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Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
Sediments in the ocean powerpoint
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Sediments in the ocean powerpoint

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  • Distribution of pelagic sedimentDominant component Composition Atlantic Pacific IndianTotal % Foraminiferal ooze and nannofossil oozeCalcium carbonate65 365447Pteropod ooze Calcium carbonate20.1- 0.5Diatom oozeSilica (opal)71020 12Radiolarian oozeSilica (opal)-50.53Red (actually brown) clay K, FeAl silicate26492538
  • Distribution of pelagic sedimentDominant component Composition Atlantic Pacific IndianTotal % Foraminiferal ooze and nannofossil oozeCalcium carbonate65 365447Pteropod ooze Calcium carbonate20.1- 0.5Diatom oozeSilica (opal)71020 12Radiolarian oozeSilica (opal)-50.53Red (actually brown) clay K, FeAl silicate26492538
  • Distribution of pelagic sedimentDominant component Composition Atlantic Pacific IndianTotal % Foraminiferal ooze and nannofossil oozeCalcium carbonate65 365447Pteropod ooze Calcium carbonate20.1- 0.5Diatom oozeSilica (opal)71020 12Radiolarian oozeSilica (opal)-50.53Red (actually brown) clay K, FeAl silicate26492538
  • Transcript

    • 1. Sediments in the Oceans
    • 2. sediment - matter that has been deposited by some natural process
    • 3. smaller – easier for currents to move larger – harder for currents to move Sediment Sizes large small
    • 4. marine sediments classified as: <ul><li>oceanic (pelagic) – </li></ul><ul><li>found in open ocean </li></ul><ul><li>further away from </li></ul><ul><li>land </li></ul><ul><li>neritic – </li></ul><ul><li>found in waters </li></ul><ul><li>above continental margins </li></ul><ul><li>closer to land - coastal </li></ul>
    • 5. sediment types <ul><li>*terrigenous - derived from land </li></ul><ul><li>*biogenous - derived from plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>hydrogenous (authigenic) – form from chemical reactions in the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>cosmogenous - from outer space </li></ul><ul><li>*most common </li></ul>
    • 6. <ul><li>derived from land </li></ul><ul><li>rock fragments </li></ul><ul><li>volcanic ash </li></ul><ul><li>blown dust </li></ul><ul><li>broken down by weathering (erosion) </li></ul>Terrigenous Sediment
    • 7. <ul><li>sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rivers - biggest contributors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glaciers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wind blown dust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>coastal erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>volcanic debris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>groundwater </li></ul></ul></ul>Terrigenous Sediment
    • 8. <ul><li>turbidite – like an underwater landslide – carries terrigenous sediment down cont. slope </li></ul>Terrigenous Sediment
    • 9. Terrigenous Sediment dust from the Sahara Desert
    • 10. Biogenous Sediment <ul><li>derived from plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>mostly shells, some bones </li></ul>
    • 11. Biogenous Sediment <ul><li>ooze – very fine sediments at least 30% biogenous in origin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>found in deep sea off continental margins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>build up very slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two main types: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>calcareous ooze and siliceous ooze </li></ul>
    • 12. Biogenous Sediment <ul><li>Calcareous Ooze </li></ul><ul><li>made of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) - chalky </li></ul><ul><li>dissolves in very deep waters </li></ul><ul><li>includes: foraminifera (like ameba w/ shell) </li></ul><ul><li>coccolithophores (algae w/ shell) </li></ul><ul><li>pteropods (small drifting snails) </li></ul>foraminifera coccolithophores pteropods
    • 13. Coccolithophores and a coccolithiphore bloom near England
    • 14. Biogenous Sediment The White Cliffs of Dover made of calcareous ooze – basically chalk
    • 15. Biogenous Sediment <ul><li>Siliceous Ooze </li></ul><ul><li>made of silicon (glass) </li></ul><ul><li>deeper than calcareous oozes and polar regions </li></ul><ul><li>includes: diatoms (algae) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>radiolaria (like ameba w/ shell) </li></ul></ul></ul>diatoms radiolaria
    • 16. Hydrogenous Sediment <ul><li>also called authigenic sediments </li></ul><ul><li>form from chemical reactions in the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>very small percentage of ocean sediments </li></ul>
    • 17. Hydrogenous Sediment <ul><li>Manganese Nodules: </li></ul><ul><li>golf ball size chunks of manganese and iron </li></ul><ul><li>found in deep sea </li></ul><ul><li>thought would be economically valuable one day </li></ul>
    • 18. Hydrogenous Sediment <ul><li>Phosphorites: </li></ul><ul><li>like manganese nodules, but mostly phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>may be important some day for fertilizer </li></ul>
    • 19. Hydrogenous Sediment <ul><li>Hydrothermal Vents: </li></ul><ul><li>like underwater hot springs at mid-ocean ridges </li></ul><ul><li>form metal sulfides </li></ul>
    • 20. Hydrogenous Sediment <ul><li>Evaporites: </li></ul><ul><li>salts that precipitate (form solid) as water evaporates from an isolated arm of the ocean </li></ul>
    • 21. Cosmogenous Sediment <ul><li>from outer space </li></ul><ul><li>found in trace amounts – least common </li></ul><ul><li>examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dust from outer space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>meteorite debris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>microtektites – crustal material that exits earth’s atmosphere during meteor impact and then falls back to earth – melts forming glassy teardrops </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 22. Where types of sediment are found:
    • 23. sediments can be: well sorted – all one size poorly sorted – many sizes together affects: amount of water between sediment grains oxygen level types of organisms that can live there
    • 24.  

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