0 = 0xFA;
P1 = 0;
P2 = mux;//<<3;
if (mux == re...
void main ()
{
IE = 0x82;
TMOD = 0x21;
TL0 = 0x24;
TH0 = 0xFA;
TH1 = 0xFD;
SCON = 0x50;
TR1 = 1;
MSDelay (100);
RI = 0;
TR...
else
{
//if ((SBUF >= '0')||(SBUF <= '9'))
receive_data [pointer] = SBUF;
pointer++;
//if (pointer == 5)
//pointer = 0;
}
...
case '5':
return 0xEE;
case '6':
return 0xEF;
case '7':
return 0x3C;
case '8':
return 0xFF;
case '9':
return 0xFE;
case 0x...
return 0xB6;
case '4':
return 0xD4;
case '5':
return 0xE6;
case '6':
return 0xE7;
case '7':
return 0x34;
case '8':
return ...
53
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automatic meter reading

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUTION 1.1 Introduction:- Automatic meter reading (AMR) is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy metering devices (water, gas, and electric) and transferring that data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. This saves employee trips, and means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than on an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers better control of their use of electric energy, gas usage, or water consumption. This means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than on an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers better control of their use of electric energy. The Transmitter is connected to the meter and it counts the pulses from it and displays it over the seven segment display. It transmits the data over radio frequency. At the receiver end the data is received by an receiver module and the microcontroller will display it over the seven segment display. 1.2 Brief History:- The primary driver for the automation of meter reading is not so much to reduce labor costs, but to obtain data that is otherwise unattainable. Many meters, especially water meters, are located in areas that require an appointment with the homeowner. Gas and Electricity tend to be more valuable commodities than water, and the need to offer actual readings instead of estimated readings can drive a utility to consider automation. While early systems consisted of walk-by, and drive-by AMR for residential. Remote meter reading (or AMR) refers to the system that uses a communication technique to automatically collect the meter readings and other relevant data from utilities’ gas meters, without the need to physically visit the gas meters. The development of AMR technology has catapulted meter data to center stage of the utility business plan. 1
  2. 2. 1.3 Benefits of AMR:- The automatic meter reading (AMR) technology is very useful in many applications. By using AMR technology we can accommodate a lot of benefits. Some benefits of AMR are as follow- 1.3.1 Electrical Company Benefits:-  Smart automated processes instead of manual work.  Accurate information from the network load to optimize maintenance and investments.  Customized rates and billing dates.  Streamlined high bill investigations.  Detection of tampering of Meters.  Accurate measurement of transmission losses.  Better network performance and cost efficiency.  Demand and distribution management.  More intelligence to business planning.  Better company credibility. 1.3.2 Customer Benefits:-  Precise consumption information.  Clear and accurate billing.  Automatic outage information and faster recovery.  Better and faster customer service.  Flag potential high consumption before customer gets a high bill. 1.4 AMR Applications:- As technology continues to improve in price/performance, the number of municipal utilities implementing automatic meter reading (AMR) systems continues to grow. Today, most AMR deployments are “walk-by” or “drive-by” systems. A battery-operated transmitter in each meter sends a radio frequency (RF) signal that is read by a special receiver either carried by hand or mounted in a vehicle. These 2
  3. 3. solutions require a much smaller staff of meter readers, who merely need to walk or drive by the many meters in any neighborhood. Although this form of AMR is an enormous improvement over manual meter reading, continued high labor and vehicle costs are driving the industry to an even better solution. Among the many advantages are the ability to monitor daily demand, implement conservation programs, create usage profiles by time of day, and detect potentially hazardous conditions, such as leaks or outages. But there is still one drawback with these AMR deployments: the costly network backhaul required by leased lines or cellular services from a local telephone company, or Power Line Carrier (PLC) solutions from the local power company. AMR is the remote collection of consumption data from customers’ utility meters using telephony, radio frequency, power lines and satellite communications technologies. AMR provides water, gas and electric utility-service companies the opportunity to increase operational efficiency, improve customer service, reduce data- collection costs and quickly gather critical information that provides insight to company decision-makers. [4] 1.5 Different AMR Technologies:- There are many different technologies which are used in the AMR. Using these technologies data can be send from transmitting end to the receiving end. In our project we are using RF technology for transmitting the meter reading from one point to other point. The different types of technologies are described below. Out of which handheld technology is uses rarely. [1] 1.5.1 Handheld:- In handheld AMR, a meter reader carries a handheld computer with a built-in or attached receiver/transceiver (radio frequency or touch) to collect meter readings from an AMR capable meter. This is sometimes referred to as "walk-by" meter reading since the meter reader walks by the locations where meters are installed as they go through their meter reading route. Handheld computers may also be used to manually enter readings without the use of AMR technology. 3
  4. 4. 1.5.2 Touch Based:- With touch based AMR, a meter reader carries a handheld computer or data collection device with a wand or probe. The device automatically collects the readings from a meter by touching or placing the read probe in close proximity to a reading coil enclosed in the touchpad. When a button is pressed, the probe sends an interrogate signal to the touch module to collect the meter reading. The software in the device matches the serial number to one in the route database, and saves the meter reading for later download to a billing or data collection computer. 1.5.3 Mobile:- Mobile or "Drive-by" meter reading is where a reading device is installed in a vehicle. The meter reader drives the vehicle while the reading device automatically collects the meter readings. With mobile meter reading, the reader does not normally have to read the meters in any particular route order, but just drives the service area until all meters are read components often consist of a laptop or proprietary computer, software, RF receiver or transceiver, and external vehicle antennas. 1.5.4 Fixed Network:- Fixed Network AMR is a method where a network is permanently installed to capture meter readings. This method can consist of a series of antennas, towers, collectors, repeaters, or other permanently installed infrastructure to collect transmissions of meter readings from AMR capable meters and get the data to a central computer without a person in the field to collect it. [2] There are several types of network topologies in use to get the meter data back to a central computer. A star network is the most common, where a meter transmits its data to a central collector or repeater. Some systems use only collectors which receive and store data for processing. Others also use a repeater which forwards a reading from a more remote area back to a main collector without actually storing it. A repeater may be forwarded by RF signal or sometimes is converted to a wired network such as telephone or IP network to get the data back to a collector. Some manufacturers are developing mesh networks where meters themselves act as 4
  5. 5. repeaters passing the data to nearby meters until it makes it to a main collector. A mesh network may save the infrastructure of many collection points, but is more data intensive on the meters. One issue with mesh networks it that battery operated ones may need more power for the increased frequency of transmitting. [7] 1.5.5 Radio Frequency Network:- Radio frequency based AMR can take many forms. The more common ones are Handheld, Mobile, and Fixed network. There are both two-way RF systems and one-way RF systems in use that use both licensed and unlicensed RF bands. In a two- way or "wake up" system, a radio transceiver normally sends a signal to a particular transmitter serial number, telling it to wake up from a resting state and transmit its data. The Meter attached transceiver and the reading transceiver both send and receive radio signals and data. In a one-way “bubble-up” or continuous broadcast type system, the transmitter broadcasts readings continuously every few seconds. This means the reading device can be a receiver only, and the meter AMR device a transmitter only. Data goes one way, from the meter AMR transmitter to the meter reading receiver. There are also hybrid systems that combine one-way and two-way technologies, using one-way communication for reading and two way communication for programming functions.RF based meter reading usually eliminates the need for the meter reader to enter the property or home, or to locate and open an underground meter pit. The utility saves money by increased speed of reading, has lower liability from entering private property, and has less chance of missing reads because of being locked out from meter access. 1.5.6 Power Line Communication:- AMR is a method where electronic data is transmitted over power lines back to the substation, then relayed to a central computer in the utility's main office. This would be considered a type of fixed network system the network being the distribution network which the utility has built and maintains to deliver electric power. Such systems are primarily used for electric meter reading. Some providers have interfaced gas and water meters to feed into a PLC type system. 5
  6. 6. 1.5.7 Wireless Fidelity(Wi-Fi):- Today many meters are designed to transmit using Wi-Fi even if a Wi-Fi network is not available, and they are read using a drive-by local Wi-Fi hand held receiver. Narrow-banded signal has a much greater range than Wi-Fi so the numbers of receivers required for the project are far fewer the number of Wi-Fi access points covering the same area. These special receiver stations then take in the narrow-band signal and report their data via Wi-Fi Most of the automated utility meters installed in the Corpus Christi area are battery powered. Compared to narrow-band burst telemetry, Wi-Fi technology uses far too much power for long-term battery-powered operation. Thus Wi-Fi is the efficient mean of communication in AMR technologies, which allows communication between the central data base and the end users, and defines the efficient reliability of the system. Thus offering a ultimate mean to fulfill the requirement. 1.6 Description of RF Based AMR:-  Originally AMR devices just collected meter readings electronically & matched them with accounts.  As technology has advanced, additional data could then be captured, stored, and transmitted to the main computer, and often the metering devices could be controlled remotely.  This can include events alarms such as tamper, leak detection, low battery, or reverse flow.  Many AMR devices can also capture interval data, and log meter events.  Radio frequency based AMR can take many forms. The more common one are Handheld, Mobile, and Fixed network. 6
  7. 7. CHAPTER 2 CIRCUIT AND BLOCK DIAGRAMS 2.1 Transmitter Unit:- The transmitter circuit diagram and block diagram are shown in figure 2.1 & 2.2 respectively. The data is transmitted from transmitter unit to the receiver unit through RF channel. Figure-2.1-Circuit diagram of transmitter unit 7
  8. 8. Figure-2.2-Block diagram of transmitter unit 8
  9. 9. 2.2 Receiver Unit:- The receiver unit circuit diagram and block diagram are shown in figure 2.3 and 2.4 respectively. The main purpose of the receiver unit is to receive the sending end data. The is finally display on the seven segment display. Figure-2.3-Circuit diagram of receiver unit 9
  10. 10. Figure-2.4-Block diagram of receiver unit 10
  11. 11. CHAPTER 3 TRANSMITTER UNIT 3.1 Introduction:- Transmitter unit is used to send the meter reading to the receiving end. The data is send to the receiver end through RF channel. The transmitter unit consist of transmitter module, encoder HT12E, microcontroller AT89C2051 and display driver 74LS244.The pulses are given to the of microcontroller via optocoupler. For display the meter reading we are using seven segments. The supply which is given to the transmitter unit is +5 volt. 3.2 Microcontroller AT89C2051:- 3.2.1 Features:-  Compatible with MCS® -51Products  2K Bytes of Reprogrammable Flash Memory  2.7V to 6V Operating Range  Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz  Two-level Program Memory Lock  128 x 8-bit Internal RAM  15 Programmable I/O Lines  Two 16-bit Timer/Counters  Six Interrupt Sources  Programmable Serial UART Channel  Direct LED Drive Output  On-chip Analog Comparator  Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes  Green (Pb/Halide-free) Packaging Option 11
  12. 12. Figure-3.1-Pin configuration of AT89C2051 3.2.2 Description:- The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS instruction set. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C2051 is a power-full microcomputer which provides a highly- flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 15 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision analog comparator, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. . The power- down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. [5] 12
  13. 13. Figure-3.2-Block diagram of AT89C2051 13
  14. 14. 3.2.3 Pin Description:- Table-3.1-Pin description of AT89C2051 Pin Number Description 1 RESET - Reset 2 P3.0 - Port 3 - RXD 3 P3.1 - Port 3 - TXD 4 XTAL2 - Crystal 5 XTAL1 - Crystal 6 P3.2 - Port 3 - INT0 7 P3.3 - Port 3 - INT1 8 P3.4 - Port 3 - TO 9 P3.5 - Port 3 - T1 10 GND - Ground 11 P3.7 - Port 3 12 P1.0 - Port 1 - AIN0 13 P1.1 - Port 1 – A1N1 14 P1.2 - Port 1 15 P1.3 - Port 1 16 P1.4 - Port 1 17 P1.5 - Port 1 18 P1.6 - Port 1 19 P1.7 - Port 1 20 Vcc - Positive Power Supply 1. Vcc Supply voltage 2. GND Ground 14
  15. 15. 3. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. Port pins P1.2 to P1.7 provide internal pull-ups. P1.0 and P1.1 require external pull-ups. P1.0 and P1.1 also serve as the positive input (AIN0) and the negative input (AIN1), respectively, of the on-chip precision analog comparator. The Port 1 output buffers can sink 20 mA and can drive LED displays directly. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they can be used as inputs. When pins P1.2 to P1.7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives code data during Flash programming and verification. 4. Port 3 Port 3 pins P3.0 to P3.5, P3.7 are seven bi-directional I/O pins with internal pull-ups. P3.6 is hard-wired as an input to the output of the on-chip comparator and is not accessible as a general purpose I/O pin. The Port 3 output buffers can sink 20 mA. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. 5. RST Reset input. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST goes high. Holding the RST pin high for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. Each machine cycle takes 12 oscillator or clock cycles. Table-3.2-Special features of AT89C2051 serve by Port 3 15
  16. 16. 6. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. 3.2.4 Oscillator Characteristics:- The XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 5-1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 5-2. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed. 3.2.5 Restrictions on Certain Instructions:- The AT89C2051 and is an economical and cost-effective member of Atmel’s growing family of microcontrollers. It contains 2K bytes of flash program memory. It is fully compatible with the MCS-51 architecture, and can be programmed using the MCS-51 instruction set. However, there are a few considerations one must keep in mind when utilizing certain instructions to program this device. All the instructions related to jumping or branching should be restricted such that the destination address falls within the physical program memory space of the device, which is 2K for the Port Pin Alternate Functions P3.0 RXD (serial input port) P3.1 TXD (serial output port) P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input) P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input) 16
  17. 17. AT89C2051. This should be the responsibility of the software programmer. For example, LJMP 7E0H would be a valid instruction for the AT89C2051 (with 2K of memory), whereas LJMP 900H would not. 3.2.6 Branching Instructions:- LCALL, LJMP, ACALL, AJMP, SJMP, JMP @A+DPTR These unconditional branching instructions will execute correctly as long as the programmer keeps in mind that the destination branching address must fall within the physical boundaries of the program memory size (locations 00H to 7FFH for the 89C2051). Violating the physical space limits may cause unknown program behavior. CJNE [...], DJNZ [...], JB, JNB, JC, JNC, JBC, JZ, JNZ With these conditional branching instructions the same rule above applies. Again, violating the memory boundaries may cause erratic execution. For applications involving interrupts the normal interrupt service routine address locations of the 80C51 family architecture have been preserved. 3.3 Display Driver 74LS244:- The 74LS244 is Octal Buffer and Line Driver designed to be employed as memory address drivers, clock drivers and bus-oriented transmitters/receivers which provide improved PC board density.  Hysteresis at Inputs to Improve Noise Margins.  3-State Outputs Drive Bus Lines or Buffer Memory Address Registers. Figure-3.3-Logic and connection diagrams DIP (Top view) 17
  18. 18. Truth Table-3.3-74LS244 H = High voltage level, L = Low voltage level X = Immaterial, Z = High Impedance Table-3.4-Guaranteed Operating Ranges 3.4 Optocoupler MCT2E:- There are many situations where signals and data need to be transferred from one subsystem to another within a piece of electronics equipment, or from one piece of equipment to another, without making a direct ohmic electrical connection. Often this is because the source and destination are (or may be at times) at very different voltage levels, like a microprocessor which is operating from 5V DC but being used to control a triac which is switching 240V AC. In such situations the link between the two must be an isolated one, to protect the microprocessor from over voltage damage. Relays can of course provide this kind of isolation. 18
  19. 19. Because they’re electro-mechanical, relays are also not as reliable. And only capable of relatively low speed operation. Where small size, higher speed and greater reliability are important, a much better alternative is to use an optocoupler. These use a beam of light to transmit the signals or data across an electrical barrier, and achieve excellent isolation. Optocouplers typically come in a small 6-pin or 8-pin IC package, but are essentially a combination of two distinct devices: an optical transmitter, typically a gallium arsenide LED (light-emitting diode) and an optical receiver such as a phototransistor or light-triggered diac. The two are separated by a transparent barrier which blocks any electrical current flow between the two, but does allow the passage of light. Along with the usual circuit symbol for an optocoupler. Usually the electrical connections to the LED section are brought out to the pins on one side of the package and those for the phototransistor or diac to the other side, to physically separate them as much as possible. This usually allows optocouplers to withstand voltages of anywhere between 500V and 7500V between input and output. Optocouplers are essentially digital or switching devices, so they’re best for transferring either on-off control signals or digital data. Analog signals can be transferred by means of frequency or pulse-width modulation. The package consists of a gallium-arsenide infrared-emitting diode and an npn silicon phototransistor mounted on a 6-lead frame encapsulated within an electrically nonconductive plastic compound. The case can withstand soldering temperature with no deformation and device performance characteristics remain stable when operated in high-humidity conditions. Unit weight is approximately 0.52 grams. [8] Figure-3.4-MCT2E Package (Top view) 19
  20. 20. 3.4.1 Features:-  Gallium Arsenide Diode Infrared Source Optically Coupled to a Silicon npn Phototransistor  High Direct-Current Transfer Ratio  Base Lead Provided for Conventional Transistor Biasing  High-Voltage Electrical Isolation ,1.5-kV, or 3.55-kV Rating  Plastic Dual-In-Line Package  High-Speed Switching: tr = 5 µs, tf = 5 µs Typical  Designed to be Interchangeable with General Instruments MCT2 and MCT2E 3.4.2 Absolute maximum ratings at 25°C free-air temperature: Input-to-output voltage MCT2E……………………………………………...+ 3.55 kV Collector-base voltage……………………………………………………………..70 V Collector-emitter voltage…………………………………………………………..30 V Emitter-collector voltage………………………………………………………........7 V Input-diode reverse voltage…………………………………………………………3 V Input-diode continuous forward current…………………………………………60 mA Continuous power dissipation at (or below) 25°C free-air temperature: a) Infrared-emitting diode……………………………………...200 mW b) Phototransistor. . …………………………………………..200 mW c)Total, infrared-emitting diode plus phototransistor………….250 mW Operating free-air temperature range, TA……………………………..–55°C to 100°C Lead temperature 1,6 mm (1/16 inch) from case for 10 seconds………………...260°C Table-3.5-Switching characteristics 20
  21. 21. Figure-3.5-Typical characteristics 3.5 Encoder HT12E:- 3.5.1 Features:-  Operating voltage  2.4V~12V for the HT12E  Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology  Low standby current: 0.1µΑ (typ.) at VDD=5V  HT12A with a 38kHz carrier for infrared transmission medium  Minimum transmission word  Four words for the HT12E 21
  22. 22.  Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor  Data code has positive polarity  Minimal external components  HT12A/E: 18-pin DIP/20-pin SOP package 3.5.2 Applications:-  Burglar alarm system  Smoke and fire alarm system  Garage door controllers  Car door controllers  Car alarm system  Security system  Cordless telephones  Other remote control systems 3.5.3 General Description:- The 2^12 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12-N data bits. Each address/data input can be set to one of the two logic states. The programmed addresses/data are transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E or a DATA trigger on the HT12A further enhances the application flexibility of the 2^12 series of encoders. 22
  23. 23. Figure-3.6-Pin assignment of HT12E-18 DIP Table-3.6-Pin description of HT12E PIN NAME I/O INTERNAL CONNECTION DESCRIPTION A0-A8 I NMOS transmission Gate protection diode Input pins for address A0~A7 setting These pins can be externally set to VSS or left open AD8~AD11 I NMOS transmission Gate protection diode Input pins for address/data AD8~AD11 setting These pins can be externally set to VSS or left open DOUT O CMOS OUT Encoder data serial transmission output L/MB I CMOS IN Pull-high Latch/Momentary transmission format selection pin: Latch: Floating or VDD Momentary: VSS I CMOS IN Pull-high Transmission enable, active low OSC1 I OSCILLATOR 1 Oscillator input pin 23
  24. 24. OSC2 O OSCILLATOR 1 Oscillator output pin X1 I OSCILLATOR 2 455kHz resonator oscillator input X2 O OSCILLATOR 2 455kHz resonator oscillator output VSS I ------------ Negative power supply, grounds VDD I ------------- Positive power supply 3.5.4 Functional Description:- 3.5.4.1 Operation: The 2^12 series of encoders begin a 4-word transmission cycle upon receipt of a transmission enable (TE for the HT12E or D8~D11 for the HT12A, active low). This cycle will repeat itself as long as the transmission enable (TE or D8~D11) is held low. Once the transmission enables returns high the encoder output completes its final cycle and then stops as shown below. Figure-3.7-Transmission timing for the HT12E 3.5.4.2 Information Word:- If L/MB=1 the device is in the latch mode (for use with the latch type of data decoders). When the transmission enable is removed during a transmission, the DOUT pin outputs a complete word and then stops. On the other hand, if L/MB=0 the 24
  25. 25. device is in the momentary mode. When the transmission enable is removed during a transmission, the DOUT outputs a complete word and then adds 7 words all with the “1” data code. An information word consists of 4 periods as illustrated below. Figure-3.8-Composition of information 3.5.4.3 Address/Data Waveform:- Each programmable address/data pin can be externally set to one of the following two logic states as shown in figure 3.9. Figure-3.9-Address/Data bit waveform for the HT12E 3.5.5 Address/Data Programming (Preset):- The status of each address/data pin can be individually pre-set to logic “high” or “low”. If a transmission- enable signal is applied, the encoder scans and transmits the status of the 12 bits of address/data serially in the order A0 to AD11 for the HT12E encoder and A0 to D11 for the HT12A encoder. During information transmission these bits are transmitted with a preceding synchronization bit. If the trigger signal is not applied, the chip enters the standby mode and consumes a reduced current of less than 1 A for a supply voltage of 5V. 25
  26. 26. Figure-3.10-Application circuit of Encoder HT12E 3.6 Seven Segment Display:- A seven-segment display less commonly known as a seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays. Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic meters, and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information. A seven segment display, as its name indicates, is composed of seven elements. Often the seven segments are arranged in an oblique, or italic, arrangement, which aids readability. The seven segments are arranged as a rectangle of two vertical segments on each side with one horizontal segment on the top and bottom. Additionally, the seventh segment bisects the rectangle horizontally. There are also fourteen-segment displays and sixteen-segment displays (for full alphanumeric); however, these have mostly been replaced by dot-matrix displays. In a simple LED package, each LED is typically connected with one terminal to its own pin on the outside of the package and the other LED terminal connected in common with all other LEDs in the device and brought out to a shared pin. This shared pin will then make up all of the cathodes (negative terminals) OR all of the anodes (positive terminals) of the LEDs in the device; and so will be either a "Common Cathode" or "Common Anode" device depending how it is constructed. Hence a 7 segment plus DP package will only require nine pins to be present and connected. 26
  27. 27. 3.7 AM Transmitter Module:- Amplitude modulated transmitter module is attached in the transmitter unit. The module has four connecting leads. The pin number 1 is connected to the ground terminal, pin number 2 is connected to the DOUT terminal of the encoder IC HT12E. The +5 volt supply is given to the pin number 3 of the transmitter module. And finally the last pin number 4 is connected to the antenna through which data is send over RF. The AM transmitter is based on the principle of sending data by modulate the amplitude of the output of encoder. Here is used to eliminate the noise which occurs during the data transmission. The supply which is given to the transmitter module is given by the regulated power supply. By which a regulate power is drawn by the AM transmitter. The module has also crystal oscillators which are attached to the upper portion of the transmitter module. The market price of this module is very high. They are not easily available very easily. Thus the general importance of AM transmitter module is very large in many applications. [11] 3.8 Antenna:- An antenna for use in an automatic meter reading (AMR) module comprises a pin and a radiator. The radiator may be a disk radiator for example, that comprises an opening which may receive the pin. Desirably, the pin is affixed to the radiator at one end, and is disposed on a ground plane at the other end. The antenna may be a top loaded short monopole antenna, for example. Additionally, the antenna may be used in a module for a water meter. The pin and disk radiator may be stamped from a single sheet of material. AMR devices must be able to communicate in various unfriendly environments. For example, AMR devices for water meters must be able to communicate in the RF unfriendly environment of the iron water pit. Typically, this is accomplished by placing an antenna on top of the water pit lid, with the connection to the meter going through a hole in the lid. This allows a large antenna area, but the antenna often protrudes dangerously high above the lid, and requires a field installed connection between the antenna and the water meter. Another typical installation has the antenna protruding through a hole in the pit lid. This has the advantages of a low profile above the lid, and the connection from the antenna to the water meter can be 27
  28. 28. made at the factory. The main drawbacks that the entire antenna must be small enough to fit through a small hole in the lid, and cannot have much elevation above the lid. 3.9 Pulse Generator:- A pulse generator can either be an internal circuit or a piece of electronic test equipment used to generate pulses. Simple pulse generators usually allow control of the pulse repetition rate (frequency), pulse width, delay with respect to an internal or external trigger and the high- and low-voltage levels of the pulses. More-sophisticated pulse generators may allow control over the rise time and fall time of the pulses. Pulse generators may use digital techniques, analog techniques, or a combination of both techniques to form the output pulses. For example, the pulse repetition rate and duration may be digitally controlled but the pulse amplitude and rise and fall times may be determined by analog circuitry in the output stage of the pulse generator. With correct adjustment, pulse generators can also produce a 50% duty cycle square wave. Pulse generators are generally single-channel providing one frequency, delay, width and output. To produce multiple pulses, these simple pulse generators would have to be ganged in series or in parallel. Pulse generators are generally voltage sources, with true current pulse generators being available only from a few suppliers. Light pulse generators are the optical equivalent to electrical pulse generators with rep rate, delay, width and amplitude control. The output in this case is light typically from a LED or laser diode. These pulses can then be injected into a device under test and used as a stimulus or clock signal or analyzed as they progress through the device, confirming the proper operation of the device or pinpointing a fault in the device. [12] 28
  29. 29. Figure-3.11-Connection diagram of Pulse Generator CHAPTER 4 RECEIVER UNIT 4.1 Introduction:- The R.F. Solutions range of AM ‘Super Regen’ Receiver modules are compact hybrid RF receivers, which can be used to capture uudecoded data from any AM Transmitter, such as R.F. Solutions AM-RT4 / 5 range of transmitters. These modules show a very high frequency stability over a wide operating temperature even when subjected to mechanical vibrations or manual handling. A unique laser trimming process which has been patented gives a very accurate on board inductor, removing the need for any adjustable components. and require connections to power and 29
  30. 30. antenna only. In addition the it operates from a 5Vdc supply. RF Solutions also offer a range of Super Heterodyne Receivers. 4.2 AM Receiver Module:- The receiver module has IC RX3400/RX3400 crystal oscillator, capacitor, inductor and many components. The RX3400/RX3400-LF is low powers ASK receiver IC which is fully compatible with the Mitel KESRX01 IC and is suitable for use in a variety of low power radio applications including remote keyless entry. The RX3400/RX3400-LF is based on a single-conversion, super-heterodyne receiver architecture and incorporates an entire phase-locked loop (PLL). [9] 4.2.1 Features:-  Frequency Range: 433.92MHz  Modulate Mode: ASK  Circuit Shape: LC  Date Rate:-4800bps  Selectivity:-106dBm  Channel Spacing: ±500KHz  Supply Voltage: 5V  High Sensitivity Passive Design. Figure-4.1-Pin assignment 30
  31. 31. Figure-4.2- Circuit diagram Table-4.1-Pin description of RX3400 31
  32. 32. 4.2.2 Functional Description:- The RX3400/RX3400-LF ASK receiver IC incorporates an LNA; mixer; PLL- based local oscillator including VCO, fixed divider (÷ 64), reference crystal oscillator, phase-frequency detector (PFD), and charge pump; IF filter; logarithmic amplifier; data filter; peak detector; and 1-bit comparator and is capable of demodulating ASK input signals. 4.2.3 PLL Power-Down Function: The PLL portion of the IC can be powered up and down through the control of the PD input (pin 14). During PLL power down operation (pin 14 pull low), the reference crystal oscillator, fixed VCO divider, PFD, and charge pump are all shut off and the current consumption of the IC drops by approximately 600 μA. The VCO circuitry remains on and may be configured to operate as a buffer amplifier for an external SAW-based oscillator. 32
  33. 33. Figure-4.3-Application circuit of RX3400 4.3 Antenna:- The antenna is also used at the receiver unit to collect the data which is send by the transmitting antenna. The antenna receives the desired signal and sends the data to the decoder circuit. For example, AMR devices for water meters must be able to communicate in the RF unfriendly environment of the iron water pit. Typically, this is accomplished by placing an antenna on top of the water pit lid, with the connection to the meter going through a hole in the lid. This allows a large antenna area, but the antenna often protrudes dangerously high above the lid, and requires a field-installed connection between the antenna and the water meter. 4.4 Decoder HT12D:- 33
  34. 34. 4.4.1 Features:-  Operating voltage: 2.4V~12V  Low power and high noise immunity CMOS technology  Low standby current  Capable of decoding 12 bits of information  Binary address setting  Received codes are checked 3 times  Address/Data number combination- HT12D: 8 address bits and 4 data bits  Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor  Valid transmission indicator  Easy interface with an RF or an infrared transmission medium  Minimal external components  Pair with Holtek’s 212 series of encoders  18-pin DIP, 20-pin SOP package 4.4.2 Applications:-  Burglar alarm system  Smoke and fire alarm system  Garage door controllers  Car door controllers  Car alarm system  Security system  Cordless telephones  Other remote control systems 4.4.3 General Description:- The 2^12 decoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are paired with Holtek’s 2^12 series of encoders (refer to the encoder/decoder cross reference table). For proper operation, a pair of encoder/decoder with the same number of addresses and data format should be 34
  35. 35. chosen. The decoders receive serial addresses and data from a programmed 2^12 series of encoders that are transmitted by a carrier using an RF or an IR transmission medium. They compare the serial input data three times continuously with their local addresses. If no error or unmatched codes are found, the input data codes are decoded and then transferred to the output pins. The VT pin also goes high to indicate a valid transmission. The 2^12 series of decoders are capable of decoding informations that consist of N bits of address and 12-N bits of data. Of this series, the HT12D is arranged to provide 8 address bits and 4 data bits, and HT12F is used to decode 12 bits of address information. [10] 8-Address & 4-Data Figure-4.4-Pin diagram of HT12D Table-4.2-Pin description of HT12D 35
  36. 36. 4.5 Seven Segment Display:- A seven-segment display (abbreviation:"7-segment display"), less commonly known as a seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays. Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks, electronic meters, and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information. A seven segment display, as its name indicates, is composed of seven elements. Often the seven segments are arranged in an oblique, or italic, arrangement, which aids readability. The seven segments are arranged as a rectangle of two vertical segments on each side with one horizontal segment on the top and bottom. Additionally, the seventh segment bisects the rectangle horizontally. There are also fourteen-segment displays and sixteen-segment displays (for full alphanumeric); however, these have mostly been replaced by dot-matrix displays. In a simple LED package, each LED is typically connected with one terminal to its own pin on the outside of the package and the other LED terminal connected in common with all other LEDs in the device and brought out to a shared pin. This shared pin will then make up all of the cathodes (negative terminals) OR all of the anodes (positive terminals) of the LEDs in the device; and so will be either a "Common Cathode" or "Common Anode" device depending how it is constructed. Hence a 7 segment plus DP package will only require nine pins to be present and connected. [15] 4.6 Microcontroller AT89C2051:- 36
  37. 37. The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read-only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS instruction set. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost- effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 15 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision analog comparator, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. 4.7 Display Driver 74LS244:- The 74LS244 is Octal Buffer and Line Driver designed to be employed as memory address drivers, clock drivers and bus-oriented transmitters/receivers which provide improved PC board density.  Hysteresis at Inputs to Improve Noise Margins.  3-State Outputs Drive Bus Lines or Buffer Memory Address Registers.  Input Clamp Diodes Limit High-Speed Termination Effects. 4.8 Regulated Power Supply:- 4.8.1 Features:-  Output Current up to 1A  Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V  Thermal Overload Protection  Short Circuit Protection  Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection 4.8.2 Description:- The LM7805C series of three terminal positive regulators are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal 37
  38. 38. shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output current. Figure-4.5-Circuit diagram of Regulated Power Supply CHAPTER 5 AMR WORKING 5.1 Working of Transmitter Unit:- The data is send from the transmitter unit to the receiver unit via RF channel. In transmitter unit we use 20 pin microcontroller AT89C2051.The pin no.7 of the microcontroller receives the pulses from the pulse generator output pin 8.The pulse generator also having a AT89C2051 microcontroller. In connection diagram of pulse generator pin no.16 to 19 of the microcontroller is connected to 200W, 100W, 50W and 20W switches respectively. When the switches are close as our requirement the pulses are generated. The no. of pulses are different for each combination of closing of switches. These pulses are now send from pin no.8 of pulse generator microcontroller. The pulses are now given to a LED which emits the light when pulses are come out from the pulse generator otherwise not. The emitting light from the LED is given to the optocoupler MCT2E.It behaves like a isolator device. Due to emitting light the optocoupler trigger. The collector terminal of the MCT2E is connected to the pin no.7 of the transmitter unit microcontroller. In transmitter unit we also use the four seven segment display, which shows the reading of the meter. Each seven segment display has 7 LEDs.Each LED has two lead. One lead of each LED is connected to the pin no.13 to 19 of microcontroller. 38
  39. 39. The second pin of each LED is connected to each other. The power required for the glowing of the LEDs is drawn from the display driver 74LS244, which acts like a current amplifier. The data can also be send from the transmitting antenna. But the noise present in the signal. So to reduce the noise we use the encoder HT12E between microcontroller and AM transmitter. The encoder HT12E has 18 pin. In which pin no.12 receive clock pulse and the pin no.13 receive the data signal from the pin no.3 of microcontroller. The output of the encoder is taken out from the pin no.17.The pin no.17 of the encoder is connected to the pin no.2 of the AM transmitter. In AM transmitter the signal is amplitude modulated. Output of the AM transmitter is given to the antenna from the pin no.4.The antenna transmit the data signal through RF. 5.2 Working of Receiver Unit:- The transmitted data is received by the antenna situated at the receiver unit. After receiving the signal the data is given to the pin no.8 of the AM receiver. The output the AM receiver is given to the decoder HT12D.The decoder is used to decode the encoded data. The pin no.2 of the AM receiver is connected to the pin no.14 of the decoder. Pin no.14 of the decoder is the DIN (Data Input).The pin no. 13 of the decoder is connected to microcontroller pin no.2 from which data is given to the microcontroller. The pin no. 17 of decoder is VT (Valid Transmission) which is a active high terminal. When the reading is comes it become active high, and a high signal is appear at the base terminal of the transistor. When the VT=1, the transistor is turn on and a high signal appear at the collector terminal. Due to which the LED which is connected to the collector terminal is glow up and emit the light. This shows power consumption is taking place at the transmitter unit.VT terminal is also connected to the pin no.6 of the microcontroller. Pin no.13 to 19 of the microcontroller is connected to the one terminal of each LED. The second pin of each LED is connected to each other. In parallel combination of seven segments display each segment glow simultaneously. But the glowing time interval between successive segments is very low. And it seems like that all the segments are growing at the same time. By using special instruments we can see the simultaneously glowing of the two successive seven segment display. The power required for the glowing of the LEDs is drawn from the display driver 74LS244, which acts like a current amplifier. If we do not use display driver 39
  40. 40. the LED will not glow because the proper power required to display the data is not too much. Thus display driver 74LS244 is used to provide proper to seven segment display. By which we can easily read out the reading from the seven segment display unit. Thus the actual meter reading can be seen at the seven segment display. The dc supply given to all the IC is generally. The meter reading is very useful in many applications. CHAPTER 6 FUTURE ADVANCEMENT AND CONCLUSION 6.1 Introduction:- Originally AMR devices just collected meter readings electronically and matched them with accounts. As technology has advanced, additional data could then be captured, stored, and transmitted to the main computer, and often the metering devices could be controlled remotely. This can include events alarms such as tamper, leak detection, low battery, or reverse flow. Many AMR devices can also capture interval data, and log meter events. The logged data can be used to collect or control time of use or rate of use data that can be used for water or energy usage profiling, time of use billing, demand forecasting, demand response, rate of flow recording, leak detection, flow monitoring, water and energy conservation enforcement, remote shutoff, etc. Advanced Metering Infrastructure, or AMI is the new term coined to represent the networking technology of fixed network meter systems that go beyond AMR into remote utility management. The meters in an AMI system are often referred to as smart meters, since they often can use collected data based on programmed logic. The AMR project has been more difficult than originally expected. Initially, the design was going to be much simpler than what it has grown into. The objectives 40
  41. 41. that are set currently are quite ambitious. Features such as a new emitter/detector and a new PIC that required a different code were added during the progress of the project. While these features are a welcomed benefit for the user, they do present considerable design challenges. Also, the op-amp used as a buffer was not part of the primary concept. It was integrated into the system to match the impedance of the sensor with the impedance of the transistor. This is a unique and helpful feature for the system. The portions of the design that we were able to get to work was with the breadboard circuit output going to LEDs and with the breadboard circuit being able to communicate with a PC via RS232 cable. 6.2 EMETCON DLC:- DLC stands for Distribution Line Carrier, referring to the fact that this power line carrier system can communicate over utility-owned distribution power lines. EMETCON is an acronym for Electronic Metering and Control. The system is two- way, data-on-demand, with the ability to read a remote meter in around six second’s start-to-finish. 6.3 TWACS System:- TWACS® two-way power line communication technology which provides unique capabilities ideally suited for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR), load control, distribution automation and other value adding services. The TWACS technology delivers over 99% message reliability, which results in highly efficient and dependable AMR demand-side management and distribution automation systems. Unlike conventional power line carrier systems, which superimpose a high frequency on the power lines, TWACS works by modulating the voltage waveform at the Zero- crossing point. Conclusion:- Thus we have studied RF based automatic meter reading used in different places. We got that this technology is very useful in present and future demand. AMR served well for commercial or industrial accounts. What was once a need for monthly 41
  42. 42. data became a need for daily and even hourly readings of the meters. Consequently, the sales of drive-by and telephone AMR has declined in the US, while sales of fixed networks has increased. It is use in remote areas and measuring reading from water meter, energy meter, gas meter etc. It can be modified to control many meter reading by TDM system. It is simple to operate and user friendy.In this project we can control the data which is sending from transmitter to receiver by using microcontroller AT89C2051. REFERENCES [1] Chu T.S. and Hogg D.C. “Different RF Technologies”, Bell System Technical Journal, PP.723; May-June 1986. [2] Wa T.H. and Burrowes M.E.“Feasibility of long distance transmission through RF Wave” IEEE Communication Mag.PP.-64-73; October 1989. [3] Lin Y.-K.M., Spears D.R. and Yin M. “RF based local access network architectures” IEEE Comm. Mag. PP. 64-73;October 1989. [4] Gallager I., Ballance J. and Adams J. “The application o AMR Technique to the network”Br.Telecom. Technol.J., 7(2), PP. 151-160; 1989. [5] Smith D.R., “Different Microcontroller IC’s IEEE Comm. Mag. 24(1), PP. 9- 15;1986. [6] Molenaur L.F., Gorden J.P. & Evagavides S.G., “Advancement in the field of Microcontroller” Proc. IEEE, vol. 81, PP. 972-983;July 1993. [7] Jaiynt N.S, “Signal Compression Technology” IEEE Journal on selected areas of comm., vol. 10, No.5, PP.-796-815; June 1992. [8] Culshow B., Foley J. and Giles I.P. “Different types of optocouplers” IEEE Comm. Mag., 28(8), PP.22-23; 1984. [9] Ready J.W. & Jones G.R. “Description about RF Modules” IEEE Journal on selected areas in comm. SAC-3(6), PP. -890-896;1985. [10] Y.K.M.Lin, Spears D.R and Yin M. “Decoder IC’s” IEEE comm. Mag, PP. 64-73; Oct 1989. 42
  43. 43. [11] Ritchie W.K., “Different Display Device” British Telecommunication Engg.1 (4), PP. 205-210; 1983. [12] Walker. E.H. “AM Transmission Module” IEEE Transmission Module” IEEE Telecommunication Conference; 1992. [13] Yacoub M.D., “Fundamental of different pulse generating ckts and their operation”, CRC Press; 1993. [14] Xiong F., “Transmission through different types of R.F Module”, IEEE Comm. Mag. PP 84-97; Aug 1994. [15] Trischitta P.R. & Chen D.T.S., “Opto Electronics Devices”, IEEE Comm. Mag., PP.16-21; May 1989. APPENDICES Appendix A: Programming at Transmitting Unit #include <REGX51.H> void MSDelayeeeeee (unsigned int ); unsigned char segment_value (unsigned char ); unsigned char receive_data [7]="012345",pointer = 0,pointer1 = 0,mux = 0x01,digit,count=0; bit blink_digit=0; void timer0 (void) interrupt 1 { TR0 = 0; TL0 = 0x24; TH0 = 0xFA; P1 = 0; P2 = mux;//<<3; if (mux == receive_data [6]) { count++; if (count == 20) 43
  44. 44. { count = 0; blink_digit = ~blink_digit; } if (blink_digit) P1 = 0; else P1 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]); } else { P1 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]); } pointer1++; if (pointer1 == 6) pointer1 = 0; mux = mux << 1; // mux = mux+1; if (mux == 0x40) mux = 0x01; TR0 = 1; } void main () { unsigned int temp; IE = 0x82; TMOD = 0x21; TL0 = 0x24; TH0 = 0xFA; TH1 = 0xFD; SCON = 0x50; TR1 = 1; MSDelay (100); RI = 0; 44
  45. 45. TR0 = 1; while (1) { /* MSDelay (1); P2 = mux; P0 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]); pointer1++; if (pointer1 == 5) pointer1 = 0; mux = mux << 1; mux = mux+1; if (mux == 0xDF) mux = 0xFE; */ temp = count_pulse_per_second (); temp = convert_pulse_to_unit (temp); send_data (temp); } } unsigned char segment_value (unsigned char value) { //unsigned char segment; if ((value&0x80)== 0x80) { value = value&0x7F; switch (value) { case '0': return 0x7F; case '1': return 0x1C; case '2': 45
  46. 46. return 0xBB; case '3': return 0xBE; case '4': return 0xDC; case '5': return 0xEE; case '6': return 0xEF; case '7': return 0x3C; case '8': return 0xFF; case '9': return 0xFE; case 0x2D: return 0x88; default: return 0; } } else { switch (value) { case '0': return 0x77; case '1': return 0x14; case '2': return 0xB3; case '3': return 0xB6; case '4': 46
  47. 47. return 0xD4; case '5': return 0xE6; case '6': return 0xE7; case '7': return 0x34; case '8': return 0xF7; case '9': return 0xF6; case 0x2D: return 0x80; default: return 0; } } } void MSDelay (unsigned int itime ) { unsigned int i,j; for (i=0;i<itime;i++) for (j=0;j<356/*1275*/;j++); //for (j=0;j<1275;j++); } Appendix B: Programming at receiver unit:- #include <REGX51.H> void MSDelay (unsigned int ); unsigned char segment_value (unsigned char ); unsigned char receive_data [7]="012345",pointer = 0,pointer1 = 0,mux = 0x01,digit,count=0; 47
  48. 48. bit blink_digit=0; void timer0 (void) interrupt 1 { TR0 = 0; TL0 = 0x24; TH0 = 0xFA; P1 = 0; P2 = mux;//<<3; if (mux == receive_data [6]) { count++; if (count == 20) { count = 0; blink_digit = ~blink_digit; } if (blink_digit) P1 = 0; else P1 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]); } else { P1 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]); } pointer1++; if (pointer1 == 6) pointer1 = 0; mux = mux << 1; // mux = mux+1; if (mux == 0x40) mux = 0x01; TR0 = 1; } 48
  49. 49. void main () { IE = 0x82; TMOD = 0x21; TL0 = 0x24; TH0 = 0xFA; TH1 = 0xFD; SCON = 0x50; TR1 = 1; MSDelay (100); RI = 0; TR0 = 1; //send_char ('A'); //send_char ('m'); //send_char ('i'); //send_char ('t'); while (1) { /* MSDelay (1); P2 = mux; P0 = segment_value (receive_data [pointer1]); pointer1++; if (pointer1 == 5) pointer1 = 0; mux = mux << 1; mux = mux+1; if (mux == 0xDF) mux = 0xFE; */ while (RI == 0); RI = 0; if (SBUF == ';') pointer = 0; 49
  50. 50. else { //if ((SBUF >= '0')||(SBUF <= '9')) receive_data [pointer] = SBUF; pointer++; //if (pointer == 5) //pointer = 0; } } } unsigned char segment_value (unsigned char value) { //unsigned char segment; if ((value&0x80)== 0x80) { value = value&0x7F; switch (value) { case '0': return 0x7F; case '1': return 0x1C; case '2': return 0xBB; case '3': return 0xBE; case '4': return 0xDC; 50
  51. 51. case '5': return 0xEE; case '6': return 0xEF; case '7': return 0x3C; case '8': return 0xFF; case '9': return 0xFE; case 0x2D: return 0x88; default: return 0; } } else { switch (value) { case '0': return 0x77; case '1': return 0x14; case '2': return 0xB3; case '3': 51
  52. 52. return 0xB6; case '4': return 0xD4; case '5': return 0xE6; case '6': return 0xE7; case '7': return 0x34; case '8': return 0xF7; case '9': return 0xF6; case 0x2D: return 0x80; default: return 0; } } } void MSDelay (unsigned int itime ) { unsigned int i,j; for (i=0;i<itime;i++) for (j=0;j<356/*1275*/;j++); //for (j=0;j<1275;j++); } 52
  53. 53. 53

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